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New System: Respiratory system. Part of the respiration/excretion unit

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Title: New System: Respiratory system. Part of the respiration/excretion unit


1
  • New System Respiratory system. Part of the
    respiration/excretion unit
  • Gas exchange and monitoring the air we breath
  • Parts of the system
  • Mechanics of breathing
  • Chapter questions p287

2
K01
Respiration
Gas Exchange
3
K01 Gas Exchange
Mammals take in gases and expel them with the use
of lungs. Oxygen is diffused into the
bloodstream in the lungs and carbon dioxide is
removed from the blood.
4
Did You Know??
  • What gases is air made of? What of each?
  • What is your breathing rate?
  • What a hiccup is?

5
K02
Respiration
Filter, Humidify, Temperature
6
K02 Filter, Humidify, Temperature .your nasal
cavity
- hairs and mucous to trap dust filter the air
we breath.
-mucous also moistens the air so it doesnt dry
out our lungs.
-capillaries run close to the surface of the
nasal cavity to warm the air as it enters the
respiratory tract
.
7
K03/S0A
Respiration
Parts of the System
8
S0A Anatomy and Physiology
Bronchiole
Nasal Cavity
Oral Cavity
Pulmonary Artery
Pharynx
Tongue
Epiglottis
Larynx
Trachea
Lung
Bronchi
Alveoli
Ribcage
Diaphragm
Capillaries
9
Air pathway
  • Nose or mouth to ?
  • Pharynx to ? (when it passes the epiglottis)
  • Trachea to?
  • Left or right bronchi ? leads to where IN lungs
  • Bronchioles within lungs to ?
  • Alveoli (grape like clusters) surrounded by
    capillaries so lots of gas exchange here!!

10
K03 Anatomy and Physiology
  • Air enters the body through either the nose or
    the mouth. These two passages meet at the
    pharynx.
  • The air then passes down the trachea.

The epiglottis at the top of the trachea prevents
food from entering the lungs.
The trachea splits into two bronchi which lead to
each lung. The bronchi then split into smaller
and smaller bronchioles.
The bronchioles end at alveoli which are
surrounded by capillaries. Gas exchange occurs
here.
11
K03 Anatomy and Physiology
View when air then passes down the trachea.
View from back!
12
K03 Anatomy and Physiology
ViewThe epiglottis at the top of the trachea
prevents food from entering the lungs.
13
K03 Anatomy and Physiology
View The trachea splits into two bronchi which
lead to each lung. The bronchi then split into
smaller and smaller bronchioles.
14
K03 Anatomy and Physiology
View The bronchioles end at alveoli which are
surrounded by capillaries. Gas exchange occurs
here.
15
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16
How many alveoli? 300- 500 million alveoli/
lung!!
How much SA in our lungs??... why? Together,
the lungs contain approximately 2400 km (1500 mi)
of airways Total surface area of about 70 m2
(8,4 x 8,4 m) in adults  roughly the same area
as one side of a tennis court. Furthermore, if
all of the capillaries that surround the alveoli
were unwound and laid end to end, they would
extend for about 992 km (620 mi).!!!
17
K04
Respiration
Mechanics of Breathing
18
K04 Mechanics of Breathing
ACTIVE process.
PASSIVE process.
19
K04 Mechanics of Breathing
  • Exhalation
  • Inhalation
  • ACTIVE process.
  • diaphragm muscles contract pulling the diaphragm
    down.
  • rib muscles contract to expand the ribcage.
  • This increases the volume of the pleural cavity
    gt decreases internal pressure gt air rushes IN.
  • PASSIVE process.
  • diaphragm muscles rib muscles relax.
  • decreases the volume of the pleural cavity gt
    increases internal pressure gt air is pushed OUT.

20
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21
Chapter questions
  • Read p282-287
  • Answer 1,2,4,6,7,8,9 p287

22
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23
K05
Respiration
Lung Volumes
24
TIDAL VOLUME - VOLUME OF AIR IN A NORMAL BREATH
6 5.5 5 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5
2 1.5 1 .5 0
25
VITAL CAPACITY - VOLUME IN A FULL INHALE AND
FULL, FORCED EXHALE
6 5.5 5 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5
2 1.5 1 .5 0
26
EXPIRATORY RESERVE - VOLUME OF AIR YOU CAN
FORCIBLY EXPEL BELOW A NORMAL EXHALE
INSPIRATORY RESERVE - VOLUME OF AIR YOU CAN
INHALE ABOVE A NORMAL INHALE
6 5.5 5 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5
2 1.5 1 .5 0
27
K05 Lung Volumes
There is always some air left in our lungs (or
else air pressure would crush our chest). This
air is called RESIDUAL VOLUME.
Residual volume and vital capacity make up our
TOTAL LUNG VOLUME.
Lung volumes can be measured using a SPIROMETER.
28
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29
Cubic Centimeter is a metric volume unit,
milliliter is not an metric unit, but used widely
in metric system. 1 Cubic Centimeter 1
Milliliter
30
  • How are the gases transported????
  • How is breathing rate controlled????
  • Video Respiratory system
  • Chapter questions P291 1-5 and p287 1-4, 5-8

31
K06
Respiration
Mechanism of Gas Exchange
32
Mechanism of Gas Exchange
  • External respiration - at the lungs
  • Internal respiration - at the tissues

33
K06 External Respiration
oxygen pressure in the lung is higher than blood
SO oxygen diffuses into the blood.
CO2 pressure in the blood is higher than in the
lung SO CO2 diffuses into the alveoli.
34
K06 Internal Respiration
At the tissues, BLOOD FILTRATION PRESSURE helps
to squeeze O2 and nutrients out of the capillary
and into the tissue cells.
OSMOTIC PRESSURE (water moving into the
capillary) carries CO2 and other waste products
from tissues to the blood.
35
K07
Respiration
Gas transport
36
K07 Transport of Gases - oxygen
Oxygen is mostly carried on hemoglobin molecules
of red blood cells. It is picked up in the lungs
and dropped off at the tissues. Look at oxygen
saturation curve
37
K07 Transport of Gases- carbon dioxide
  • CO2 is carried in your blood stream in 3 ways
  • Dissolved in blood plasma

38
K07 Transport of Gases- carbon dioxide
  • 2) Carried on hemoglobin in RBCs

39
K07 Transport of Gases- carbon dioxide
3) Combines with water in red blood cells to
become bicarbonate ions.
-carbonic anhydrase catalyzes this
process -carbonate ions act as a buffer
40
K08
Respiration
Homeostasis
41
K08 Regulation of Breathing Rate.. we are most
sensitive to CO2 levels
Coordinating Center
Normal Range
High blood CO2
Monitor
Chemoreceptors
Brain
Diaphragm
Faster Breathing
Regulator
Adjustment
Intercostals
-ve feedback
Response to high CO2 levels in blood.exercise
42
K08 Regulation of Breathing Rate when O2
levels change but CO2 doesnt
Coordinating Center
Normal Range
Low blood O2
Monitor
Chemoreceptors
Brain
Diaphragm
Faster Breathing
Regulator
Adjustment
-ve feedback
Intercostals
Response to low O2 levels in blood. CO poisoning
or high altitudes!
43
We have finished Respiration
  • Video Respiratory System
  • SQ 9.1 - p287 1,2,4,6-9
  • SQ 9.2 - p291 1-5
  • SQ 9.3 - p297 1,2,4-6

44
Monday May 3rd
  • Open note quiz Respiration
  • Computer lab 220 Learn alberta and Nelson
    practice quiz
  • Finish chapter questions
  • Respiration Chapter Test Tomorrow

45
Wednesday May 5th
  • Go through Respiration test
  • Begin Excretion Deamination, Label parts,
    Homeostasis
  • Make sure all work from respiration unit is in..

46
K01
Excretion
Deamination
47
K01 Deamination
Humans often consume more protein than they need.
Excess proteins are converted to carbohydrates.
In order to do this, nitrogen must be removed
from the amino acids. This process is called
DEAMINATION.
Deamination occurs in the liver. The waste
product is AMMONIA (NH3). This is very toxic to
the body so the liver combines it with CO2 to
produce UREA.
Breakdown of nucleic acids produces URIC ACID.
All of these waste products travel in the blood
and are filtered out by the kidneys.
48
K02
Excretion
The Macroscopic System
49
K02 Macroscopic
Vena Cava
Aorta
Renal Artery
Renal Vein
Medulla
Cortex
Ureter
Urinary Bladder
Urethra
50
K03
Excretion
Homeostasis
51
K03 Kidneys in Homeostasis 1) Water
Balance
Coordinating Center
Hypothalamus (in Brain)
Normal Range
Monitor
Osmoreceptors
Dehydration
ADH release
Water retention
Thirst response
Drink water
Regulator
Adjustment
ADH AntiDiuretic Hormone
52
K03 Kidneys in Homeostasis 2) Blood
Pressure
Monitor
Coordinating Center
Normal Range
Blood Pressure
Brain
Monitor
Baroreceptors
Vessels
Constrict
Regulator
Adjustment
Adrenal Gland
Aldosterone released which causes water retention
53
K03 Kidneys in Homeostasis 3)
Erythropoeisis
Chemoreceptors in Kidney
Make REF a hormone
Normal Range
Oxygen Levels
Monitor
Combines with Liver Globulins to make
ERYTHROPOIETIN
Stimulates red blood cell production in BONE
MARROW
Regulator
Adjustment
54
Thursday May 6th
  • The Nephron and Urine production
  • Review Movie
  • 2.1 questions

55
K04
Excretion
The Nephron
56
K04 Microscopic
A) Proximal tubule
B) Bowmans Capsule
C) Distal tubule
D) Collecting duct
E) Loop of Henle
F) Glomerulus
57
K05
Excretion
Urine Formation
58
K05 Urine Formation
There are three steps in the formation of urine
as the blood is filtered.
  • (3)
  • SECRETION
  • Any leftover wastes in the blood are actively
    transported (secreted) back into the distal tubule

(1) FILTRATION Blood pressure is very high in
the glomerulus. This forces water and many
solutes (NOT blood components) into Bowmans
Capsule
(2) REABSORPTION 120mL of fluid is filtered
every MINUTE. Out of this, 119mL of water and
essential solutes are reabsorbed into the
proximal tubule.
59
K05 Urine Formation
Urine travels into the collecting ducts from each
nephron, then through the ureters to the bladder.
Stretch receptors in the bladder sense when the
bladder is full and we feel the need to urinate.
60
Video Excretory System Movie Chapter questions
  • P380? 1,3,4
  • P386 3,5,6
  • P396 1,2,3,4,8,9,10,14

61
  • Open note quiz
  • Lab Urinalysis Use section 12.2 in textbook for
    help
  • Lab Exercise 12A p384
  • Time to finish chapter questions???
  • Remember Unit Final Respiration/Excretion on
    Wednesday

62
  • Open note quiz Excretion
  • Time to finish lab/Excretion HWK questions Hand
    In
  • Jeopardy Review Respiration and Excretion
  • Unit Final Wednesday
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