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Issues in Public Administration MPA 509

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Title: Issues in Public Administration MPA 509


1
Issues in Public Administration MPA 509
New Developments in Public Administration Perspe
ctives, Approaches Critiques
2
Agenda for Today
  • Preview of the last Lecture
  • Public Administration, the way forward
  • Development Catalysts
  • Re-inventing Government
  • New Public Management
  • Principal Themes and Roots of NPM
  • Governance and its challenges and Outcomes
  • E-governance
  • Broader Issues of Public Administration
  • Quote of the Day

3
  • Public Administration, the Way Forward
  • Public administrative culture is changing to be
    more flexible, innovative, Problem solving,
    entrepreneurial, and enterprising as opposed to
    rule-bound, process-oriented, and focused on
    inputs rather than results.

4
  • ?? By the final two decades of the twentieth
    century, a number of forcesintellectual,
    political, and fiscalwere making themselves felt
    within governments. These forces included the
    emergence
  • Of large, high performance corporations,
    innovations undertaken to reduce national
    deficits, rapid technological changes, the end of
    the cold war, with its attendant refocusing by
    citizens in many nations on domestic issues, a
    declining faitha trust deficitin the
    governments, and new restrictions on public
    administrators that led to their seeking new ways
    of managing.

5
  • ?? These kinds of social trends resulted in an
    EXPLOSION OF PUBLICATIONS IN THE EARLY 1990s THAT
    called for a new kind of government reform. The
    most famous of these critiques was the national
    best seller
  • Reinventing Government how the Entrepreneurial
    spirit is transforming the public Sector.
  • (David osborn and ted gaebler, 1992)?

6
  • 1. Catalytic government
  • Steering rather than rowing.
  • 2. Community owned government
  • Empowering rather than serving.
  • 3. Competitive government
  • Injecting competition into service delivery.
  • 4. Mission-driven government
  • Transforming rule-driven organizations
  • 5. Results-oriented government
  • Funding outcomes, no inputs

7
  • 6. Customer-driven government
  • Meeting the needs of the customer, not the
  • Bureaucracy.
  • 7. Enterprising government
  • Earning rather than spending.
  • 8. Anticipatory government
  • Prevention rather than cure.
  • 9. Decentralized government
  • From hierarchy to participation and teamwork.
  • 10. Market-oriented government
  • Leveraging change through the market

8
THE NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT (NPM)?
  • ?? IN THE EARLY 1990's, A NEW MANAGERIAL APPROACH
    TO
  • Public administration began to take hold. Like
    the traditional managerial approach at its
    inception, the new approach is reform-oriented
    and seeks to improve public sector performance
  • ?? ?? Managerialism refers to an entrepreneurial
    approach to public management, one that
    emphasizes the rights of managers to run the
    organization and the application of reinvigorated
    scientific-management
  • techniques.

9
  • ?? It called for among others
  • Putting Customers first,
  • making service organizations Compete,
  • creating market dynamics,
  • Using Market mechanisms to solve problems,
  • Empowering employees to get results,
  • Decentralized decision making power,
  • Streamlining the budget process,
  • Decentralized personnel policy, and
  • Streamlining procurement.

10
  • ?? Today, the NPM is becoming the dominant
    managerial approach.
  • ?? Its key concept-somewhat evolutionary a decade
    ago- are now the standard language of public
    administration.
  • ?? Terms such as "results oriented", "customers
    focused", "employee empowerment",
    entrepreneurship", and "outsourcing", have
    dominated the mainstream.

11
  • CHRISTOPHER HOOD (1991),
  • NPMs
  • PRINCIPAL THEMES TO INCLUDE
  • ??
  • A shift away from an emphasis on policy toward an
    emphasis on measurable performance
  • ?? A shift away from reliance on traditional
    bureaucracies toward loosely coupled,
    quasi-autonomous Units and competitive services
  • ?? A shift away from an emphasis on development
    and Investment toward cost-cutting
  • ?? Allowing public managers greater "freedom to
    manage" according to private sector corporate
    practice and
  • ?? A shift away from classic command-and-control
    regulation toward self-regulation.

12
  • The roots of the new public management
  • ?? Government should be entrepreneurial and
    improve the quality of its service.
  • ?? Government should collaborate and work with
    other government and the non-profit and private
    sectors to achieve social goals.
  • ?? Government should judge its performance with
    measurable result.
  • ?? Government should improve its accountability
    to the public interest, which should be
    understood in terms of law, community, and shared
    values.
  • ?? Government should empower citizens and public
    employees alike.
  • ?? Government should anticipate and solve
    problems.
  • (Henry)

13
  • Toonen (2001) devised an analytical model of NPM,
    as
  • ?? A business-oriented approach to government
  • ?? A quality and performance oriented approach to
    public management
  • ?? An emphasis on improved public service
    delivery and functional responsiveness
  • ?? An institutional separation of public demand
    functions, public provision and public service
    production functions.

14
  • Models of community and civil society
  • ?? Citizens felt great frustration and anger that
    they had been pushed out of the political system
    by a professional political class of powerful
    lobbyists, politicians, campaign managers and a
    media
  • elite. They saw the system as one in which votes
    no Longer made any difference. They saw a system
    with its doors closed to the average citizen
    (mathews, 1994). As a consequence, citizens felt
    alienated and Detached.
  • How are public administrators affected by and how
    do they affect community and civil society?

15
  • ORGANIZATIONAL HUMANISM AND THE NEW PUBLIC
  • ADMINISTRATION
  • ?? Over the past twenty-five years, public
    administration theorists have joined other
    disciplines in suggesting that traditional
    hierarchical approaches to social organization
    are restrictive in their view of human behavior,
    and they have joined in a critique of bureaucracy
    and a search for alternative approaches to
    management and organization.
  • ?? Collectively, these approaches have sought to
    fashion public organizations less dominated by
    issues of authority and control and more
    attentive to the needs and concerns of internal
    and external constituents .

16
NPM
  • ?? Through approaches such as these, scholars
    hoped to build alternatives approaches to the
    study and practice of public administration,
    alternatives more sensitive to values (not just
    facts), to subjective human meaning (not just
    objective behavior), and the full range of
    emotions and feelings involved in relationships
    between and among real people.

17
GOVERNANCE
  • ?? In the twentieth century, hierarchical
    government bureaucracy was the predominant
    organizational model used to deliver public
    services and fulfil public policy goals.
  • ?? Public managers won acclaim by ordering those
    under them to accomplish highly routine, albeit
    professional, tasks with uniformity but without
    discretion.
  • ?? Today, increasingly complex societies force
    public officials to develop new models of
    governance.

18
  • GOVERNANCE
  • ?? The traditional, hierarchical model of
    government simply does not meet the demands of
    this complex, rapidly changing age.
  • ?? Rigid bureaucratic systems that operate with
    command-and-control procedures, narrow work
    restrictions, and inward-looking cultures and
    operational models are deemed to be particularly
    ill-suited to addressing problems that often
    transcend organizational
  • Boundaries.

19
  • GOVERNANCE
  • ?? In many ways, twenty-first century challenges
    and the means of addressing them are more
    numerous and complex than ever before.
  • ?? Problems have become both more global and more
    local as power disperses and boundaries become
    more fluid.
  • ?? One-size-fits-all solutions have given way to
    customized approaches as the complicated problems
    of diverse and mobile populations increasingly
    defy simplistic solutions.

20
  • GOVERNANCE
  • ?? The hierarchical model of government persists,
    but its influence is steadily waning, pushed by
    governments' needs to solve ever more complicated
    problems and pulled by new tools that allow
    innovators to fashion creative responses.
  • ?? This push and pull is gradually producing a
    new model of government in which executives' core
    responsibilities no longer center on managing
    people and programs but on organizing resources,
    often belonging to others, to produce public
    value.

21
GOVERNANCE
  • ?? Government agencies, bureaus, divisions, and
    offices are becoming less important as direct
    service providers, but more important as
    generators of public value.
  • The new use of governance does not point at state
    actors and institutions as the only relevant
    institutions and actors in the authoritative
    allocation of values.
  • ?? They all, to some extent, focus on the role of
    networks, in the pursuit of common goals
  • ??

22
Quote of the Day
  • Coming together is a beginning keeping together
    is progress working together is success.
  • Henry Ford

23
Practice, Problems Prospects
  • The challenges
  • ?? The accountability problem presents networked
    government with its most difficult challenge.
  • ?? When authority and responsibility are
    parcelled out across the network, who is to blame
    when something goes wrong?
  • How does government relinquish some control and
    still ensure results?

24
  • ?? How do network managers balance the need for
    accountability against the benefits of
    flexibility?
  • ?? Governments have traditionally tried to
    address most of these issues of governance and
    accountability through narrow audit and control
    mechanisms. Although such tools help, they should
    not constitute the greater part of an
    accountability regime.
  • Additionally, traditional accountability
    mechanisms, which rely on process
    standardization, clash with the very purpose of
    the network to provide a decentralized,
    flexible, individualized, and creative response
    to a public problem.

25
CORPORATE GOVERNANCE
  • ?? Whereas the governance discussions in the
    public sectors is relatively recent, the term
    governance is much more common in the private
    sector where a debate about
  • corporate governance has been going on for quite
    some time.
  • ?? Corporate governance refers to issues of
    control and decision-making powers within the
    private (corporate) organizations.

26
  • ?? 'Corporate governance is the watchword of
    those who wish to improve the accountability and
    transparency of the actions of management, but
    without fundamentally
  • altering the basic structure of firms.

27
  • ?? Another development is the globalization of
    the economy and the growing importance of
    transnational political institutions like the
    European union (EU), World Trade Organization
    (WTO), Association of South East Asian nations
    (ASEAN), and North American Free Trade Agreement
    (NAFTA).

28
  • Outcomes of Globalization
  • ?? New demands of accountability to international
    markets and standards may clash with the
    traditional lines of accountability.
  • ?? Some commentators (rhodes 1994, 1997 davis
  • 1997) have characterised these trends as a
    'Hollowing out of the state', in which the
    combined effects of globalization,
  • International obligations, privatisation and
    reduced regulation deplete the capacity of
    government to shape and organise society.

29
  • Outcomes of Globalization
  • ?? Pessimist suggest that globalization means
    that government everywhere have become powerless
    and that managing globalization is impossible,
    since
  • Globalization is shaped by markets, not by
    government.
  • Some have suggested that this powerlessness is
    reinforced by the coming of the internet age
    that there is no governance against the
    electronic herd
  • (Friedman, 2000).
  • ?? In a nutsheel, global governance is about how
    to cope with problems which transcend the borders
    (such as air pollution, narcotics, terrorism or
    the exploitation of child workers) given the lack
    of a world government.

30
Current issues in Public Administration
  • ?? Question do governments know what they are
    doing? Why should we trust them?
  • ?? The demand for good governance has a long
    history. But seldom have the forms of governance
    been under
  • greater challenge.
  • ?? Dissatisfaction and disillusionment about
    political solutions are rife.

31
  • ?? Problem of modern governance is not so much an
    insufficiency of instruments relative to the
    changing on objectives, but rather the degree of
    incompatibility
  • between objectives .
  • ?? why governance, and not merely government?
  • ?? Governance is a broader and more fundamental
    concept than that of government alone.
  • ?? The concern is with the links between parts of
    the political system as with the institutions
    themselves.

32
  • ?? ?? It accepts that the management of the
    Nation's affairs might need more than government
    to ensure effectiveness it sees parties, courts
    and interest groups
  • not as problems that governments must overcome
    but as part of the broader process.
  • ?? Governance is the exercise of political power
    to manage a nation's affairs (the World bank,
    1992).

33
  • ?? The characteristics of 'good governance
  • 1) an efficient public service
  • 2) an independent judicial system and legal
    framework to enforce contracts
  • 3) the accountable administration of public
    funds
  • 4) an independent public auditor, responsible to
    a representative legislature
  • 5) respect for law and human rights at all levels
    of government
  • 6) a pluralistic institutional structure and
  • 7) a free press (rhodes 1997).

34
  • Good governance, emphesis
  • ?? The current public governance debate places a
    new emphasis on what matters is not what we do,
    but how people feel about what we do and that
    processes matter or put differently, the ends
    do not justify the means.

35
  • Personal ethics
  • ?? Often, personal ethics are an issue in
    decision making.
  • ?? The temptation to divert some of public funds
    or resources to personal use can be great and the
    risk of exposure often small.
  • ?? The main reason for the worldwide presence of
    public administrative corruption is that public
    administrators
  • have something to allocate that other people want.

36
  • Corruption and Public Administration
  • ?? The problem of corruption is endemic to
    politics and to government simply because its
    decisions involve so much power and wealth.
  • ?? It becomes commonplace at all levels of
    government--in the ways contracts are awarded,
    jobs are created and filled, people are hired,
    offices are sold, favored political allies are
    rewarded, power is exerted, and the needs or
    plight of others are ignored.

37
  • Corruption and Public Administration
  • ?? The demand for government's rewards frequently
    exceeds the supply, and routine decision-making
    processes are lengthy, costly, and uncertain in
    their outcome.
  • ?? For these reasons, legally sanctioned decision
    making processes constitute a "bottleneck
    between what people want and what they get.
  • ?? The temptation to get around the bottleneckto
    speed things up and make favorable decisions more
    probableis built into this relationship between
    government and society.
  • ?? To get around the bottleneck, one must use
    political influenceand corruption, which by
    definition cuts across established and legitimate
    processes, is a most effective form of influence.
  • (Michael johnston, 1982)?

38
Corruption and Public Administration
  • ?? Corruption, is a form of privileged indulgence
    by those in power. It concentrates power in the
    hands of a few who can make decisions based not
    on the good of the whole but on the interests of
    the few.
  • Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power
    corrupts absolutely.

39
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION IN A DEMOCRACY
40
(No Transcript)
41
  • New Role of Public Administration
  • ?? Above figure presents a conceptual framework
    that sees public administration taking the
    central role or stage in a broader political
    system.
  • ?? The model emphasizes the interrelated nature
    of the parts and how change in an external
    Environment (cultural, economic, political,
    social) causes change in the structures and
    internal processes of public administration.
  • ?? These changes, in turn, influence the outputs
    of the bureaucracy that is, what goods,
    services, policy programs, rules, and regulations
    are implemented by bureaucracy.

42
  • New Role of Public Administration
  • ?? As in any system, a feedback loop develops in
    which the outputs affect the environment, which
    causes further change and often new demands from
    the environment to continue, increase or
    decrease, modify, or occasionally even cease a
    public policy or program.

43
THE FUTURE OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION E-GOVERNMENT?
  • Reinventing government
  • ?? information is a central resource for all
    activities.
  • ?? In pursuing the democratic/political
    processes, in
  • Managing resources, executing functions,
    measuring performance and in service delivery,
    information
  • is the basic ingredient' (isaac-henry 1997)?

44
Reinventing government
  • ?? Information age reform means an increasing
    role for information systems In public sector
    change.
  • ?? Information technology (IT) can be defined as
    computing and telecommunication technologies that
  • Provide automatic means of handling information.
  • ?? Information systems (IS) can be defined as
    systems of human and technical components that
    accept, store, process, output and transmit
    information.

45
Information systemSupported Reform
  • 1. Information to support internal management.
  • This includes information about staff for
    personnel management, and Information about
    budgets and accounts for financial management.
  • 2. Information to support public administration
    and regulation. This
  • Includes information that records the details of
    the main 'entities' in any country People,
    business enterprises, buildings,
  • land, imports/exports, etc.,
  • 3. Information to support public services. This
    includes education (school records), health
    (patient records), transport (Passenger movement
    information) and Public utilities (customer
    billing
  • Information),

46
Information systemSupported Reform
  • 4. Information made publicly available
  • ?? Information government wishes to disseminate
    such as press releases, consultation papers,
    details of policies, laws, regulations, and
    details of benefits and entitlements
  • ?? Information government collects that it may
    make available such as demographic or economic
    statistics
  • ?? Information government is required to supply
    such as performance indicators, audited accounts,
    internal policy documents and correspondence, and
    responses to requests from citizens or
    journalists or politicians.
  • (See richard heeks, Reinventing Government in the
    Information age, International practice in
  • IT-enabled public sector reform, 1999).

47
  • Role of Information system
  • ?? The role of information technology is much
    wider that just public administration reform.
  • ?? E-government refers to the delivery of
    information and services online through the
    internet or other digital means.
  • ?? The e-government promises a new horizon in
    public administration as it will cut costs and
    improve efficiency meet citizen expectations
    improve citizen relationship
  • Enhance citizen participation in administrative
    processes increase effectiveness of public
    control and facilitate economic development

48
Conclusion
  • ?? Information is no longer walled in, no
    longer constrained by time and space.
  • Information is widely available to people
    regardless of status, position, wealth, location,
    race, ethnic or culture.
  • ?? Information technology gives a new impetus to
    democracy as it opens up and widens the way and
    means for popular participation in public
    decision making
  • processes.

49
Quote of the Day
  • Learn from yesterday, live for today, hope for
    tomorrow. The important thing is not to stop
    questioning.
  • Albert Einstein
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