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Cultural Diversity/Cultural Competency More Than We Can See


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Title: Cultural Diversity/Cultural Competency More Than We Can See

Cultural Diversity/Cultural CompetencyMore Than
We Can See
Each person is representative of a mixture of
cultures and experiences
SAMHSA, Office of Minority Health, and Health
Resources and Administration, Quality Health
Services for Hispanics The Cultural Competency
Component, 2001.
What is Cultural Competency
  • "Cultural Competency is the ability of
    individuals and systems to respond respectfully
    and effectively to people of all cultures,
    classes, races, ethnic backgrounds and religions
    in a manner that recognizes, affirms, and values
    the cultural differences and similarities and the
    worth of individuals, families, and communities
    and protects and preserves the dignity of each."

In other words
  • Treat all people with respect!

What is a culture?
  • Culture is a definition highly misunderstood and
    misused, thus the need for an explanation
    Culture refers to the following Ways of Life,
    including but not limited to
  • Language the oldest human institution and the
    most sophisticated medium of expression.  
  • Arts Sciences the most advanced and refined
    forms of human expression.  
  • Thought the ways in which people perceive,
    interpret, and understand the world around them.
  • Spirituality the value system transmitted
    through generations for the inner well-being of
    human beings, expressed through language and
  • Social activity the shared pursuits within a
    cultural community, demonstrated in a variety of
    festivities and life-celebrating events.  
  • Interaction the social aspects of human
    contact, including the give-and-take of
    socialization, negotiation, protocol, and
  • All of the above collectively define the meaning
    of Culture.

  • We need to examine our own cultural values and
    evaluate their interpersonal strengths and
  • We also need to recognize that differences in
    language, age, culture, socio economic status,
    political and religious beliefs, sexual
    orientation, and life experience add challenging
    dimensions to the dynamics of cross cultural

What OTHER types of cultures do we recognize on a
more subtle level?

  • Drugs
  • Alcohol
  • Single mother
  • Victim of Abuse
  • Persons with mental health challenges
  • People with little or no money
  • People with lots of money
  • Homeless
  • Jobless

  • Education
  • Social status
  • Job / lack of job
  • Religion
  • Possessions
  • Politics
  • Gender
  • Gender Preference
  • Music
  • Ageism

  • Have you ever been the subject of a negative
    reaction based only on your membership in a
  • How about a positive reaction for the same
  • Why do people have negative stereotypes about

Views Are Like Icebergs
  • Just as 90 of an iceberg is out of sight, very
    little can be determined about a person based on
    their appearance. Stereotypes are opinions based
    on their appearance.

Labels Help us to Identify
  • Knowing the contents of a can without looking
  • Labels and People
  • How are labels used to describe people?
  • How often does this occur?

What is Diversity?
  • Diversity refers to all the ways that individuals
    are unique and differ from one another.
  • Diversity cant be narrowly defined. Its simply
    embracing and celebrating the differences we all

  • Diversity Involves
  • Recognizing our unique differences
  • Attracting people of all backgrounds
  • Recognizing how attitudes affect us all
  • Creating an environment where all can succeed
  • Acting to promote diversity

Elements of Diversity
  • Age
  • Gender
  • Ethnicity
  • Race
  • Physical Ability
  • Sexual Orientation
  • Physical Characteristics
  • Income
  • Education
  • Marital Status
  • Religious Beliefs
  • Geographic Location
  • Parental Status
  • Personality Type

Dimensions of Diversity
  • Primary dimensions are aspects of ourselves that
    we cannot change. They are things people know
    about us before we even open our mouths, because
    they are physically visible (except sexual
    orientation). When people feel they are being
    stereotyped based on primary dimension, they can
    be very sensitive about it.
  • Secondary dimensions are elements we have some
    power to change. People are less sensitive about
    secondary dimensions. We also have the choice of
    whether to disclose this information or not we
    can conceal these characteristics.

Secondary Dimensions of Diversity
Work Background
Geographic Location
Sexual Orientation
Parental Status
Marital Status
Physical Qualities
Military Experience
Religious Beliefs
Loden and Rosener 1991
Primary Dimensions of Diversity
If we could shrink the earth's population to a
village of precisely 100 people, with all the
existing human ratios remaining the same, it
would look like this. There would be
  • 6 people would possess 59 of the entire world's
    wealth and all 6 would be from the United States
  • 80 would live in substandard housing
  • 14 would be unable to read
  • 33 would die of famine
  • 1 would be near death
  • 1 would be near birth
  • 7 would have a college education
  • 8 would own a computer
  • 11 would be homosexual
  • 61 Asians
  • 12 Europeans
  • 14 from the Western Hemisphere, both north and
  • 13 Africans
  • 50 would be female
  • 50 would be male
  • 74 would be nonwhite
  • 26 would be white
  • 67 would be non-Christian
  • 33 would be Christian
  • 89 would be heterosexual

  • Approaches to Diversity
  • The Golden Rule
  • 1960s, assimilation, stop treating people badly
  • Right the Wrongs
  • 1970s, affirmative action, created us versus
  • Value Differences
  • Year 2000 and beyond, diversity is an asset

  • Generalized attitude towards members of a group.

Generalized belief about members of a group.
Behaviors directed towards people on the basis
of their group membership.
SAMHSA, Office of Minority Health, and Health
Resources and Administration, Quality Health
Services for Hispanics The Cultural Competency
Component, 2001.
Labeling Stereotype, Prejudice, Discrimination
  • Categorizing can be dangerous. Labels can become
    too rigid and when there is no room for growth
    the label becomes stifling, both for the
    individuals who are labeled and for the category
  • This leads to Stereotypes, Prejudice,

SAMHSA, Office of Minority Health, and Health
Resources and Administration, Quality Health
Services for Hispanics The Cultural Competency
Component, 2001.
Primary CharacteristicsQualities We Are Born
  • ?? Gender
  • ?? Eye Color
  • ?? Hair Color
  • ?? Race
  • ?? Birth Defects

Secondary Characteristics
  • Religion
  • Educational Level
  • Parental Status
  • Geographic Location
  • Socioeconomic Status
  • Sexual Identity

Prejudice, Stereotype, Discrimination
  • Negative prejudices stem from
  • Social learning
  • Threats
  • Is being prejudiced against one group the same as
    being prejudiced against another group?
  • E.g., Do people who have prejudices against women
    and homosexuals have those prejudices for the
    same reason?

SAMHSA, Office of Minority Health, and Health
Resources and Administration, Quality Health
Services for Hispanics The Cultural Competency
Component, 2001.
Prejudice, Stereotype, Discrimination
  • Prejudice is learned.
  • If we become prejudiced against groups because
    they threaten us, perhaps groups that trigger
    certain threats will also trigger certain
    prejudices and certain reactions.

Reducing Prejudice, Stereotypes, Discrimination
What can we do to reduce the existence or
expression of prejudice, stereotyping, and
Self-Fulfilling Prophecies
  • A false belief that leads to its own fulfillment
  • Perceiver develops false belief about a target
  • Perceiver treats target in a manner consistent
    with false belief
  • Target responds to the treatment in such a way as
    to confirm the originally false belief

Two Types of Self Fulfilling Prophecies (SFPs)
  • Positive SFPs
  • Perceiver overestimates targets ability
  • Perceiver treats target consistent with that
    overly positive belief
  • Target responds by confirming the overly positive

  • Negative SFPs
  • Perceiver underestimates targets ability
  • Perceiver treats target consistent with that
    overly negative belief
  • Target responds by confirming the overly negative

Danger of First Impressions
  • We make decisions about people every day
  • Our first impressions can
  • Influence our working relationships
  • Be affected by stereotypes of which we are not

  • How are our first impressions
  • of others formed?

Forming Perceptions
  • Through our life, experiences teach us about our
    place in a group or society
  • We tend to be
  • Be raised in groups just like us
  • Gravitate to similar people
  • Be uncomfortable with differences

Forming Perceptions (cont)
  • We mistakenly believe that
  • All people like us on the surface are similar in
    all other ways
  • All people who are unlike us on surface are
    different in all other ways
  • We view others through lens of group stereotype

  • Why do we need to understand how perceptions are
  • If people respond well to you and appreciate your
    work, how do you feel?
  • When others avoid you because of negative
    perceptions, how do you feel?

Exclusion Brings
  • Less interest in performing to full capacity
  • Cultural life and traditions seem distinct
  • Over sensitivity

Being Accepted Stimulates
  • Positive feelings
  • A more productive and enjoyable workplace

  • So how do we get there?
  • How do we appreciate others then communicate
    that acceptance?

Keys to Working Well w/ Others
  • Communicating openly
  • Listening
  • Establishing respect and understanding
  • Discussing issues as they arise

How can we respond to differences in the
  • Positively Ill embrace this challenge!
  • Negatively Ill resist this. (No one can force
  • Indifferently Whatever! No skin off my nose
    either way I treat everyone the same.
  • Proactively I need to learn about this before I
    encounter it firsthand.
  • Reactively Uh oh! What should I do?

Anne Frank We all live with the objective of
being happy our lives are all different and yet
the same.
In the workplace, we recognize co-workers/clients
unique differences while recognizing what they
have in common the human condition this
objective of being happy.
Cultural Competencerequires that educators
  • have a defined set of values and principles, and
    demonstrate behaviors, attitudes, policies and
    structures that enable them to teach effectively
  • have the capacity to (1) value diversity, (2)
    conduct self-assessment, (3) manage the dynamics
    of difference, (4) acquire and institutionalize
    cultural knowledge and (5) adapt to diversity and
    the cultural contexts of the communities they
  • incorporate the above in all aspects of policy
    making, administration, practice, service
    delivery and involve systematically consumers,
    key stakeholders and communities.
  • National Center for Cultural Competence

From One End to the Other
  • Poverty (Students do not have basic school
    supplies, may experience malnutrition, have
    limited to no travel experiences)
  • Disability (Physical or academic challenges and
    limitations will be a factor in the classroom.)
  • Abuse Neglect (Negative personal experiences
    can have negative effects on learning.)
  • English as a Second Language (Immigrant and
    refugee children face challenges beyond language
  • Facing Prejudice (Whatever the differences they
    may be negatively perceived by others.)
  • Affluence (Students travel, own books, computers,
    supplies, their own study area, etc.)
  • Ability (Gifted and high ability students require
    additional challenge just as athletically gifted
    students seek outlets for their talents.)
  • Nurturing Home Life (Students are encouraged,
    praised, read to, etc. in their homes.)
  • Multicultural (Students who have had positive,
    cultural experiences have greater insight and
  • Fostering Acceptance (Teachers must move beyond
    tolerance to acceptance in modeling

talent comes in all shapes and sizes
and it also comes in all different containers!
Not only cant we judge a book by
its cover, we must recognize that some books have
had their covers torn off, some are written in a
foreign language, and some might contain ideas
with which we dont agree. Recognize,
accommodate, and value ALL of your
co-workers/clients for what they represent and
what they have to offer. Be positive and
proactive in this endeavor.
Diffusion of Responsibility
  • I used to ask myself, Why doesnt somebody do
    something?! Then I realized I am somebody.
  • -- Jane Wagner

SAMHSA, Office of Minority Health, and Health
Resources and Administration, Quality Health
Services for Hispanics The Cultural Competency
Component, 2001.
Collusion Defined
  • Collusion is cooperation with others, knowingly
    or unknowingly, to reinforce stereotypical
    attitudes, prevailing behaviors, and norms
  • Types of collusion include
  • Silence
  • Denial
  • Active Participation

Paradigms establish the rules and boundaries for
the way we see things.
SAMHSA, Office of Minority Health, and Health
Resources and Administration, Quality Health
Services for Hispanics The Cultural Competency
Component, 2001.
  • The next time you are in a situation with some
    member of an out-group, take 2 minutes to
  • Take their perspective.
  • See if you can image how they see the situation
    differently from you and what aspects they might
    be concentrating on.

  • The ability to be open to learning about and
    accepting of different cultural groups.
  • If we are aware of our biases, we can correct
    themas when driving a car that drifts to the
    right, we steer left to go where we intend."
  • -- Mahzarin Banaji

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services,
OPHS National Standards for Culturally and
Linguistically Appropriate Services in Health
Care, March 2001
  • By 2050,
  • the U.S. population is expected to increase by
    50 and
  • minority groups will make up nearly half of the
  • The population of older Americans is expected to
    more than double.
  • One-quarter of all Americans will be of Hispanic
  • More women and people with disabilities will be
    on the job.
  • U.S.
    Department of Labor, Futurework Trends and
  • for Work in the 21st
    Century. Washington, D.D. (Labor Day 1999).

Treat others as they want to be treated
Individuals Path to Cultural Competency
  • Learning is like a journey, in that, it is a path
    that we follow.
  • A model developed by David Hoopes, gives us a
    model to cultural competency.
  • His outline illustrates the development of
    cultural competency in every one of us.
  • Competency implies having the capacity to
    function effectively.
  • It will be interesting to see where, we as
    individual, fit into this continuum.

Hoopes, David. 1979. Intercultural Communication
Concepts and the Psychology of Intercultural
Experience, in Margaret Pusch, ed. Multicultural
Education A Cross-Cultural Training Approach.
Yarmouth, ME Intercultural Press
Selective Adoption
Hoopes, David. 1979. Intercultural Communication
Concepts and the Psychology of Intercultural
Experience, in Margaret Pusch, ed. Multicultural
Education A Cross-Cultural Training Approach.
Yarmouth, ME Intercultural Press
Individuals Path to Cultural Competency Ethnocent
ricity This is a state of relying on our own,
and only our own, paradigms based on our cultural
heritage. We view the world through narrow
filters, and we will only accept information that
fits our paradigms. We resist and/or discard
others. Awareness This is the point at which we
begin to realize that there are things that exist
which fall outside the realm of our cultural
paradigms. Understanding- This is the point at
which we are not only aware that there are things
that fall outside our cultural paradigms, but we
see the reason for their existence.
Hoopes, David. 1979. Intercultural Communication
Concepts and the Psychology of Intercultural
Experience, in Margaret Pusch, ed. Multicultural
Education A Cross-Cultural Training Approach.
Yarmouth, ME Intercultural Press
Individuals Path to Cultural Competency Acceptanc
e/Respect - This is when we begin allowing those
from other cultures to just be who they are, and
that it is OKAY for things to not always fit into
our paradigms. Appreciation/Value- This is the
point where we begin seeing the worth in the
things that fall outside our own cultural
paradigms. Selective Adoption - This is the point
at which, we begin using things that were
initially outside our own cultural
paradigms. Multiculturation- This is when we have
begun integrating our lives with our experiences
from a variety of cultural experiences.
Hoopes, David. 1979. Intercultural Communication
Concepts and the Psychology of Intercultural
Experience, in Margaret Pusch, ed. Multicultural
Education A Cross-Cultural Training Approach.
Yarmouth, ME Intercultural Press
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Civilizations should be measured by "the degree
of diversity attained and the degree of unity
retained." W.H. Auden, English poet
Having respect for cultural differences, learning
basic characteristics of other cultures, can help
you avoid misunderstandings and offending others
unintentionally. Many U.S. citizens still retain
identification with their own ethnic group and,
consequently, may have different needs and values
from the dominant group. For instance,
researchers have noted that minority groups have
different cultural values and biases concerning
career and family
Communication is an area that can be especially
challenging for those uninformed about cultural
differences. A simple nod of the head or smile
may be interpreted as something you had not
intended. For example, around the world a smile
can relay many emotions, not just happiness or
pleasure as in the U.S. In Japan, people
smile when they are sad, angry, confused, and
happy. Asians smile to show disagreement, anger,
confusion, and frustration. Some people from
Japan and Asia will not smile for official
photos, such as passport photos, because these
are considered serious occasions and they do not
want to look as if they are not taking the
situation lightly.
  • Eye contact varies around the world as well. If
    a client will not look you in the eye when
    speaking, do not take it as an insult.
  • Some people from Asia, Haiti, and some Latin
    American cultures avoid eye contact as a sign of

  • Talk slowly and clearly. It may sound
    simplistic, but dont shout at people if they
    dont understand why you are saying. Restate the
    statement in a different way or repeat it more
  • When speaking, avoid using slang and common
    idioms. Idioms, such as in the long run, no
    kidding, or barking up the wrong tree, can
    cause confusions for non-native English speakers.

  • Many cultures have difficulty saying no to a
    request, and some may say yes when the answer
    is really no. Carefully phrase questions so
    that they can be answered positively. For
    example, What can I do to help you achieve your
  • Of course, clients should be referred to
    services/providers that speak their language if
    possible. Even though some clients may have
    enough skills to speak English, they may be more
    comfortable communicating emotions and personal
    details of their life in their native language.

Names Titles
  • People in the U.S. generally call each other by
    their first names, but this is not true of all
  • Ask people how they would like to be addressed.
    Make sure to call them by the name they give you,
    not the U.S. equivalent or nickname, unless they
    prefer it.
  • If you have difficulty saying their name, ask for
    the correct pronunciation.

  • Generalization research about a particular
    culture is only one aspect of really
    understanding your client.
  • It comes down to developing that one-on-one
    relationship with all your clients so you are NOT
    generalizing or stereotyping.
  • Understanding the person sitting next to you
    means first understanding how they got there.
  • When they talk about their experiences, they feel
    they are building a relationship, and there is a
    trust that builds.
  • Many minority groups (ethnic, gender, age, etc.)
    may feel they are less likely to receive services
    because of prejudice against them. They may be
    reluctant to seek help because they dont believe
    anyone will help them.

  • Clients who belong to a racial or ethnic minority
    may have partners who use their common
    experiences with prejudice and understandable
    fear of prejudice to discourage seeking services.
  • They may suggest that they are selling out to
    the white man by seeking help outside their own
  • Additionally, the client may be concerned about
    encountering prejudice from staff, volunteers,
    other clients, and the judicial system.

  • Many times we tend to promote a
    one-size-fits-all solution based on our
    perceptions and do not account for all of the
    important intersection of race, culture, etc.
    One person is not indicative of a whole race, age
    group, gender, religion, etc.
  • Keep in mind that there are sub-cultures within a
    culture. Is the person you are speaking to
    coming from a life of poverty? Middle class?
    Wealth? Are they religious? Non-Religious? Etc.
    All of these factors make a difference in how you
    communicate with that person.

  • Also, OUR PERSONAL EXPERIENCES and information
    from our families, friends, and culture tend to
    form our perceptions of another culture, when we
    really do not have all the information.

Cultural Generalizations
  • very general
  • Again, keep in mind everyone is a unique

Persons of Color
  • Persons of color comprise highly varied
    populations and make diverse choices in coping,
    functioning and empowering themselves.
  • They are highly diverse with regard to economic
    status, family structure, occupations, and
  • In addition, differences exist within the same
    ethnic and racial group.

  • An acculturated person of color is one who has
    chosen to assimilate into while society and has
    rejected the general attitudes, behavior,
    customs, and rituals of their culture of origin.
  • A bicultural person of color has pride in his/her
    racial and cultural identity and yet is
    comfortable operating in the white world.
  • A culturally immersed person of color has openly
    rejected white values, embracing the identity and
    traditions of his/her cultural group.
  • A person of color with a traditional
    interpersonal style usually has limited contact
    outside their community of color, may be older or
    newly immigrated, and speaks only the language of
    his/her traditional culture.

  • Depending on a persons place in the
    acculturation process, the challenges to helping
    him/her address their problems vary.
  • While there is a great diversity among people of
    color, they all face one common barrierthe
    racism in our culture.

Racism and White Privilege Alive and well
  • In a poll taken in 2007, only 6 of white
    Americans believed that racism is still a
    significant problem in this country.
  • In a poll a few years earlier 12 of white
    Americans believed that is was possible that
    Elvis was still alive.

African American
  • More matriarchal family oldest women is the
    leader however man is head of household
    (Immediate family)
  • Extended families (not necessarily blood
  • Take care of their own problems
  • Mistrust of white system/conflicted loyalty
  • Religion important (especially the women)
  • If man cant provide for family (drugs, etc) he
    is out of the house however if he reforms, he
    can come back
  • Many homes are in womens name only
  • Women handle disciplining of children
  • Women handle money (buy his clothes, shop, bills)

  • Women do not answer the door (mens friends not
    allowed in house unless husband is home)
  • Men do not open the mail
  • Touching and hugging common
  • Sundays family meals
  • No disrespecting mothers
  • Will go to great lengths to take in children,
    parents, and other relatives so they dont have
    to access services (nursing homes, counseling,
    foster care, etc.) Rather do without than access
  • Some cultures (i.e. Haitian, eye contact sign of
  • More accepting of individuality in children (gay,
  • Women taught that they must learn to support
    themselves in case husband leaves

  • Patriarchal family system
  • Extended families (usually blood relative)
  • Religion high priority
  • Counseling more common with religious leaders
  • Eye contact sign of disrespect
  • No support from family for accessing services
    outside culture
  • Distrust of white system
  • More comfortable speaking in their own language
    when they are discussing feelings and emotions
  • Sense of pride is paramount (men must provide for

  • Women are more passive (can work, but preferred
  • Keep race pure
  • Sons education more important than daughters
  • Men responsible for discipline of children
  • Mothers are sacred (especially for sons)
  • Celebrations, holidays, groups activities within
    culture, highly important
  • Dinner is family event
  • Use of formal and informal language and
    addressing people depending on relationship.other
    s using familiar tense of language disrespectful
  • No familiar touching, expect with very close
    friends or family.even within familyno touch of
    face.sign of disrespect

  • Extended family (usually blood relative)
  • Familys goals more important than goals of the
  • Unequal status between men and women
  • Contacting outside sources for help may bring
    shame to family
  • Direct eye contact disrespectful
  • May smile when angered, confused, sad, etc. will
    appear to be calm
  • Emotional control highly important
  • Assuming responsibility for problems considered
  • Socialized NOT to question authority

Native American (living on res)
  • Mistrust of white system
  • Use Medicine Man and follow traditional customs
    (charms, etc.)
  • Little family support for those adults with
  • Clans still exist
  • Depending on subsidization, may not work
  • Traditions and celebrations highly prized
  • If traditional, do not understand counseling for
    specific problem because we are one with nature
    and the problem is just part of the process for

  • Haiti is 1st black independent country
  • Poorest country in western hemisphere
  • Group work (konbit)
  • French/Kreyol many will identify with French
    language (elite in Haiti)
  • As a result children may underperform because of
    a linguistic mismatch are misdiagnosed with
    having a disability. In Haiti, most households
    consist of multiple generations.
  • May identify as transnational (living a life that
    bridges both countries).

  • 80 Catholic / 20 Protestant (Voodoo)
  • Patriarchal
  • Men are breadwinners
  • Men do not get involved with childcare
  • Feel education is job of school
  • May live with many women / maintain more than one
  • Children w/disability

  • Close knit group
  • Mistrust of systems created for heterosexual
  • Must work/interact with homophobic society
  • Disclosing problems help foster myths about
    gay/lesbian culture
  • Hypersensitivity to treatment in media/society
  • Secretive due to career, family, denial
  • Society accepts overt hostility and homophobia as
  • The higher education/status.more accepted in
    heterosexual society, more expected from
    gay/lesbian community
  • Can be uncomfortable in discussions about
    personal life
  • Lesbian Utopia
  • Homosexuality (myth/perceptionall about sex)
  • Problems/challenges can affect the way my family
    is perceived

  • Internalized gender roles
  • Dont air dirty laundry
  • Behaviors in the 40s/50s perceived as normal
    are now stigmatized
  • More money/less likely to seek services
  • Seen and treated by a large part of society like
    children or non-persons
  • Internalized abuse as normal relationship
  • May be more conservative with money
  • Not open to services .. stigmatized
  • May have lack of self-esteem due to health
    related/dependency issues
  • May be isolated

  • Not believed because of age
  • Dismissed problems not important
  • Lack of understanding of youth stressors
  • Almost every activity that is for young people is
    decided upon, developed, assessed and redeveloped
    without young people.

(No Transcript)
  • Discrimination against Young People in Language
  • Act your age.
  • Children should be seen and not heard.
  • What do you know, youre just a kid!
  • Do as I say, not as I do.
  • Youll understand it someday, just you wait.
  • Discrimination against Young People in School
    Students are forced by law to attend schools that
    may not be effective
  • Classroom learning relies on adults as
    sole-holders of knowledge
  • Decisions about students, including learning
    topics, activities, punishments, budgeting and
    teaching methods are routinely made without
  • Adults routinely grade students without giving
    equal weight to students perspectives on their
    own academic achievement
  • Double-standards in treatment, including when the
    belief that when teachers yell at students, they
    are controlling classrooms when students yell at
    teachers, they are creating unsafe learning

  • Discrimination against Young People in
    Communities People under 18-years-old are virtual
    non-citizens without the right to vote or any
    tangible political representation and minimal
  • Community problem-solving that routinely neglects
    youth members
  • Local laws that target youth, including
    anti-cruising and anti-graffiti laws
  • Media bias against youth that alternatively
    portrays youth as apathetic super-predators who
    are obese, stuck on computers, gang members.

Mental Health
  • Mental health issues can be a symptom of abuse
    and/or impede the individuals ability to
    understand or reach out for help.
  • An individual with mental health issues may also
    be using medication and/or substances that may
    make understanding their situation or our efforts
    to help difficult.
  • Individuals with mental health issues may not
    report this because of our societys stigma, fear
    and lack of education on mental illness.

Substance Abuse/Addiction
  • Addiction is recognized by the American Medical
    Association as a disease.
  • Addicted/substance abusing individuals may be
    reluctant to seek help due to our societys
    stigma about addiction and past experiences in
    trying to receive services.
  • Individuals with drug/alcohol issues may be using
    for a variety of reasons.
  • Addiction
  • Coping strategies for pain, fear, etc.
  • Problem solving tool in their culture of origin

  • These are some very basic cultural generalities.
  • They are not indicative of the entire culture, or
    of specific individuals living within that
  • In other words, regardless of what culture we
    come from, we are all still individuals with our
    own beliefs and actions that may support or split
    away from what our general culture believes and
    their behavioral norms.

  • The most appropriate way to begin with any client
    is to have some understating of their particular
    culture, then ask How can I help you achieve
    your goals.
  • Establishing rapport with each individual client
    is different based on not only the cultural
    rules, but also asking the client about
    themselves as individuals within that culture.

Ask permission
  • Show interest in the clients culture when
    establishing rapport.
  • Ask if it is appropriate to ask questions
  • Ask how they would like to be addressed (Ms.,
    Miss, Mr., etc.)
  • When questioning about domestic violence, explain
    WHAT confidentiality means.

Culturally competent service providers
  • Are aware of how their own cultural backgrounds,
    experiences, attitudes, values and biases
    influence psychological processes.
  • Have a clear and explicit knowledge and
    understanding of general characteristics of
    cultures they work with.
  • Respect clients religious and/or spiritual
    beliefs, and values, because they affect how they
    see the WORLD, psychosocial functioning and
    expressions of distress.

Cultural Diversity, More Than We Can See
  • I acknowledge receiving from Abuse Counseling and
    Treatment, Inc. Cultural Diversity, More Than
    We Can See, and I have read and understand the
    information set forth in the PowerPoint
  • I understand it is my responsibility to bring
    questions to the Chief Executive Officer,
    supervisor or Community Education Coordinator if
    I do not understand or need clarification of any
    of this information.
  • By signing this, I am verifying I have received
    and understand the Cultural Diversity, More Than
    We Can See. I will receive a Certificate of
    Training for 2 hours.
  • Employees Signature ____________________________
  • Employee printed name __________________________
  • Date __________________
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