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Entertainment The main motivation Study of media entertainment Only in the last 15 years or so has entertainment as a media experience received much academic ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Entertainment

  • The main motivation

Study of media entertainment
  • Only in the last 15 years or so has entertainment
    as a media experience received much academic
  • Zillmanns work in the 1990s and 2000s is the
    main source of knowledge

What is entertainment?
  • The general idea is that entertainment relates to
    intrinsic satisfaction of media exposure
  • Enjoyment of some sort
  • May be affective (liking)
  • May be cognitive (gain pleasure from learning,
    fantasizing, etc.)

  • The main idea here is that some form of positive
    feeling is generated by exposure to media content
  • Even in the case of negative content, release
    from the negative feelings through a happy ending
    is considered a source of enjoyment

What is enjoyable?
  • Transportation into narrative worlds
  • (Green, Brock Kaufman)
  • Loss of attention to the here and now concurrent
    with an increase in the feeling that one is in
    another place and time
  • Transportation is a desired state
  • Disappointment when audience member just
    couldnt get into it
  • Anger when someone is talking during the movie

  • People are drawn to scary worlds and situations
    and not just happy ones
  • Stories enable recipients to identify and mingle
    with risk takersto live life even more fully.
    Just as more story heroes survive risks, the
    story recipient can see herself as similarly
    invulnerable. Even if the story protagonists are
    doomed, the audience member is safe.
  • Sensation seeking?

  • Transportation may have advantages as it allows
    the audience member to think about past selves or
    to construct possible futures.
  • It also may reflect the need to understand others

  • Transportation allows people to leave their
    real-world worries behind
  • Especially valuable to those who focus on their
    own shortcomings or discrepancies from an ideal
  • Study showed that those who had just received
    feedback saying they had failed watched more

  • Transportation allows people to expand their
  • Creates an openness to new information
  • Identity play
  • Vicarious experience without associated risk
  • Learning

  • Enjoyment through connections with characters
  • Transportation into a narrative world may be a
    prerequisite for identification with fictional
    characters. Central to the process of
    identification is the adoption of a characters
    thoughts, goals emotions, and behaviors, and such
    vicarious experience requires the reader or
    viewer to leave his or her physical, social, and
    psychological reality behind in favor of the
    world of the narrative and its inhabitants.
  • Parasocial interaction (illusion of intimacy)
  • Disposition theory (just world)
  • Mood management (discussed before)

Influences on enjoyment
  • Craftsmanship
  • Detail
  • Situational influences
  • Distraction
  • Experimentally instructing viewers to focus on
    surface detail of a narrative
  • Fact v. fiction
  • Ambiguous findingsmay be that narrative
    plausibility is the most important
  • Interactivity
  • May enhance flow

Emotional stimulation
  • Emotion management
  • Emotional stimulation or relaxation can be
    actively regulated by varying the strength and
    target of dispositional alignments based on the
    distance between characters and the self
    (Zillmann, 1994). In this perspective, pleasure
    and pain, as well as arousal and relaxation, are
    neither mutually exclusive nor polar opposites.
    Instead, enjoyment is seen as relief from
    overstimulation (through relaxation) or
    understimulation (through arousal).

  • Csikszentmihalyis study of artists and the
    intense pleasure of their immersion in their
    tasks led to the concept of flow and its
    application in media contexts.

  • Flow is a self-motivating experience
    characterized by
  • Intense and focused concentration on what one is
    doing in the present moment,
  • Merging of action and awareness,
  • Loss of reflective self-consciousness (i.e., loss
    of awareness of oneself as a social actor),
  • A sense that one can control ones actions that
    is a sense that one can, in principle, deal with
    the situation because one knows how to respond to
    whatever happens next,

  • Distortion of temporal experience (typically, a
    sense that time has passed faster than normal),
  • Experience of the activity as intrinsically
    rewarding, such that often the end goal is just
    an excuse for the process.
  • (Nakamura Csikszentmihalyi, 2002, p. 90 quoted
    in Sherry, 2004)

  • Anxiety Flow

Difficulty of the medium
Skill in medium use
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