Beyond Third Generation Cellular Networks: The Integration of Internet and Telephony Technology UWashington Distinguished Lecture Series 3 December 1998 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Beyond Third Generation Cellular Networks: The Integration of Internet and Telephony Technology UWashington Distinguished Lecture Series 3 December 1998

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Title: From Smoke Signals to the Internet: The History of Communications Infrastructures Author: Randy H. Katz Last modified by: Randy Katz Created Date – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Beyond Third Generation Cellular Networks: The Integration of Internet and Telephony Technology UWashington Distinguished Lecture Series 3 December 1998


1
Beyond Third Generation Cellular Networks The
Integration of Internet and Telephony
Technology UWashington Distinguished Lecture
Series 3 December 1998
  • Randy H. Katz
  • United Microelectronics Corporation Distinguished
    Professor and Chair, EECS Department
  • University of California, Berkeley
  • Berkeley, CA 94720-1776
  • randy_at_cs.Berkeley.edu
  • http//www.cs.Berkeley.edu/randy

2
Presentation Outline
  • Market Forces and Technology Trends
  • Comparison of Internet and Telephony
  • Third Generation Telecommunications Architectures
    (and Beyond)
  • Internet-based Open Services Architecture
  • Summary and Conclusions

3
Presentation Outline
  • Market Forces and Technology Trends
  • Comparison of Internet and Telephony
  • Third Generation Telecommunications Architectures
    (and Beyond)
  • Internet-based Open Services Architecture
  • Summary and Conclusions

4
Technology Trends Predications
  • Fastest growing segments of telecomms (i)
    mobile telephony (ii) Internet/www
  • (i) (ii) mobile access to information
  • Full digitization of the phone network, driven by
    digital mobile networks, with a shift towards
    universal IP-based core network
  • Voice over IP is happening rapidly
  • Data will be the network traffic majority, voice
    ( video) the minority
  • Fastest growing applications will be web-based
    transactions, not voice not videoconferencing

5
Mobile Telephone Internet Users
Millions
Mobile Telephone Users
Internet Users
Year
Source Ericsson Radio Systems, Inc.
6
An International Phenomenon
of main lines that are mobile phones
  • By Year 2000
  • One in three telephones will be mobile
  • Mobility becomes a lifestyle

Source Economist, 4 May 1996
7
Hong Kong on the Move
Millions of Telephone Lines
Source Pyramid Research in The Economist, 31 Oct
98
8
Shift Toward Digital Mobile Access Network
Millions of Subscribers
Provides a ubiquitous infrastructure for
wireless data as well as voice
Digital
Analog
Year
Source Ericsson Radio Systems, Inc.
9
Shift to Broadband Access
Forecast American Households with Internet
Connections (millions)
Source Forrester Research in The Economist, 7
Nov 98
10
Core Network Becoming Data-Centered
  • The dramatic rise of the Internet and the World
    Wide Web gt50 of telecomm traffic in Bay Area is
    already data
  • Conventional circuit-switched PSTN infrastructure
    brought to its knees
  • IP Dialtone
  • Single network for wireless access, Internet
    access, and voice access
  • E.g., Sprint ION Integrated On-Demand Network,
    MCI/WorldComs On-Net, Qwest Communications, etc.

11
Presentation Outline
  • Market Forces and Technology Trends
  • Comparison of Internet and Telephony
  • Third Generation Telecommunications Architectures
    (and Beyond)
  • Internet-based Open Services Architecture
  • Summary and Conclusions

12
Internet Technology
  • Strengths
  • Intelligence at the end points No state in the
    network
  • Highly decentralized control
  • Enables operation over very heterogeneous
    collection of access technologies few
    assumptions about the network necessary
  • Achieves robust communications through packet
    switching store-and-forward routing
  • Depends on cooperative forwarding of packets
  • Weaknesses
  • No differentiated service
  • No control mechanisms for managing bottleneck
    links
  • Store-and-forward routing introduces variable
    delay in end-to-end performance
  • Decentralized control makes introduction of new
    protocols/functions difficult since all end nodes
    must be upgraded
  • Lack of truly trusted infrastructure leads to
    security problems

13
PSTN Technology
  • Strengths
  • Requires no end-point intelligence supports
    heterogeneous end devices
  • Provides excellent performance for voice
  • End-to-end performance guarantees achieved
    through well-defined signaling layer to switching
    function
  • True utility functionality through sophisticated
    and hierarchically arranged switches controlled
    by service providers
  • Weaknesses
  • Achieves performance by overallocating resources
  • 3.4 KHz audio voice band signal converted to 64
    kbps digital representation
  • Switching design determined by statistics of call
    traffic
  • Difficult to add new services to the so-called
    Intelligent Network due to complex feature
    interaction
  • Expensive approach to robustness

14
ATM The Grand Convergence?
  • Strengths
  • Virtual circuits with call set-up to manage
    scarce resources and achieve QoS guarantees
  • Fixed/small size cells to enable fast switching
  • Sophisticated statistical multiplexing mechanisms
    to make possible variety of traffic models
  • Integrated services
  • Weaknesses
  • Connection-orientation has some problems with
    latency and robust operation every cell must
    follow same path in order
  • ATM unlikely to be a universal end-to-end
    technology, especially for data traffic in local
    area
  • Quaranteed performance end-to-end in
    heterogeneous environments is lost

15
Next Generation Internet
  • Support for multipoint-to-multipoint multicast
    communications
  • Support for mobility mobile route optimization
  • Reservation-based resource allocation
  • Performance promises
  • Nice scaling properties
  • Soft state in the network allows robust recovery
    to failure protocol works around link and switch
    failures
  • Software-based codecs
  • 64 kbps/PCM coding vs. 36 kbps ADPCM, 17 kbps
    GSM, 9 kbps LPC
  • Adequate video at 28.8 to 128 kbps
  • Real Time Protocol (RTP)
  • Ends adapt audio/video streaming rates to what
    the network can support
  • Easy integration of new services like proxies
  • Solve performance problems by adding more
    bandwidth

16
Internet Telephony
Analog Voice to Packet Data
Packet Data to Analog Voice
Internet
Local Call
Local Call
Gateway
Gateway
SF to Frankfurt via Internet Service 0.28 per
min via ATT Long Distance
1.25 per min
Less expensive infrastructure Circumvents
government-backed monopolies Existing long
distance tariffs far exceed costs WTO worldwide
deregulation
Why so Cheap?
Source G-Cubed
17
Internet Telephony
  • Quality Issues High Latencies/Dropped Packets
  • Deployment of (virtual) private networks
  • Faster/scalable hardware reduces gateway latency
  • RSVP H.323 Reconstruction of lost packets
    Better voice coding at 8 kbps
  • VoIP Voice over Internet Protocol Forum
  • Short term circuit-switched local infrastructure
    plus packet-switched wide-area infrastructure
  • Wide-area b/w is a commodity, local access is not
  • Many leading telecomms already doing this
  • Longer term migration towards always on
    digital broadband data connections

18
Presentation Outline
  • Market Forces and Technology Trends
  • Comparison of Internet and Telephony
  • Third Generation Telecommunications Architectures
    (and Beyond)
  • Internet-based Open Services Architecture
  • Summary and Conclusions

19
Third Generation Architectures
  • 1st Gen was analog, 2nd Gen is digital airlink
  • FPLMTS/UMTS/IMT-2000
  • Universal multimedia information access with
    mobility spanning residences, businesses,
    public-pedestrian, mobile/vehicular,
    national/global
  • Converged common air interface wideband CDMA
  • Beyond the Third Generation
  • Convergence on a common core network
  • GSM/BISDN/SS7-based vs. IP-based
  • Action will be in architectures that support
    rapid service deployment
  • Telecomm-based Intelligent Network (IN, TMN,
    TINA) vs. Internet-based Client-Server (HTML,
    JAVA, mobile code)

20
One View of the Future
  • UC Berkeley BARWAN Project Bay Area Research
    Wireless Access Network
  • Diverse Air Interfaces with Seamless Mobility
  • Software Agents for Heterogeneity Management
  • Universal IP-based Core Network

21
Important Trends Re-Visited
  • Multimedia/Voice over IP networks
  • Lower cost, more flexible packet-switching core
    network
  • Simultaneous delay sensitive and delay
    insensitive flows (RSVP, Class-based Queuing,
    Link Scheduling)
  • Intelligence shifts to the network edges
  • User-implemented functionality
  • Programmable intelligence inside the network
  • Proxy servers intermixed with switching
    infrastructure
  • TACC model Java code write once, run
    anywhere
  • Rapid new service development
  • Speech-enabled services for mobile users
  • Implications for (cellular) network
    infrastructure of the 21st century?
  • High BW data (384 Kb/s-2 Mb/s) Reliable Link
    Protocols

22
Smart Appliances/Thin Clients
23
  • Top Gun MediaBoard
  • Participates as a reliable multicast client via
    proxy in wireline network
  • Top Gun Wingman
  • Thin presentation layer in PDA with full
    rendering engine in wireline proxy

24
Starting Point Transcoding Proxies
  • Transformation, Aggregation, Caching, and
    Customization (TACC)
  • Scalability and availability
  • Limited customizability and locality and no
    persistence

25
Presentation Outline
  • Market Forces and Technology Trends
  • Comparison of Internet and Telephony
  • Third Generation Telecommunications Architectures
    (and Beyond)
  • Internet-based Open Services Architecture
  • Summary and Conclusions

26
The Future Internet-based Open Services
Architecture
  • Today, the telecommunications sector is
    beginning to reshape itself, from a vertically to
    a horizontally structured industry. It used
    to be that new capabilities were driven primarily
    by the carriers. Now, they are beginning to be
    driven by the users. Theres a universe of
    people out there who have a much better idea than
    we do of what key applications are, so why not
    give those folks the opportunity to realize them.
    The smarts have to be buried in the
    middleware of the network, but that is going to
    change as more-capable user equipment is
    distributed throughout the network. When it does,
    the economics of this industry may also change.
  • George Heilmeier, Chairman Emeritus, Bellcore
  • From POTS to PANS Telecommunications in
    Transition

27
The Network Infrastructure of the Future
  • The Challenge
  • Developing service intensive, network-based,
    real-time applications
  • Securely embedding computational resources in the
    switching fabric
  • Providing an open, extensible network
    environment heterogeneity
  • Computing
  • Encapsulating legacy servers partitioning
    thin client functionality
  • Scalability 100,000s of simultaneous users in
    the SF Bay Area
  • High BW IP backbones diverse access networks
  • Different coverage, bandwidth, latency, and cost
    characteristics
  • Third generation cellular systems UMTS/IMT2000
  • Next gen WLANs (Bluetooth) broadband access
    nets (DSL/cable)
  • Diverse appliances beyond the handset or PC
  • Communicator devices plus servers in the
    infrastructure

28
(No Transcript)
29
Internet-Scale Systems
  • Extremely large, complex, distributed,
    heterogeneous, with continuous and rapid
    introduction of new technologies
  • Feasible architectures
  • Decentralized, scalable algorithms
  • Dynamically deployed agents where they are
    needed Big infrastructure, small clients
  • Incremental processing/communications growth
  • Careful violation of traditional layering
  • Implementation approach based on incremental
    prototyping, deployment, evaluation,
    experimentation

30
Imagine ...
  • You walk into a room

31
Vision Goal
  • Next Internet revolution will come from enabling
    component services and pervasive access
  • Not vertically integrated Information Technology
  • Dynamic, programmatic creation/composition of
    scalable, highly available customizable
    services
  • Automatic adaptation to end device
    characteristics and network connectivity
  • Arbitrarily powerful services on arbitrarily
    small clients using a proactive infrastructure

32
NINJA Capabilities
  • Plug and play wide-area software components
  • Automatic discovery, composition, and use
  • Powerful operators
  • Clusters, databases, and agents
  • Viable component economics
  • Subscription, pay per use
  • Supports diverse devices, sensors, actuators
  • Connects everything
  • Ubiquitous support for access and mobility

33
ProActive Infrastructure
  • Create a framework that enables programmatic
    generation and composition of services from
    strongly typed reusable components
  • Key Elements
  • Structured architecture with a careful
    partitioning of state
  • Bases, Active Routers, and Units
  • Wide-area paths formed out of strongly-typed
    components
  • Operators and Connectors
  • Execution environments with efficient, but
    powerful communication primitives
  • Active Messages capsules
  • TACC persistence customization

34
Structured Architecture
35
NINJA Operator, Connector, and Path Model
  • Operators
  • transformation
  • aggregation
  • agents
  • Connectors
  • abstract wires
  • ADUs
  • varying semantics
  • uni/multicast
  • Interfaces
  • strongly typed
  • language independent
  • set of AM handlers
  • Leverage all COM objects

36
iSpace Execution Environment
operator upload
Service request
New service
service threads
Persistent Storage
iS-Loader
Trusted-Services
Managed RMI
Security MGR
Physical processor
JVM
Operators
Caches
  • Parallel application framework on Bases
  • NINJA RMI, Customizable Service VM (iS-Box),
    Redirector
  • JVM Security Manager Trusted Services to
    provide sandboxed environment
  • Multispace services across iS-Boxes

37
ICEBERG Capabilities
  • Cellular/IP Interworking
  • IP network provisioning for scalability
  • Soft QoS for delay-sensitive flows
  • Multinetwork mobility and security support
  • Telephony Service Architecture on NINJA
  • Computing resources among switching
    infrastructure
  • Computationally intensive services e.g.,
    voice-to-text
  • Service and server discovery
  • Security, authentication, and billing

38
Cellular/IP Interworking
  • GSM BTS interfaced to IP core network
  • Mapping IP signaling to SS7 radio management
  • Call admission and handoff
  • Mobility management interworking
  • Mobile IP home agent/foreign agent GSM HLR/VLR
  • Handoff between Mobile IP and GSM networks
  • Scalability, security of Mobile IP
  • Generalized redirection agents
  • User- or service-specified dynamic policy-based
    redirection
  • 1-800 service, email to pagers, etc.
  • Service mobility as a first class object

39
Potentially Any Network Service
  • On Mobile Phone, enter your office
  • Redirect in progress call to your desktop
    telephone via PSTN OR to Voice over IP gateway
  • Same service in different networks handoff the
    service between networks (service mobility)

40
Service Mobility as a First-Class Object
Universal Names Globally unique IDs
Randy_at_Berkeley
OfficePSTN (Teaching) 510-642-8778 OfficePSTN
(Chair) 510-642-0253 DeskIP dreadnaught.cs.berke
ley.edu555 LaptopIP polo.cs.berkeley.edu555 PCS
510-555-8778 Cellular 510-555-1998 E-mail
randy_at_cs.berkeley.edu Home 415-555-5555
An Entity has a universal name and a profile
Entities are people or processes
Profile set of domain-specific names
41
IDNP Servers
Iceberg Access Point (One per network) Policy
Engine, Routing, Security
IAP
Call(Randy_at_Berkeley, Callers network,
Interactive, CallerID certificate)
Iceberg Domain Name Policy Servers
IDNP Server
weeks/months
Profile
Policy
If IAPs cant be embedded in networks, then
resides in IP core
days/weeks
System State
Stored in Bases
IDNP Server
minutes/hours
42
Telephony Service Architecture
  • Rapid Service Deployment
  • Packet voice for computer-telephony integration
  • Speech- and location-enabled applications
  • Complete interoperation of speech, text,
    fax/image
  • Mobility and generalized routing redirection
  • New Services for Innovative Apps
  • Encapsulating complex data transformation, e.g.,
    speech-to-text, text-to-speech
  • Composition of services, e.g., Voice
    mail-to-email, email-to-voice mail
  • Location-aware information services, e.g.,
    traffic reports
  • Multicast-enabled information services

43
Transparent Information Access
Speech-to-Text Speech-to-Voice Attached-Email Call
-to-Pager/Email Notification Email-to-Speech All
compositions of the above!
Policy-based Location-based Activity-based
44
Implementing Applications via Path Optimization
  • Voice Control of A/V devices in a Smart Room
  • Multistage processing transformation
  • Strongly typed connectors
  • Automated path generation
  • Service discovery storage

45
Experimental Testbed
Fax
IBM WorkPad
Image/OCR
Text
Speech
MC-16
Ericsson
CF788
Motorola Pagewriter 2000
WLAN
Pager
306 Soda
405 Soda
326 Soda Colab
GSM BTS
Network Infrastructure
Millennium Cluster
Smart Spaces Personal Information Management
Millennium Cluster
46
Emerging Distributed System Architecture Spanning
Processing and Access
Personal Information Management and Smart Spaces
Speech and Location Aware Applications
Distributed Videoconferencing Room-scale Collabo
ration
ICEBERG Computer-Telephony Services
TranSend Extensible Proxy Services
MASH Media Processing Services
Active Services Architecture
Distributed Computing Services NINJA
Computing and Communications Platform Millennium
Co-Pis Brewer, Culler, Joseph, Katz, McCanne
47
Experiment PDA Bazaar
  • Deploy/use pervasive computing infrastructure in
    Soda Hall
  • Provide NINJA iSpaces
  • Build an initial community (200
    PalmPilotIII/Workpads)
  • Watch and evaluate
  • Information broadcast channels
  • Seminars, lecture content
  • News/sports/stocks
  • Shared information
  • Calendars, room reservations
  • Collaborative note-taking and brainstornming
  • Smart spaces and device control

48
Presentation Outline
  • Market Forces and Technology Trends
  • Comparison of Internet and Telephony
  • Third Generation Telecommunications Architectures
    (and Beyond)
  • Internet-based Open Services Architecture
  • Summary and Conclusions

49
Summary and Conclusions
  • Common network core optimized for data, based on
    IP, enabling packetized voice, supporting
    user/terminal/service mobility
  • Major challenge open, composable services
    architecture--the wide-area operating system of
    the 21st Century
  • Beyond the desktop PC information appliances
    supported by infrastructure services
  • Our approach NINJA Platform
  • Infrastructure Units, Active Proxies, Bases
  • Services Operators, Typed Connectors, Paths
  • IVR applications/speech recognition as a service
  • Next application Universal In-Box
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