RELIGIOUS STUDIES AS THE SCIENCE The Essence and Definition of Religion. Religion Structure. The Levels of Religious Consciousness. Religion as the Value. Religion Functions. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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RELIGIOUS STUDIES AS THE SCIENCE The Essence and Definition of Religion. Religion Structure. The Levels of Religious Consciousness. Religion as the Value. Religion Functions.


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Title: RELIGIOUS STUDIES AS THE SCIENCE The Essence and Definition of Religion. Religion Structure. The Levels of Religious Consciousness. Religion as the Value. Religion Functions.

Definition of Religion.Religion Structure. The
Levels of Religious Consciousness.Religion as
the Value. Religion Functions.
As any word the word religion has its content
and embrace the essence of the phenomenon. The
word religion is of Latin origin
(religio-pious). Originally there were more then
ten definitions. They were classified in the
concept of connection, holiness,
conscience, sanctity. These concepts certify
mans respect to God, natural phenomenon and
society. The point is in mans connection with
the Creator and his creature (nature and
society). This contact requires reverence for
man God in verticality and man mans
world horizontally. Thats why religion calls on
to create good in this life, to save the nature
and to see the wisdom of Gods creature in the
man and the world around. In modern meaning the
word religion appeared in national languages in
the XVXVI centuries. Before that religions were
differentiated according to the denomination
peculiarities Buddhists, Christians, Muslims.
  • There were attempts to give the definition of
    religion in ancient times. Greek thinkers
    (Lucretius Kar 99 55 B. C. in particular)
    considered that religion generated the sense of
    fear. In the newest times (D. Frazer 1854
    1941) considered that religion generated mans
    dependence sense from nature and its power.
  • These statements did not grasp the main thing
    that is religion is not generated by the sense
    of dependence, but it is generated by the sense
    of supernatural origination. This certainly
    courses mans aspiration for approaching to the
    High Substance.
  • In other words religion is generated by mans
    need to exceed the bounds of the world where he
    lives. Only the Highest Justice can show mans
    way of movement. We cant find it in real life.

  • What is religion in Teachers of the Church
  • Religion is the connection of man with God during
    the prayer, manifestation of love, sympathy to
    other people. That is Gods revealing in mans
    precepts What a man must be? How to live in the
    society? We cant answer the question about the
    sense of mans life and about his personal
    immortality without Religion.
  • The Teachers of the Church distinguish natural
    religion and supernatural. Natural religion is
    mans perception of supernatural force in created
    world. And this supernatural force rules the
    world. Supernatural religion man tries to live
    according with the belief. So religion embraces
    natural and supernatural reality. Due to this
    peculiarity religion orients the man in real
    life. Thats why Religious Studies is divided
    into theologic and academical. But the difference
    is that theologic religious studies examines the
    origin and essence of religion according to the
    certain belief and academical independently from
    the certain belief.

  • Academical religious studies is the complex of
    scientific trends. The main are philosophic
    study of religion or religion philosophy,
    sociologic study of religion or religion
    sociology, psychology and religion history.
  • Religion Philosophy concentrates on theoretical
    problems of religion essence the character of
    religion consciousness, its structure and content
    peculiarities, formation of religious notions,
    symbols and ideas. Religion Psychology studies
    senses, mood, emotions, believers feelings.
    Religion influences on persons emotions, creates
    definite ideas, impels to follow certain
    standards of behaviour. Faith in Supernatural,
    faith in God was always the core of these
    standards. Religion History is rather important
    trend in Religious Studies. It involves religious
    teachings, dogmatics, cult and the church with
    all its peculiarities. Religion Geography,
    Religion Ecology, Religion Pedagogics take a
    separate place in Religious Studies. Religion
    Geography studies the spreading of different
    beliefs of the planet. Religion Ecology studies
    mans attitude to the cradle of life, created by
    God. Religion Pedagogics is about religious
    education and behaviour in the family and society.

  • 2. What is Religion structure?
  • Religion structure has two spheres spiritual or
    religion consciousness and practical. The
    spiritual sphere includes ideas, views, notions,
    senses, feelings. The practical sphere displays
    cult activity, religious organizations, religious
  • The source of religious consciousness is Holy
    Scripture-Tripitaca in Buddhists, Bible in
    Christians, Koran in Muslims. It also includes
    belief, prayers, precepts.
  • Practical sphere of religion is complex system of
    worship actions. They embody symbols or entire
    plot of Holy Scripture and are directed at the
    contentments of religious senses and feelings.
  • We should differentiate religion structure from
    religiousness structure. Religiousness structure
    includes religious consciousness and believers
    behaviour. They amplify each other. The principal
    feature of religious consciousness is religious
    belief. The question is Why the man is judged
    by the deeds and not by words? His deeds are the
    signs of his religiousness. To go to the church,
    to pray and real deeds of real life are opposed

  • Religious organizations are the structural sign
    of religion. The church plays significant role.
    It adjusts relations between religious
    communities. The church determines their ties
    with public organizations.
  • Relations between the church and the state,
    political and public organizations are of special
  • The church elaborates, preserves and defends
    basic principles of the belief. It controls
    believers worship activity and out worship
    activity, observation of its rules, determines
    the system of church management.
  • The church, religious, youth, womens and
    professional organizations, political parties are
    not able to exist irrespective of the society and
    its problems.
  • It means that religious consciousness has been
    divided into two independent levels - ordinary
    and theoretical.
  • Historical progress has coursed the necessity of
    man s cognition and his new qualitative state
    his attitude to nature, society and himself. The
    first philosophical and religious teachings
  • Religion began to acquire new signs in mans
    spiritual life. The teaching about the future
    life was among them. And mans life on earth must
    be based on moral precepts of the belief.
  • The difference between ordinary and theoretical
    consciousness began to determine the correlation
    of sensual or figurative and rational or notional
    in the formation of religious ideas.

  • The source of ordinary religious consciousness is
    real life experience. Direct data of sensual
    perception of the world compose the main content
    of religious images and notions. Inheritance of
    fathers faith is the main one. It is perceived
    as the phenomenon that happens once and forever.
    It does not require arguments.
  • Theoretical level is the consequence of sensual
    data processing in notions, judgements and
    conclusions. The man believe in God. He perceives
    and experiences God according to his views. The
    necessity to substantiate logically the faith in
    God arises. Ordinary consciousness is not able to
    explain this necessity. Only theoretical
    consciousness can answer this question.
  • What forms does theoretical consciousness
    manifest itself in? The teachers of the church
    study the questions of immortality, creation, the
    evidence of Gods idea. They elaborated dogmatic
    theology, ethical theology namely basic
    principles of the belief, moral principles of
    mans vital activity and so on.
  • Theoretical consciousness directs, ordinary one
    into the necessary channel. It lights up the way
    to ordinary consciousness.
  • What is the value of religion?
  • Mans life will be senseless if he limits himself
    to the world he lives. The question is Why?
    Because the man is limited in time and space. He
    doesnt live for a long time and sometimes he
    doesnt live as he wants to live. He is
    surrounded by the locked space of vital activity.
    But at the same time the man is the being that
    always creates. He thinks and dreams about the
    future. The man tries to break the world of

  • Religion helps the man to discover himself in
    close unity with God. It appeals the man to know
    himself and the world he lives in.
  • Religion gives birth to the sense of sanctity.
    The society wont exist without it. Mans
    spirituality is rather important too. He
    realizes his mission to guard the cradle of life
    and life itself, that was given by God. This is
    humanistic religion value. It orients to good,
    beauty, justice, mercy, environmental
    protection. Religion appeals the man to imbue his
    everyday life with divine paradise. So religion
    accomplishes numerous functions in mans vital
    activity and society. They are compensatory,
    world out-looking, therapeutic, integrate,
    regulative, teleological, communicative,
    axiological, cultural and creative, cultural and
    preservable (maintaining), ethnic and formative.

  • World out-look form is the form of mans self
    consciousness and evaluation of surrounding
    reality, the world as a whole. Religious outlook
    gives the believer definite knowledge in the
    form of symbols, notions, values and ideals. This
    function of religion has universal character. It
    gives answers to the most various questions of

  • Compensatory function is the form of
    psychological overcoming of mans weakness in
    surrounding reality. A man relieves himself of
    life disorders and tragic condition during the

  • Therapeutic function is so close to compensatory
    one. It relieves stress and maintains mental
    balance of a man.
  • Integrate performs the role of unification of
    the society, social groups. It sets up stable
    balance of public relations.
  • Regulative religion is the regulator of
    believers behavior, relations, actions due to
    the system of directions, purposes and canons.

  • Teleological form orients a man on final aim of
    his life, warns against idle waste of forces and
    possibilities. It fills his life with the highest
    sense of being.
  • Communicative provides believers communication
    within religious communities and outside the
  • Axiological form orients on the highest moral
    values, perception of world harmony and beauty of
    mans life.

  • Cultural and creative creation of art
    masterpieces churches, books, pictures, music,
  • Cultural and preservable to preserve for the
    future generations created masterpieces.
  • Ethnic and developing the unification of
    families, tribes, peoples, nations. Religion
    preserves nation, its traditions, moral values
    and spiritual culture.

  • Religion functions can not be identified with the
    functions of religious communities and the
    church. Some of them coincide, but the others
    dont. Their functions are worship, missionary,
    propagandistic or ideological, political,
    economic, charitable, philanthropic, educational,
    maintenance of national culture and language,

  • Worship satisfies religious needs of believers
    (preachings, ceremonies, rituals).
  • Missionary spreading the belief by missioners.
  • Propagandistic or ideological - spreading
    religious belief by means of communications
    radio, TV, movies, theatre, newspapers,
  • The press, publishing houses spread the
    literature at the places of residence and in
    public places. Public worships at the stadiums,
    palaces of sports and clubs are practised.

  • Political is the clergymens, church activity
    and religious organizations in the governing of
    the state, in establishing clerical and religious
    parties, organizations and unions. The church
    also works out social and political doctrines.
    The people must be informed of these doctrines by
    religious, youth, womens organizations and by
    the clerical foundations.

  • Economic function is the production activity,
    manufacturing of cult objects and agricultural
    output for internal needs. The part of the profit
    is used for destitutes, poor and for other

  • Charity it acts as the system of financial aid
    to different social organizations and
    institutions. It is necessary for the solution of
    the complicated social and cultural problems of
    the society.

  • Philanthropic is so close to charity one. But
    the difference is that the church accomplishes
    it at the expense of its own account. The church
    establishes orphanages, hospitals, children

  • Educational the church and its organizations
    spread knowledge concerning the problems of
    religious belief, history and culture, moral. It
    is displayed in
  • Clergys training at the academies, seminars,
  • Religious education of the believers.
  • Supporting of schools providing general
  • Education of people by means of religious and
    didactic literature.
  • Historical education of the believers.

  • Maintaining of national culture and language.
  • Maintenance of national traditions and customs,
    ethnic psychology and originality.
  • Influence on the national and ethnic relations,
    international conflicts, national and liberation
  • Normative function formation of the church
    structure, creation of the church statutes,
    instructions for priests and many others.
  • These are the main religion and church functions
    in the life of the society. These functions have
    been changing under the influence of social
    progress. But the church always has deserved
    place in the structure of social relations.