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Unit 7 (Chapter 17) The Urinary System


Unit 7 (Chapter 17) The Urinary System Presented by Dawn Duran, PT, MHS, CSCS Adjunct Professor, Kaplan University Welcome to the Seminar! Kidneys For the formation ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit 7 (Chapter 17) The Urinary System

Unit 7 (Chapter 17)The Urinary System
  • Presented by Dawn Duran, PT, MHS, CSCS
  • Adjunct Professor, Kaplan University

Welcome to the Seminar!
  • For the formation of urine, it is essential that
    the kidney has a high rate of blood flow

Functions of the kidneys include
  • Stimulating the production of red blood cells
  • Maintaining blood pressure
  • Regulating water balance
  • Regulating electrolytes
  • Excretes toxins and nitrogenous wastes

  • Internal structure
  • Renal cortex - outer part of the kidney
  • Renal medulla - inner portion of kidney
  • Renal pyramids - triangular divisions of medulla
  • Renal papilla - narrow, innermost end of pyramid
  • Renal pelvis - the basin-like structure that the
    urine flows into as it leaves the kidney
  • Renal calycesdivisions of renal pelvis

  • Renal Microscopic structure
  • Nephrons are the structural and functional units
    of the kidney.
  • The major components of the nephron are the renal
    corpuscle and renal tubule.
  • There are approximately 1-2 million nephrons in
    each kidney.
  • Cortical nephrons make up 85 of total
  • Juxtamedullary nephrons play a specialized role
    in concentrating urine

  • Renal corpuscle
  • Bowmans capsule is the cup-shaped top
  • Glomerulus is a tuft or network of blood
    capillaries surrounded by Bowmans capsule
  • An efferent tubule drains blood from the
    glomerulus while an afferent tubule carries blood
    to the glomerulus
  • The primary function of the glomerulus is
    filtration. Filtration occurs in the glomerulus.

  • Renal tubule
  • Proximal convoluted tubulefirst segment
  • Primary function is reabsorption
  • Loop of Henleextension of proximal tubule
    consists of descending limb, loop, and ascending
  • Distal convoluted tubuleextension of ascending
    limb of loop of Henle
  • Collecting tubulestraight extension of distal

Fun Facts
  • Approximately 99 of water that leaves the blood
    each day is returned to the blood.
  • A person can live with only one kidney

Formation of Urine
  • Occurs by a series of three processes that take
    place in successive parts of nephron filtration,
    absorption and secretion
  • The formation of urine begins with filtration
  • Filtration is a continuous process in renal
  • glomerular blood pressure causes water and
    dissolved substances to filter out of glomeruli
    into Bowmans capsule
  • normal glomerular filtration rate 125 ml per
  • In other words, filtration occurs in the
  • An increase in systemic blood pressure causes
    filtration through the glomerular-capsular
    membrane to increase.

Formation of Urine
  • Reabsorption is the movement of substances out of
    renal tubules into blood in peritubular
  • water, nutrients, and ions are reabsorbed
  • water is reabsorbed by osmosis from proximal
  • Secretion is the movement of substances into
    urine in the distal and collecting tubules from
    blood in peritubular capillaries
  • hydrogen ions, potassium ions, and certain drugs
    are secreted by active transport
  • ammonia is secreted by diffusion

Formation of Urine
  • Urine volume excretion is regulated by hormones
    aldosterone, ADH, atrial natriuretic hormone
  • Urinalysis is an examination of the physical,
    chemical, and microscopic characteristics of
    urine may help determine the presence and nature
    of a pathological condition
  • Normal adult urine output is approximately
    1500-1600 mL/day
  • The color of normal urine is transparent
    yellow, amber or straw colored
  • Nitrogenous wastes, creatinine and urea are
    normally found in urine
  • Ketones, including acetone, are not
  • An acetone odor to the urine is indicative of
    diabetes mellitus

  • Aldosterone causes the retention of salt and
  • This is a salt and water retaining hormone
    secreted by the adrenal cortex.
  • Secretion of aldosterone causes sodium to be
    reabsorbed. This increases blood volume.
  • Secretion of aldosterone causes water to be
  • ADH (Antidiuretic hormone) causes the retention
    of water and decreased urine production.
  • ANH (atrial natriuretic hormone) causes salt and
    water loss.

  • Ureters are narrow long tubes with an expanded
    upper end (renal pelvis) located inside kidney
    and lined with mucous membrane and muscular layer
  • Functiondrain urine from renal pelvis to urinary

Urinary Bladder
  • Structure
  • Elastic muscular organ, capable of great
  • When the bladder is empty, the inner lining is
    wrinkled and lies in folds called rugae
  • Functions
  • Storage of urine before voiding
  • Assist with micturition
  • Voiding

Urinary Bladder
  • The openings of the ureters and the urethra in
    the urinar bladder is a triangular region called
    the trigone
  • The uterus is locaed posterior and superior to
    the urinary bladder

  • Structure
  • Narrow tube from urinary bladder to exterior
  • Lined with mucous membrane
  • Opening of urethra to the exterior called urinary
  • In males, the urethra passes through the prostate
  • The urethra is longer in men than it is in women
  • Functions
  • Passage of urine from bladder to exterior of the
    body in both men and women
  • Passage of male reproductive fluid (semen) from
    the body
  • Therefore, in women the urethra is only a
    component of the urinary tract whereas in men it
    is part of both the urinary and reproductive

  • Passage of urine from body (also called urination
    or voiding)
  • Regulatory sphincters
  • Internal urethral sphincter (involuntary)
  • External urethral sphincter (voluntary)
  • Bladder wall permits storage of urine with little
    increase in pressure

  • The sacral spinal cord is involved with the
    regulation of micturition
  • Emptying reflex
  • Initiated by stretch reflex in bladder wall
  • Bladder wall contracts
  • Internal sphincter relaxes
  • External sphincter relaxes, and urination
  • Enuresisinvoluntary urination in young child

  • Urinary retentionurine produced but not voided
  • Incontinence is when urine is voided
  • May be caused by spinal injury or stroke
  • Neurogenic bladderparalysis or abnormal function
    of the bladder, preventing normal flow of urine
    out of the body
  • Types include urge, stress, and reflex

  • Anuria is the absence of urine
  • Oliguria is a scanty amount of urine
  • Proteinuria means protein in the urine
  • A common temporary condition that occurs after
    exercise in many individuals
  • Glycosuria means glucose in the urine
  • Glucose is not normally found in urine
  • If urinalysis detects glycosuria then diabetes
    mellitus might be present

  • Diuretics are drugs that stimulate the production
    of urine

Renal Urinary Disorders
  • Obstructive disorders interfere with normal urine
    flow, possibly causing urine to back up and cause
    kidney damage
  • Renal calculi (kidney stones) may block ureters,
    causing intense pain called renal colic
  • Lithotripsy is a process where kidney stones are
    broken up by ultrasound waves
  • Kidney stones are NOT a type of cancer.
  • Tumorsrenal cell carcinoma (kidney cancer) and
    bladder cancer are often characterized by
    hematuria (blood in the urine)

Renal Urinary Disorders
  • Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are often caused
    by gram-negative bacteria
  • Urethritisinflammation of the urethra
  • Cystitisinflammation or infection of the urinary
  • Pyelonephritisinflammation of the renal pelvis
    and connective tissues of the kidney may be
    acute (infectious) or chronic (autoimmune)

Renal Urinary Disorders
  • Glomerular disorders result from damage to the
    glomerularcapsular membrane of the renal
  • Nephrotic syndrome accompanies many glomerular
  • Proteinuriaprotein in the urine
  • Hypoalbuminemialow plasma protein (albumin)
    level caused by loss of proteins to urine
  • Uremia - a condition where dangerous levels of
    toxins build up in the blood

Renal Urinary Disorders
  • Kidney failure or renal failure occurs when the
    kidney fails to function
  • Acute renal failureabrupt reduction in kidney
    function that is usually reversible

Renal Urinary Disorders
  • Chronic renal failureslow, progressive loss of
    nephrons caused by a variety of underlying
  • Early in this disorder, healthy nephrons often
    compensate for the loss of damaged nephrons
  • Loss of kidney function ultimately results in
    uremia (reflected by high BUN levels) and its
    life-threatening consequences
  • Complete kidney failure results in death unless a
    new kidney is transplanted or an artificial
    kidney substitute is used

Questions? Ask Me OR your classmates!
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