Efficient Geographic Routing for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (Joint work with Xiaojing Xiang) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Efficient Geographic Routing for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (Joint work with Xiaojing Xiang)

Description:

(Joint work with Xiaojing Xiang) Xin Wang Assistant Professor Director, Wireless and Networking Systems Lab (WINS) SUNY, Buffalo http://www.cse.buffalo.edu/~xwang8 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:91
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 93
Provided by: Barbar274
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Efficient Geographic Routing for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (Joint work with Xiaojing Xiang)


1
Efficient Geographic Routing for Mobile Ad-hoc
Networks (Joint work with Xiaojing Xiang)
  • Xin Wang
  • Assistant Professor
  • Director, Wireless and Networking Systems Lab
    (WINS)
  • SUNY, Buffalo
  • http//www.cse.buffalo.edu/xwang8

2
Future - Common Network, Common
Applications

3G Cellular Networks
Radio Controller

Access Router
Urban Networks
  • Outdoor Areas
  • High Mobility

Aggregation Router
  • Broadband Distribution Networks
  • High Speed Pico Cells
  • Broadband
  • Wireless



Presence
Enterprise Networks
Location
Access Router
  • 802.11
  • Local Mobility
  • Packet Voice
  • High Data Rates

Core Internet Backbone
Aggregation Router
Aggregation Router
Authentication

Home Networks
Emerging Techniques

Access Router
  • DSL/Cable
  • Community
  • wireless
  • networks


Ad Hoc Networks
  • Personal area
  • Sensors
  • Actuators
  • Allow Peer-to-Peer Communications
  • Self Configuring


4G Radios
3
Talk Overview
  • Background and motivation
  • Part I Self-adaptive geographic unicast routing
  • Part II Scalable geographic multicast routing
  • On-going and future work

4
Background
  • Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET)
  • Routing find a packet delivery path
  • Unicast one-to-one
  • Multicast one-to-many or manyto-many

5
Challenges of MANET Routing
  • Host mobility leads to dynamic topology rate of
    link failure/repair increases with moving speed
  • Topology and routing path maintenance become more
    difficult with the increase of path length and
    node density
  • Mobile devices have very limited energy, and
    small devices such as sensors have very limited
    per-node resources

6
Unicast Routing
Reactive
Geographic
Proactive
(GPSR, GFG)
(DSR, AODV, TORA, FLR)
(DSDV, OLSR)
Hybrid
(ZRP, SHARP)
7
Information Required for Geographic Routing
  • A nodes own position obtained through
    positioning service such as GPS
  • The position of the destination determined
    through location service
  • The positions of all neighbors learned through
    periodic beacons sent by neighbors

8
Forwarding Formats
  • Greedy forwarding
  • Make local optimal forwarding
    decision

D
x
9
Issues with Classical Geographic Routing
Proactive fixed-interval beaconing for positions
Difficulty in beaconing Interval setup
Continuous retransmission
Too short consume energy and create collisions
Reduce throughput and fairness
Generate unnecessary overhead and consume energy
Too long outdated topology
Create collisions with normal data transmissions
Further delay and energy consumption
Non-optimal routing, transmission failure
More resource consumption
10
Possible Performance Improvement
  • Change Beacon Sending Interval
  • Send out beacons only after moving a certain
    distance
  • Send beacons more frequently, e.g. piggyback
    position with packets (Are the sending nodes the
    best next hop? )

Does not consider traffic conditions. May
generate unnecessary beacons.
  • Do not use Beacons (CBF03, BLR04)
  • Focus only on finding the next hop for greedy
    forwarding, and there is no recovery strategy
  • Do not have a good strategy to use the path
    detected or perform any route optimization.

11
Talk Overview
  • Background and motivation
  • Part I Self-adaptive geographic unicast routing
  • Part II Scalable geographic multicast routing
  • On-going and future work

12
Our Contributions
  • Propose two self-adaptive routing protocols

BIGR Beaconless Interactive Geographic Routing
BTGR Beacon-on-Trigger Geographic Routing
On demand Alleviate unnecessary overhead due
to proactive beacons
Self adaptive Adaptive to traffic pattern and
topology changes
More flexible position distribution More
updated topology, more efficient routing and
less failure

13
Importance of updated positions some analysis
  • Positions obtained may become outdated
  • A mobile may move out of neighbors transmission
    range.
  • Analysis assumptions
  • B sends beacons periodically to refresh its
    position
  • Neighbor area of A centered at A, within
    transmission range R
  • Moving area of B centered at B, within r

Neighbor time-out interval t
Bs speed relative to A
Current distance between A, B
Maximum distance traveled by B after t
14
Different Scenarios
R
R
r
z
z
A
B
R
r
A
B
z
B
A
r
Same as this case
15
Probability of Moving Out of Range
Case 1
Case 2
Case 3
16
Probability of the mobile moving out-of-range
(expressed in percentages)
Timeout
Vmax 4s 6s 8s 10s 12s 14s
10m/s 3.57 5.49 7.51 9.64 11.88 14.27
20m/s 7.51 11.88 16.80 22.43 29.19 38.26
30m/s 11.88 19.51 29.19 42.94 55.38 65.24
40m/s 16.80 29.14 47.37 62.22 72.89 80.07
50m/s 22.43 42.94 62.22 75.00 82.64 87.24
17
Proposed Geographic Routing Protocols
  • BIGR Beaconless Interactive Geographic Routing
  • BTGR Beacon-on-Trigger Geographic Routing

18
Beaconless Interactive Geographic Routing (BIGR)
  • There is no beacon, routing path is built
    on-demand
  • Route searching phase
  • Route optimization phase

D
x
How to find next hop without positions of
neighbors?
19
Proposed Geographic Routing Protocols
  • BIGR Beaconless Interactive Geographic Routing
  • Route searching
  • Route optimization
  • BTGR Beacon-on-Trigger Geographic Routing

20
Route Searching
  • After a route searching, a node keeps a record
    for next hop (for node B)

Destination F
Dests position, time (x_F, y_F), t
NextHop C
New position, time (x_new, y_new), t_new
Old position, time (x_old, y_old), t_old
Transmission mode greedy or recovery
Next-hop position
A
Network node
Forwarding node
F
Destination
Next Hop
B
C
21
How to find next hop?
  • When a node (C) does not have next hop
    information, broadcast REQ

S
E
F
B
M
L
C
J
A
G
H
D
I
K
N
Within neighborhood
Dest DestPos SendPos Hop
D XD, YD Xc, Yc 1
A node that receives a packet for the first time
REQ message with
22
Forwarding Node Selection
  • Reply sending nodes closer to destination
    respond after a competition delay delay is
    smaller for a node closer to destination
  • Reply suppression a node cancels its reply if it
    overhears packet forwarding, or overhears reply
    sent by node closer to destination
  • Multiple replies select the node closer to the
    destination as next hop

S
E
F
B
M
L
C
J
A
G
H
D
I
K
N
Dest Sender SendPos Hop
D G XG, YG 1
REPLY message
23
Packet Sending
  • Cs next hop table

Destination D
Dests position, time (x_D, y_D), t
NextHop G
New position, time (x_new, y_new), t_new
Old position, time (x_old, y_old), t_old
Transmission mode greedy
S
E
F
B
M
L
C
J
A
G
H
D
I
K
N
24
Recovery from Local Void
  • Without local topology, cannot use perimeter
    forwarding. How to recover?
  • Broadcast REQ to N-hop neighbors

F
E
S
B
M
C
L
J
A
D
H
I
K
G
N
Dest DestPos SendPos Hop
D XD, YD Xc, Yc 2
REQ message with
25
Finding Path in Recovery Mode
  • Reply sending
  • If one-hop neighbor is nearer to destination, it
    replies with Hop 1 Otherwise continues
    broadcasting REQ
  • A two-hop neighbor nearer to destination replies
    (reverse path), Hop 2
  • Reply suppression drop the REPLY if having
    forwarded/overhead one from the node closer to
    destination
  • Multiple replies select the node closer to
    destination

F
E
S
Dest Sender SendPos Hop
D G XG, YG 2
B
M
C
L
J
Reply message
D
H
I
K
G
26
Proposed Geographic Routing Protocols
  • BIGR Beaconless Interactive Geographic Routing
  • Route searching
  • Route optimization
  • BTGR Beacon-on-Trigger Geographic Routing

27
Position Update and Route Optimization
  • Update next hop position when overhearing packet
    forwarding by next hop
  • Validate next hop

Old position
Next hop
New position
Route searching
Invalid
Outdated
  • Optimize routing path three cases

28
Case 1 A is the destination
  • As A is the destination, B should send packet
    directly to A, so A sends CORRECT to B

A
B
C
  • B sets its next hop to A

29
Case 2 Greedy Mode Forwarding
A
F
  • If A is closer to F than C is to F, A sends
    CORRECT to B

B
C
  • B compares As and Cs positions to F, and sets
    its next hop to A if it is closer to F

Greedy
30
Case 3 Recovery Forwarding
F
  • If A is closer to F than B and C are to F , A
    sends CORRECT to B

A
D
B
  • B compares A and Cs positions relative to F, if
    A is closer to F, B sets its next hop to A

C
Recovery mode
Greedy
  • If B is the first hop of recovery, change mode to
    greedy

31
Proposed Geographic Routing Protocols
  • BIGR Beaconless Interactive Geographic Routing
  • BTGR Beacon-on-Trigger Geographic Routing

32
Position Distribution and Path Finding
  • Position distribution through beacons
  • Packet forwarding greedy, perimeter
  • Beacon generation triggered by data traffic and
    route optimization
  • Topology maintenance positions of neighbors

33
Route Optimization
  • Route validation
  • Delete invalid neighbors
  • Update the positions of other members based on
    estimation
  • Route optimization also three cases
  • The first two cases are
    similar to those of BIGR
  • Case 3
  • If A is closer to the destination
    than where the perimeter
    mode started, broadcasts a beacon

D
F
A
O
Greedy
B
Perimeter
C
Perimeter
34
Performance Impact of Mobility
  • Delivery ratio Control
    overhead

35
Performance Impact of Mobility (cont)
Transmission inefficiency Average end-to-end
delay
Our protocols have significantly lower
transmission redundancy and end-to-end delay than
GPSR due to more updated topology.
36
Summary of Unicast
  • Propose two self-adaptive on-demand geographic
    routing protocols

37
Talk Overview
  • Background and motivation
  • Part I Self-adaptive geographic unicast routing
  • Part II Scalable geographic multicast routing
  • On-going and future work

38
Multicast Routing
Tree-based
Mesh-based
Geographic
(AMRIS, MAODV, LAM)
(FGMP, CAMP, ODMRP)
(LGT, DSM, PBM)
  • Only consider forwarding
  • Not scalable

Difficult to scale due to overhead for route
searching, group membership management, and
tree/mesh maintenance over dynamic topology
39
Why Is Geographic Multicast Difficult to Scale?
  • Putting the information of all group members into
    packet header creates excessive overhead for
    large group
  • Relying on location service to obtain positions
    for all group members adds more overhead

40
Our Contributions
  • Propose scalable geographic multicast routing
    protocol
  • (SGMP)

Designs on-demand hierarchical group membership
management scheme
Uses geographic forwarding to avoid building and
maintaining tree/mesh structure
Introduces the home zone to avoid periodical
network-range flooding of source information
Combines group membership management with
location service to avoid location searches for
all group members

41
Terms Used in the Scalable Multicast (SGMP)
42
High Level Picture
RFRESH (Join)
REPORT (Join)
DATA
43
Source Announcements
  • At session initiation time floods an ANNOUNCE,
    with address, position, and group ID
  • During packet transmissions piggybacks its
    position with the multicast packets

44
Home Zone Management
Home zone searching
Home zone update
Home zone SEQ 1
Home zone SEQ 0
Home zone election
45
Membership Management within Zone
  • A member
  • A leader
  • Sends REFRESH to leader (periodically, join,
    leave), carrying its membership and position
  • Floods LEADER periodically within the zone,
    carrying its own position and the positions and
    group IDs of the multicast members

46
Membership Management at Upper Tier
  • Source records the member zones

Leader knows source location
Membership report
SOURCE message
Home Zone
Leader does not know source location or Source
information is outdated
47
How to Handle Movement between Zones?
  • When a node moves into a new zone
  • Clears old zones information
  • If the node is a group member
  • Will continue receiving packets forwarded by old
    zone
  • Sends next REFRESH to new zone leader
  • When a leader is moving out of a zone
  • Hands leadership to other nodes

48
Empty Zone Problem
20 40 60 80 100
100m 74.885 56.282 44.864 36.865 30.853
200m 36.857 19.208 10.985 6.5467 3.9951
400m 6.4964 0.9643 0.1605 0.0281 0.0051
600m 0.5930 0.0112 0.0002 5.4E-06 1.2E-07
49
How to Handle Empty Zone ?
Home zone searching
Home zone update
Member zone empty
Home zone Empty SEQ 1
50
Multicast Packet Delivery
  • Source
  • Sends packets to all member zones and members in
    its zone
  • Sends one copy if several members share next hop
  • Intermediate nodes
  • Take similar action
  • Replace the ID of its current Zone with the
    information of the members in the zone.

Source
Zone leader
Group member
Other nodes
51
Performance Impact of mobility
  • Delivery ratio Control overhead

52
Performance Scalability
Group size Network size
53
Summary of Multicast
  • Design a scalable geographic multicast routing
    scheme

Performance scalable in terms of group size,
number of groups, and network range, and robust
to topology change
54
On-going Projects
  • Cross-Layer optimization and integration of
    network infrastructure
  • Develop key understanding of the cross-layer
    interactions, and design more scalable, reliable
    and adaptive networking system.

Cooperative resource management for IP-based
Wireless Access Network
Power control and energy efficiency for MANET
INFOCOM04 INFOCOM05
INFOCOM03 INFOCOM04 JSAC05 TMC05
NSF
NIJ
55
On-going Projects (cont)
  • Next Generation Mobile Wireless Network
    Infrastructure and Service
  • Development of network infrastructure and
    services over emerging radio and computing
    technologies.

Scalable and resilient wireless mesh network
Context-aware mobile computing and services
Programmable wireless networking and service
infrastructure design
Sensor network applications and Services
  • Architecture and Design for Heterogeneous Networks

56

Q A
57
Performance Studies
  • Setup
  • Tool GlomoSim
  • Network size 3000 m x 1000 m, 300 nodes
  • Traffic 30 CBR with rate 8kbps each
  • Mobility model Random Waypoint
  • Measures
  • Packet delivery ratio
  • The ratio of packets delivered to those
    originated by the source
  • Control overhead
  • The number of control messages over the number of
    packets received
  • Average number of data packet transmissions
  • The total number of packet transmissions
    accumulated from each hop over the total number
    of packets received
  • Average end-to-end delay
  • Average time interval for packets to traverse
    from source to destination

58
SGMP Basic Principles
Join
Join
(RERESH)
(REPORT)
Zone Leader
Member
Source
Data
Data
Member Zone
Member
Source
Packet sending geographic unicasting, and the
packet for a zone is sent towards the zone
center.
59
Performance Number of groups
  • Delivery ratio Overhead

60
Home Zone Election
  • When a node receives a message carrying home zone
    ID different from that in its record
  • If the message has larger sequence number,
    update its home zone info otherwise, forward the
    message to recorded home zone

Home Zone SEQ 0
Membership report
SOURCE message
Home Zone SEQ 1
61
Impact of node density
62
Impact of node density (cont)
63
Impact of traffic load
64
Impact of traffic load (cont)
65
Performance Impact of node density
66
Existing Unicast Routing Protocols
  • Proactive protocols (DSDV, OLSR)
  • Maintain routes continuously, large overhead
  • Actively track network topology, not suitable for
    high mobility
  • Reactive protocols (DSR, AODV, TORA, FLR)
  • Maintain routes only if needed
  • Flooding to discover routes, larger delay due to
    searching
  • Hybrid protocols (ZRP, SHARP)
  • Combine the proactive and reactive approaches
  • Geographic routing protocols (GPSR, GFG)
  • Make use of location information to reduce
    routing overhead
  • Only need to be aware of local topology

67
Performance Impact of node density
68
Overhead
Group size
Network size
69
Impact of the number of groups
  • Delivery ratio Overhead

70
Tomorrow Common Net, Common Apps

3G Cellular Networks
Radio Controller

Access Router
Urban Networks
  • Outdoor Areas
  • High Mobility

Aggregation Router
  • Broadband Distribution Networks
  • High Speed Pico Cells



Presence
Enterprise Networks
Location
Access Router
  • 802.11
  • Local Mobility
  • Packet Voice
  • High Data Rates

Core Internet Backbone
Aggregation Router
Aggregation Router
Authentication

Home Networks
Access Router
  • DSL/Cable
  • High Speed Internet Access



Ad Hoc Networks
4G Radios
  • Allow Peer-to-Peer Communications
  • Self Configuring
  • Unifies access technologies (wireless and
    wireline)
  • End-to-end Internet Service
  • common mobility management and control
  • common transport infrastructure
  • common services infrastructure

71
  • Architecture and Design for Heterogeneous
    Networks
  • Enable end-to-end communications over
    heterogeneous networks WPAN, WLAN, WMAN, W-WAN,
    and Internet.
  • Secure and Cooperative Routing over Ad Hoc
    Networks
  • Provide security and incentive to enable the
    relay-based hop-by-hop transmissions.

72
Beacon Triggering by Data Traffic
  • Three types of beacons (for position information)
  • BEACON message
  • REQ (Carrying position)
  • Data packets (Carrying position)
  • Beacon request
  • Receiving REQ
  • Overhearing data transmission
  • Beacon sending
  • Only if the request interval is smaller than
    threshold
  • For packet sending
  • Use local topology information for forwarding if
    request sent interval is smaller than threshold
  • Otherwise, send REQ to neighbor

73
Route Searching
  • How to find a path without beacon?
  • Depend on forwarding states greedy or recovery
  • Greedy forwarding
  • Find a neighbor closest to the destination
  • Recovery forwarding
  • How to forward when there is no neighbor closer
    to the destination?

74
Membership Management in Local Zone
  • Membership reporting by mobiles nodes
  • Leader election
  • Moving between different zones

75
Membership Reporting in Local Zone
  • A group member sends REFRESH to leader to report
    its membership
  • If leader is known, unicast
  • If leader is not known, elect leader
  • Leader election (on demand)
  • Flood the REFRESH, indicating leader information
    is requested
  • A leader will send back a LEADER message
  • If no LEADER is received, the member announces
    itself as the leader and floods a LEADER message
    within the zone

Zone leader
Group member
Other nodes
76
Membership Management at Upper Tier
  • A source needs to record the member zones
  • Source announcement
  • Home zone election
  • Zone membership reporting

77
Protocol Overview
  • Group membership management
  • Packet forwarding
  • At local zone tier, a leader will collect the
    positions and membership of the member nodes in
    the zone.
  • At upper tier, the leader will represent the
    member zone to join a multicast tree.
  • At upper tier, the source sends a packet to
    member zones At lower tier, the first node in
    the zone that receives the data packet forwards
    it to the group members.
  • Both data and control packets are generally
    transmitted through geographic unicasting
    Packets for a zone are sent towards the zone
    center

Location of group members is combined with
group membership management
78
Case 1 A is the destination
  • As A is the destination, B should send packet
    directly to A, so A sends CORRECT to B

A
B
C
  • B sets its next hop to A

Old path
Old position
Current position
New path
79
Case 2 Greedy Mode Forwarding
A
F
  • If A is closer to F than C is to F, A sends
    CORRECT to B

B
C
  • B compares As and Cs positions to F, and sets
    its next hop to A if it is closer to F

Greedy
Old path
Old position
Current position
New path
80
Case 3 Recovery Forwarding
F
  • If A is closer to F than B and C are to F , A
    sends CORRECT to B

A
D
B
  • B compares A and Cs positions relative to F, if
    A is closer to F, B sets its next hop to A

C
Recovery mode
Greedy
  • If B is the first hop of recovery, change mode to
    greedy

81
Route Optimization
  • Route validation
  • Delete invalid neighbors
  • Update the positions of other members based on
    estimation
  • Route optimization also three cases
  • The first two cases are
    similar to those of BIGR
  • Case 3
  • If A is closer to the destination
    than where the perimeter
    mode started, broadcasts a beacon

F
A
D
O
Greedy
B
C
Perimeter
82
Beaconless Interactive Geographic Routing (BIGR)
  • There is no beacon, routing path is built
    on-demand
  • Route searching phase
  • Route optimization phase

D
x
How to find next hop without positions of
neighbors?
83
Position Update and Route Optimization
  • Update next hop position when overhearing packet
    forwarding by next hop (carrying sending node
    position)
  • Validate next hop
  • Estimate next hop
  • If both old and new positions are fresh
  • If only new position is available, it will be
    used as the estimated position
  • Search for new route
  • If both old and new positions are outdated
  • If estimated position is out of transmission
    range or no longer closer to destination than
    current forwarding node
  • Optimize routing path three cases

84
Existing Multicast Routing Protocols
  • Tree-based (AMRIS, MAODV, LAM)
  • Utilize network resources efficiently
  • Mesh-based (FGMP, CAMP, ODMRP)
  • Robust

Difficult to scale due to overhead for route
searching, group membership management, and
tree/mesh maintenance over dynamic topology
  • Geographic multicast (LGT, DSM, PBM)
  • Only consider packet forwarding scheme
  • Reduce topology maintenance overhead, but not
    scalable

85
Summary of Multicast
  • Design a scalable geographic multicast routing
    scheme
  • Scalable group membership management and robust
    packet forwarding
  • Avoid the need to build and maintain the
    tree/mesh structure over dynamic topology
  • Avoid network-range flooding of source
    information and location searches for the group
    members
  • Performance scalable in terms of group size,
    network range and mobility

86
How to Manage Home Zone ?
  • Home zone information update
  • Home zone searching
  • Home zone election
  • A source sends its zone ID to home zone when
    moving to new zone
  • The first home zone node floods source info to
    whole zone
  • Other nodes search home zone with ring of
    increasing size.
  • Source announces its current zone as home zone,
    and sets sequence number to 0 sequence number
    increases by one each time home zone changes.
  • Will be triggered when a node receives a message
    addressed to home zone with ID different from
    record (due to zone update or zone announcement
    from a new source)

87
How to Handle Empty Zone ?
  • Member zone
  • The departing leader notifies the source
  • Home zone
  • The last node
  • 1) Announces the new zone it is moving to as
    the home zone 2) Floods source information
    within new home zone
  • 3) Sends ANNOUNCE to network with sequence
    number of home zone increased by one

88
On-going Work
  • Cross-Layer Optimization and Design of Mobile and
    Wireless Systems
  • Create infrastructure and algorithms to enable
    more optimal performance of the wireless system,
    by adopting an integrated, multi-layer approach
  • On-going projects
  • Power control and energy efficient transmissions
    in mobile Ad Hoc networks
  • Architecture design and cooperative resource
    management for IP-based radio access network

Power control and energy efficiency for MANET
89
On-going Work (cont)
  • Next Generation Mobile Wireless Network
    Infrastructure and Service
  • Development of network infrastructure and
    services over emerging radio and computing
    technologies.
  • On-going projects
  • Sensor Network Applications and Services
  • Programmable Wireless Networking and Service
    Infrastructure Design
  • Scalable and Resilient Wireless Mesh Network
    Design
  • Context-aware Mobile Computing and Wireless
    Services
  • Architecture and Design for Heterogeneous Networks

90
Our Contributions
  • Design an efficient on-demand hierarchical group
    membership management scheme
  • Use geographic forwarding to avoid building and
    maintaining tree/mesh structure
  • Introduce the home zone to avoid periodical
    network-range flooding of source information
  • Combine group membership management with
    location service to avoid location searches for
    group members

91
Problems with Classical Geographic Routing
Proactive fixed-interval beaconing for positions
Difficulty in beaconing Interval setup
Difficulty in beaconing Interval setup
Too short consume Energy and create collisions
Generate unnecessary Overhead and consume energy
  • Proactive fixed-interval beaconing for positions
  • Beaconing interval affects accuracy of the local
    topology and routing performance
  • Outdated topology gt non-optimal routing,
    transmission failures gt more network resource
    consumption
  • Continuous retransmissions due to inaccurate
    position
  • Reduce link throughput and fairness, and increase
    collisions gt further delay and energy consumption

Too long outdated topology
Create collisions with normal data transmissions
No optimal routing, transmission failure
More resource consumption
92
Our Contributions
  • Propose two self-adaptive routing protocols

BIGR Beaconless Interactive Geographic Routing
BTGR Beacon-on-Trigger Geographic Routing
  • On demand alleviate unnecessary overhead due to
    proactive beacons
  • More flexible position distribution more updated
    topology, more efficient routing and less failure
  • Self adaptive adaptive to traffic pattern and
    robust to topology changes
About PowerShow.com