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River Civilizations (An Research Overview)


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Title: River Civilizations (An Research Overview)

River Civilizations(An Research Overview)
  • Submitted by
  • C. Stephen Ingraham
  • 2008

Performance Assessment
  • Create a tri-fold travel brochure and present it
    to the class. Your project must include the
    natural characteristics that define the region
    known as the Middle East (either past or
    present), relative and absolute location,
    climate. Culture. Ecosystems, and technology.

Travel Brochure Research Topics
Textbook Topics Ancient Mesopotamia Encyclopedia
p. 70 Assyria pp. 784-787 p. 69
Babylon pp. 9-12 p. 69 King Hammurabi pp.
33-4 p. 62 70 Maps of Mesopotamia p. 346 p.
61 Mesopotamia pp. 345-6
------- Seven Wonders pp. 253-6 p.61 Sumer pp
. 778-9 pp. 61 66 Inventions/Innovation
s The Modern World ------ Modern Iraq
(map) p. 327 ------ Climate/Rainfall/Temp. pp.
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Essential Questions
  • Where and how did ancient civilizations begin?
  • In what ways are ancient civilizations similar?
    In what ways are they different?
  • What impact did cultural beliefs have on the
    formation of religions?
  • How did religion and philosophical thinking
    affect the development of civilization?
  • For what reasons do religious and philosophical
    differences cause conflict among cultures?
  • How did the agricultural revolution change
  • What economic systems existed in ancient
  • What governmental structures emerged in ancient
  • What evidence of culture clashes exist today?
  • What constitutes a civilization?

Social Studies Block ___ Name
_______________________Mr. Ingraham Ms. Holmes
Date ____________
    Table of Contents

This is how Mullen students roll.
  • We are always on time to class
  • We come prepared to learn.
  • We always allow other students to learn.
  • We respect the personal space of others.

The Fertile Crescent Song
  • Let me tell you of a civilization Sung
    to the tune of The Brady Bunch
  • Sumer, Sumer was its name
  • It was between the Tigris and Euphrates,
  • but it was not alone.
  • There came along a mighty king,
  • Sargon, the Akkadian was the name.
  • He united all who feared him.
  • You join or youre insane.
  • Still later came King Hammurabi
  • With his mighty long code of laws.
  • Even later came the Assyrian Army
  • Led by Sennacherib the destroyer,
  • Who crushed and killed
  • And stole until the Persians came along and
    conquered him.

Prime Meridian
40 N
Tropic of Cancer
23 30 N
20 N

  1. S

Tropic of Capricorn
23 30 S
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Black Sea
Caspian Sea
Taurus Mountains
Zagros Mountains
Tigris River
Mediterranean Sea
Euphrates River
Persian Gulf
Syrian Desert
Mesopotamian Vocabulary
  • Civilization a culture with well developed
    forms of government, religion, writing, and
  • Technology- the use of tools and skills to make a
    product or achieve a goal.
  • Ziggurat- a huge mud-brick temple in each
  • Government- an organized system that groups use
    to make laws and decisions.
  • City-state- a city or village and the farm lands
    around it with its own leaders and government.
  • Monarchy- a government which has one person with
    complete right to rule in peacetime and in war.
  • Authority- right to rule.
  • Surplus- extra supply.
  • Merchant- a person who buys and sells goods for a
  • Social class- groups within a civilization with
    different levels of importance.
  • Scribe- a person who knows how to read and
  • Innovation- new ways of doing things.

Mesopotamian Vocabulary 2
  • Conquer to take over the land of others.
  • Empire- a land of many conquered people and
    places governed by one ruler.
  • Emperor- the ruler of an empire.
  • Taxation- the support of a government where
    people were required to pay taxes in crops or
    other goods or services they produced.
  • Code of Hammurabi- a collection of 282 laws that
    dealt with almost every aspect of Mesopotamian
  • Equal Justice- fair treatment under the law
    within each social class.
  • Polytheism The belief in many supreme beings or
  • Monotheism- the belief in one supreme being or
  • Covenant- an agreement.
  • Ten Commandments- a set of laws for responsible
  • Judaism the religion of the Jewish people.
  • Torah- The first five books of the Bible of the
  • Colony- a settlement separated from, but under
    the control of, a home country.
  • Cultural diffusion- the spreading of new ideas to
    other places.
  • Barter- the exchange of one good or service for
  • Money economy- an economic system based on the
    use of money rather than on barter.

  • The Fertile Crescent- the land between the Tigris
    and Euphrates Rivers.
  • 1) Villages became cities and societies
    became more complex
  • 2) Cultures form Civilizations- society with
    developed under one
  • Government, Religious belief, writing system,
    and Learning
  • A/F. New Inventions Innovations
  • canals, dikes, wheel, cart, domestication of
    animals, igu (acre), cargo ships with sails,
  • E. Changing Economy
  • 1) About 3000 B.C. Sumerian city-states had huge
  • 2) Ur had 30,000 people.
  • 3) Successful agriculture surplus, or extra
    supply (of food). Therefore
  • a) not everyone had to grow or find food.
  • b) This allowed a division of labor. Besides
    farmers, there were managers, craftworkers,
    and merchants.
  • 4) Merchants people who bought and sold goods
    for a living. They
  • traded surplus wheat, barley, and copper
    tools for wood, salt,
  • precious stones, raw copper.

  • F. Divisions in Society
  • 1) Social Classes groups with different levels
    of importance
  • King
  • Nobles Priests Leaders
  • Middle Class
  • Merchants, Craftworkers, Managers, carpenters,
    potters, bricklayers, scribes
  • 2) Scribe, or a person who could write, kept
    records, wrote letters for others,

  • copied songs, stories.
  • Lowest Class
  • Laborers, Unskilled workers, and
  • 3) Men owned most of the property held
    positions of leadership.
  • A. Causes and Effects of Conflict.
  • 1) Because the city-states grew in size and
    population, agricultural societies
  • wage war to protect farmland water
  • 2) Because the Tigris Euphrates river valley
    is flat with no natural
  • boundaries, city-states put up pillars.
  • 3) Because powerful city-states destroy or move
    the pillars, more wars are
  • fought.
  • 4) Because more wars are being fought, new
    technology or better weapons are

  • B. Sargon the Conqueror
  • 1) The Warrior Sargon from the city-state of
    Kish is the first to conquer, or take
  • over, the land of others.
  • 2) He established a vast empire, or a
    conquered land of many peoples and
  • places governed by one ruler, or
  • 3) Sargon
  • a) built a capital city called Akkad and ruled
    for 55 years.
  • b) maintained a standing army.
  • c) appointed loyal nobles as governors to
    maintain control of all 12 city-states
  • C. Hammurabi the Lawgiver
  • 1) Hammurabi becomes king of the city-state of
  • 2) He promoted trade by building dikes and
    canals and established taxation, or
  • people supporting government by payment
    in crops or other goods.
  • 3) Hammurabis most important contribution was a
    collection of laws, given to
  • him by the sun god Shamash called the
    Code of Hammurabi (282 laws)
  • a) The code said that whoever caused an
    injury should be punished
  • by being given that same injury.
  • b) Equal Justice, or fair treatment was limited
    to equality within each social class.

War Peace in the Fertile Crescent
Religious Philosophical Thinking of Mesopotamia
  • Code of Hammurabi 282 laws providing equal
  • Teaches An eye for an eye and a tooth for a
  • Ten Commandments a set of laws given to Moses
  • responsible behavior for Judaism.
  • Teaches To obey one god and how to live justly
    and keep families strong.
  • Polytheism of the Ancient Mesopotamians Many
    gods of nature
  • Teaches If bad things happen the gods are angry
    if good thing happen they arent.
  • Judaism The religion of the Jewish people based
    on the belief of the one god, Yahweh.
  • Teaches Gods good qualities must be imitated by
    his people.
  • Islam The religion of the Muslims based on the
    belief of the one god, Allah.
  • Teaches Muslim must submit to gods will and
    follow the Quran and Muhammads example.
  • Christianity a religion based to the life and
    teaching of
  • Jesus Christ, a Jewish Rabi.
  • Teaches To love your neighbor as yourself.

Early Egypt Song Sung to Mary has a
little Lamb The Nile River gives Egypt
life Water for the crops And fertile silt King
Narmer unites us all Upper and lower Egypt Our
pharaoh is the son of Ra Pharaoh Zoser asked
Imhotep To build a pyramid For his tomb and
decorate it with Hieroglyphics and
gold. Amenemhet becomes the pharaoh He conquers
Nubia and Kush is tamed. Merchants and
craftworkers Form the middle class. Pharaoh
Thutmose crushed the Hyksos. Egypt extends to
the Fertile Crescent But Amenhotep and
Nefertiti Want all to worship the one god,
Aton, But the boy King Tut changes that (and
thats a chapter three fact.) By
Mr. Ingraham
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Egyptian Vocabulary
  • desertification Any change of fertile land into
    desert, whether caused by climate or human
  • silt- fine bits of rock and soil.
  • Irrigate to supply land with water by
    artificial means.
  • predict- to tell ahead of time.
  • dynasty- a series of rulers from the same family.
  • pharaoh -an Egyptian King.
  • edicts the commands or directions of one. in
  • Hieroglyphics an Egyptian picture writing system
  • papyrus- a paper like material.
  • pyramid- a tomb for a dead Egyptian ruler or
  • mummy a dead body which has been preserved.
  • peasants people who farmed the land.
  • obelisk- an ancient monument consisting of a
    single pillar of stone.
  • annex- to take over.
  • independence complete freedom.
  • Trading network- a group of buyers and sellers
    working together.

III. The Nile Source of Innovation
  • 1. 365 day calendar divided the year into three
  • a) Inundation spring flooding of the
    Nile River
  • deposits silt or fine bits of rock soil
  • b) Emergence plow plant (the plants
  • c) Drought water harvest the crops
  • 2. Irrigation through dams, dikes, retention
  • 3. Mummification
  • 4. Pyramids tombs
  • 5. Hieroglyphics writing of 700 different
    symbol pictures.
  • 6. Papyrus paper made from reeds

Priests Nobles
MIDDLE CLASS Merchants, Scribes,
Unskilled Laborers Peasant Farmers Slaves
Religious Philosophical Thinking of Egypt
  • 1. Religion Polytheism Like many ancient
    peoples the Egyptians used stories about their
    gods to explain nature. For example
  • a) Amon-Ra was the sun god who was born each
    day and died each night.
  • b) Osiris taught the Egyptians farming.
  • c) Horus, the son of Osiris, ruled the sky.
  • d) Isis, was the wife of Horus.
  • 2. The Egyptians also believed their pharaoh, or
    king, was a god in human form.
  • 3. Change during the New Kingdom 1686- 1085
  • Pharaoh Amenhotep Queen Nefertiti worship one
    god, Aton monotheism
  • King Tutankhamen (Tut) returns to polytheism.

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China Song (Chapter 5)
Sung to The Adams Family
The Zhou claimed the mandate the peasant-farmers
cant wait to use their iron weapons to seal the
Shang dynastys fate. Roads, Dams,
Canals! Confucius says a guide for society is
just like anyones family. No matter what you
happen to be everyone has responsibility Courtesy
, Kindness, Charity! The Legalism of the Qin
Shi Huangdi says everyone should fear me. My
great wall shows my authority built upon the
peasants misery. Tears, Cruelty,
China Song (Continued)

Sung to The Adams Family
The Han Gao Zu said he knew to be respected
keep the people true. No harsh law or treatment
cruel and all the people will follow
you. Trade, Exports, Profits! The Daoism is
taught by Emperor Wu Di to accept whatever life
gives to thee. Now cause and effect is
history and trade brings new technology. Wheelbar
row, seismograph, Paper! Ancient China always
tried to strive to keep the peasants working and
alive and every way each dynasty tried is all
contained in chapter five!!!!
Vocabulary of China
  • legends stories handed down from earlier times.
  • mandate- or order to rule.
  • Mandate of Heaven- the right of a Chinese leader
    to rule given to him by the gods.
  • ancestors- dead relatives further back than
  • oracles a person who gives wise advise.
  • pictographs drawings that were combined to make
    thousands of Chinese words.
  • heritage a set of ideas that has been passed
    down from one generation to another.
  • militia- a group made of volunteer soldiers.
  • virtues- good qualities.
  • Public works structures built by the government
    for everyones use.
  • philosopher a person who studies the meaning of
  • responsibilities- a persons duties.
  • Confucianism- the ideas and teaching of the
    philosopher Confucius.

Vocabulary of China 2
  • Legalism the idea that people obey their rulers
    out of fear and not out of respect.
  • standardization- the making of all things of a
    certain type alike.
  • bureaucracy a network of appointed government
  • Civil war- when groups of people from the same
    place or country fight one another.
  • ambassadors a person who represents a
  • Civil Service the part of a bureaucracy that
    oversees the day- to-day business of running a
  • Daoism the idea that the key to long life and
    happiness is to accept life as it is..
  • import- to bring in goods for sale.
  • export- to send out goods to be sold in other
  • caravan a group of traders traveling with goods
    to be sold.
  • profits money gained over the price of goods
  • Silk Road- the trade route that stretched 5,000
    miles from China to the Mediterranean Sea.

  1. A Ancient China Xia Shang Dynasties
  • About 2000 BCE. Hundreds of settlements in Huang
    He River Valley
  • Shang seized mandate of heaven or the authority
    to rule in 1766 BCE.
  • Shang conquered 1,800 city-states with war
    chariots bronze weapons.
  • Oracle bones were used to gain wise advise from
    the ancestors the gods.
  • Writing called pictographs used 5,000 symbols or
    drawings to make
  • thousands of words.
  • 6. Only wealthy, educated Chinese could write
    hold government jobs.

B. Society of Ancient China Zhou Dynasty
Gives land To the Nobles
Perform Military Service for the King
Promise to protect the peasants
Farm the land and serve the nobles
C. Religious Philosophical Thinking of China
  • 1. Legalism used by Qin Shi Huangdi as a basis
    for the government of his dynasty.
  • Teaches People obey their rulers out of fear of
    punishment and not respect. Harsh treatment is
    the only way to bring peace and wealth to China
  • 2. Confucianism Kung Fu Zi (Confucius)
  • There are five virtues charity, kindness,
    hardwork, good faith, and courtesy.
  • Teaches A good society is like a family where
    all members know their responsibilities.
  • 3. Daoism used by Emperor Wu Di with the ideas
    of Confucianism.
  • Teaches the key to long life and happiness is to
    accept life as it is.
  • D. The Han Dynastys Golden Age The Silk Road
  • 1. Peace brought new technology inventions
    wheelbarrow, seismograph, paper, printing,
    crossbow, gunpowder, fireworks, crossbow
  • 2. Caravans traded with other civilized
  • a) exported silk, apricots, iron, bronze goods
  • b) imported gold, ivory, wool, linen,
    grapevines, horses

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Indias Chapter 6 Song
The Aryans migrate South Through the mountain
pass of Hindu Kush. Into the Indus Valley Using
their horses to fight for land. Believing in
Hinduisms reincarnation means rebirth. The next
lifes social position show your worth, But now
your caste is unchanging. So dont associate with
the low one. Being an Untouchable is no
fun!!!! Unless youre a believer in Buddha and
seek love, truth, and knowledge. Whats it to
ya? Unselfish behavior all the time. (Bomb Ba
Bomba Chorus) Now I know these chapter 6 facts,
Ill be fine. By Mr. Ingraham
Sung to Meet the Flintstones
Indias Chapter 6 (Song verse
The Rajahs rule the Indian city-states Until a
young Chandragupta Maurya, Like the Qin Shi
Huangdi the young Chandraguptas known for
cruelty. Father and son rule with a firm
hand, but grandson Asoka discovers wars dont
make the man. Non-violence and no caste
system Becomes his new plan. The Gupta unites
India once again. Indias golden age soon
begins. Arabic numerals make math now base 10. Do
you believe in Buddha? Seeking love, truth, and
knowledge. Whats it to ya? Unselfish behavior
all the time. (Bomb Ba Bomba Chorus) Now I
know these chapter 6 facts, Ill be fine. By
Mr. Ingraham
Vocabulary of India
  • subcontinent A large land area isolated from
    the rest of a continent
  • inscription- a written message.
  • Aryans- the earliest warriors and herders who
    immigrated from central Asia to India.
  • Sanskrit-the Aryan language.
  • Vedas the Aryan holy books.
  • reincarnation the belief that the soul lives on
    after death and returns to life in a new body.
  • Hinduism a religion that believes in three gods
    Brahma, the creator Vishnu, the preserver and
    Shiva, the destroyer.
  • caste- an unchanging group within a society.
  • untouchables- the people thought to be impure and
    below all of Indian castes.
  • Buddhism the religion based on the teachings of
    Siddhartha Gautama.

The Caste System India Society
Vocabulary of India 2
  • rajahs Indian princes who ruled over large
  • assassination murder for a political reason.
  • Turning point a time of important change .
  • missionaries religious teachers who help spread
    ideas to other areas.
  • Arabic numerals a base ten number system using
    1-9 and zero.
  • inoculation giving people a mild form of a
    disease to prevent them from getting sick with a
    more serious form.
  • Persian Bonus Vocabulary
  • Cavalry soldiers who rode horses and camels to
    make swift attacks.
  • Tribute yearly payments to a king or an
  • Couriers pony-express-like riders for
    delivering messages.
  • Prophet a person who others believe speaks or
    writes with a divine message from god.
  • Zoroastrianism the belief in two gods Ahura
    Mazda, the god of truth and Ahriman, the evil

Religious Philosophical Thinking of India
  • Hinduism Ancient Aryan Religion which worships
    three main gods Brahma, the creator Vishnu, the
    preserver and Shiva, the destroyer.
  • Teaches People are born into an unchanging
    group within society. They can only associate
    with members of the same caste. If they live a
    good life they will be reincarnated, or come to
    life in a new body, in a higher caste.
  • Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama reaction to the
    Caste System and harsh treatment under Hinduism.
  • Teaches People should seek love, truth, the joy
    of knowledge, and a calm mind.

IV. Kush Egypts Rival
Other African Kingdoms
Mediterranean Sea
Red Sea
Nile River
IV. Kush Egypts Rival
A. Early People of Nubia 1. Nubia extends along
Egypts southern border into modern Sudan. 2.
The people of Nubia lived like the Egyptians.
a) About 6,000 BC. They lived in clans as
herders and farmers. b) The Nubians worshipped
Egyptian gods. 3. About 2000 BC. they developed
into a civilization and built canals. a) They
traded gold, hardwoods, animal tusks, and huge
granite blocks for Egyptians
goods. b) These blocks were used to build
obelisks, or ancient towering
monuments made of a single stone of granite. 4.
During the Egyptian Middle Kingdom the pharaoh
moved to annex, or take over, northern
Nubia and make it part of Egypt. B. Kush 1. When
the Hyksos took over upper Egypt, Nubia gained
its independence, or complete freedom,
from Egypt. 2. Kerma becomes the capital of the
Kushite government. 3. It also becomes a trading
center for central and southern Africa. a) To
the North they traded for Egyptians goods. b)
To the South they traded for gold, salt,
elephants, rhinoceros horns,
spices, and slaves. c) Kermass busy markets
made the government wealthy.
Mediterranean Sea
Red Sea
Nile River
IV. Kush Egypts Rival
Mediterranean Sea
C. Conquest of Egypt 1. About 750 BC King Kasha
of Kush takes over Upper Egypt. 2. His son
Piankhi conquers lower Egypt. 3. Piankhis
brother claims the pharaohs throne in Thebes and
begins a new dynasty. The Kushite
pharaohs rebuild and strenghten Egypt. D. Early
Ironworkers 1. About 670 BC. Invaders from the
Fertile Crescent gained control of the
Nile Valley. 2. Kushite leaders establish a new
capital at Meroe, where Kushite
civilization begins again. They a) invent
their own 23 letter alphabet. b) reestablish a
trading network, or group of buyers and sellers.
c) discover and mine iron ore. d) have iron
workers melt down iron ore and have craftworkers
use the metal to make iron
tools and weapons. 3. Meroe becomes Africas
earliest iron working center. 4. About 350 AD.
The kingdom of Axum conquers Kush.
Red Sea
Nile River
Religious development of the Middle East
  • Abram breaks with the religious thinking of his
    neighbors and
  • begins worshipping one supreme god (Monotheism).
  • He changes his name to Abraham, which means
    father of many nations.
  • a) Abrahams son Isaac is the father of the
    Jewish people.
  • 1) Judaism The religion of the Jewish people
    based on the belief of the one god,
  • Yahweh.
  • Teaches Gods good qualities must be
    imitated by his people.
  • 2) Christianity a religion based to the life and
    teaching of
  • Jesus Christ, a Jewish Rabi.
  • Teaches To love your neighbor as yourself.
  • b) Abrahams son Ishmael is the father of the
    Arab people.
  • Muhammad, an Arab, is the founder of Islam.
    Muslims are his followers.
  • Islam The religion of the Muslims based on the
    belief of the one god, Allah.
  • Teaches Muslim must submit to gods will and
    follow their holy book the Quran
  • and Muhammads example. The religious successors
    to Muhammad are called
  • caliphs, but whom to follow caused divisions.
  • Shiite Muslims stayed loyal to the descendants of
    the fourth caliph, Alis dynasty
  • Sunni Muslims accepted the changing dynasties of
    Muhammads successors.

The influence of Religion on three
Buddhism Missionaries Spread the teachings of
Siddhartha Gautama throughout Asia and Japan.
Muslim Merchants spread the teachings of Islam.
Merchants and Missionaries spread religious ideas
to other places. This adapting of customs and
ideas from one culture to another is known as
cultural borrowing.
Chinese Silk Road By 106 B.C.E. the first camel
caravan headed west from China with a load of
Silk. No one knew the secrets of making Silk,
which gave the Chinese a monopoly. They made
huge profits in gold, ivory, wool, linen,
grapevines, And horses. African Salt Trade By
700 C.E. an African tribe, the Soninkes,
had taken over much of the West African
grasslands. To the south they traded with
another tribe the Wangaras for gold. Then they
traded with Muslim merchants the gold for salt.
Salt was important to season and preserve food.
Some of the salt they traded back to the
Wangaras for more gold. Other European goods such
as paper, woven cloth, and perfumes were also
traded. With this trading network the Soninkes
made a profit at both ends of the trading cycle
and they grew rich and powerful.
The influence of the Muslim trading network and
the the spread of Islam on three continents
The Silk Road 5,000 miles from China to the
Mediterranean Sea
The Salt Trade 3,000 miles from the
Mediterranean Sea to The West African
Trade was more important than just the exchange
of needed goods. It allowed for the spreading of
new ideas and technology to other places. This
flow of ideas and knowledge is called cultural
(No Transcript)
Performance AssessmentA News Presentation to the
  • Your presentation will take the form of a TV news
  • This is what is needed
  • A large map locating your presentations
  • An explanation of your civilizations government
  • proving it had leadership.
  • 3) An explanation of your civilizations beliefs
  • proving it had religion.
  • 4) An explanation of your civilizations
    innovations and
  • inventions proving it had knowledge.
  • 5) An explanation and description of your
  • writing system.
  • Remember Your groups 5 questions must be covered
    in your presentation.

How to set up your notebook for research
Performance Assessment
Textbook Research
The Role of Government pp. 63-4 Sargon the
Conqueror pp. 68-9
Architecture and Religious Beliefs pp. 62-3
The Alphabet pp. 75-6
New Inventions p. 61 Innovations p. 66
Sargon Hammurabi Sennacherib
Source of Religion p. 96 The Old Kingdom pp.
King Narmer Pharaoh Zoser Hatshepsut Amenhotep
IV King Tut
The Early Period pp. 98-100
Source of Innovation pp. 95-6
Unity for the Egyptians pp. 96-7
The City of Mohenjo-Daro pp. 122-3 The Golden
Age of India pp. 190-1
City People p. 124 Hinduism (Sanskrit) pp.
Siddhartha Gautama Chandragupta Maurya Asoka
The Caste System p.177 Indias First
Empire p. 187-8
Hinduism pp. 176-7 The origins of Buddhism pp.

The Ideas of Confucius p. 158-9 The Golden
Age pp. 168-9
King Wu Qin Shi Huangdi Han Goa Zu Confucius
The Shang Dynasty pp. 128-9 Rule of Shi
Huanghi p. 161-2
Oracle Bones pp. 129-130
Shang Writing pp. 130-1
SynergyThe product of a group is greater than
any individual of that group..
  • 1) The Leader reads his/her Leadership notes
    while the other group members copy any items
    mentioned they dont have.
  • 2) Another member of the group then reads his/her
    Leadership notes and the other group members
    copy any items they dont have.
  • 3) Rotation continues until all members have read
    their Leadership notes.

Time Line Practice
2,000 C.E.
3,000 B.C.E.
2,000 B.C.E.
4,000 B.C.E.
1,000 B.C.E.
5,000 B.C.E.
1,000 C.E.
B.C.E C.E. 0
2007 C.E.
Time Line Practice
  • Place the following on this timeline
  • 1) 5,100 years ago King Narmer unites Upper and
    Lower Egypt
  • 2) 4,650 years ago the Egyptians built the first
  • 3) 4,500 years ago cities rise in the Indus
  • 4) 4,300 years ago merchants trade between the
    Indus Valley and Mesopotamia.
  • 5) 3,800 years ago the Shang Dynasty gains
    control of China.
  • 6) 3,465 years ago the Egyptian Empire expands
    to its largest size.
  • 2,750 years ago Kush conquers upper Egypt.
  • Hint Remember it is now 2007 C.E., but why not
    use 2,000?

2,000 C.E.
3,000 B.C.E.
2,000 B.C.E.
4,000 B.C.E.
1,000 B.C.E.
5,000 B.C.E.
1,000 C.E.
B.C.E C.E. 0
2007 C.E.
II. Egyptian Society during the Middle Kingdom
Mediterranean Sea
Nile River
Priests Nobles
MIDDLE CLASS Merchants, Scribes,
Red Sea
Unskilled Laborers Peasant Farmers Slaves
III. Egyptian Kingdoms
Mediterranean Sea
  • The Old Kingdom 2686- 2181 BCE
  • The Age of the pyramids pharaohs tombs
  • a) Stacked mastabas stepped pyramid
  • b) Geometric straight sided square pyramids
  • built in the land of the dead at Giza.
  • The Middle Kingdom 1991 1786 BCE
  • Amenemhet conquered Nubia Egypt is an Empire
  • Middle class develops Craftworkers, Merchants,
  • The Hyksos attack with war chariots and conquer
  • The New Kingdom 1686- 1085
  • Pharaoh Thutmose I retakes Egypt from the Hyksos
  • Pharoah Thutmose III invades Nubia the Fertile
  • Amenhotep Nefertiti worship one god, Aton
  • King Tutankhamen (Tut) returns to polytheism.
  • Egypt weakens and is ruled by outsiders.

Red Sea
Nile River
(No Transcript)
Bonus Question5 Points
What is the belief in two gods Ahura Mazda, the
god of truth and Ahriman, the evil enemy
called. w) Hinduism x) Buddhism y) Judaism
z) Zoroastrianism
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