EDUCATION AND RELIGION - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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EDUCATION AND RELIGION

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education and religion the most powerful structural forces for processes of socialization – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: EDUCATION AND RELIGION


1
EDUCATION AND RELIGION
  • THE MOST POWERFUL STRUCTURAL FORCES FOR PROCESSES
    OF SOCIALIZATION

2
STRUCTURAL PROCESSES
  • FORMAL
  • AGENCY SPONSORED
  • BUREAUCRATIZED
  • SYSTEMATIC INTENT
  • INFORMAL
  • SPONTANEOUS INTERACTION
  • NON-HIERARCHICAL
  • IMPROMPTU DISCOVERY

3
EDUCATION
  • ESSENTIAL FOR STRUCTURAL MAINTENANCE, ECONOMIC
    PROGRESS AND SOCIAL BALANCE IN ADVANCED SOCIAL
    STRUCTURES

4
FORMAL PROCESSES
  • SCHOOLING
  • FORMAL, SYSTEMATIC INSTRUCTION
  • GOAL ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT OF COLLECTIVE
    CONSCIOUSNESS
  • EDUCATION MUST MAKE THE CHILD COVER IN A FEW
    YEARS THE ENORMOUS DISTANCES TRAVELED BY MANKIND
    IN MANY CENTURIES Emile Durkheim
  • SHAPED BY LARGER SOCIAL FORCES
  • ORGANIZED TO INTEGRATE SUBPOPULATIONS INTO SOCIAL
    STRUCTURE
  • INEQUALITIES INHERENT IN STRUCTURE
  • RESPONSIVE TO SOCIAL ENGINEERING

5
FUNCTIONALIST PERSPECTIVE
  • EMPHASIS ON IDEALS
  • OBJECTIVE (MEASURABLE) INTENT
  • ENHANCE PRODUCTIVITY
  • STRUCTURAL AND SOCIAL
  • CORPORATE AND FAMILY
  • SOCIALIZATION AND SOCIAL BALANCE
  • HOMOGENEITY WITH OPPORTUNITY FOR
  • SCREENING AND SELECTION
  • SOCIAL PROBLEM RESOLUTION

6
CONFLICT PERSPECTIVE
  • EMPHASIS ON DOMINANT / SUBORDINATE DYNAMIC
  • PUBLIC EDUCATION
  • GROUNDED IN RELIGIOUS INTOLERANCE
  • REPRODUCTION THEORY (GIROUX ALTHUSSER)
  • PERPETUATION OF UNEQUAL POWER STRUCTURES
  • HIERARCHY AMONG EQUALS
  • WHO BENEFITS FROM A SYSTEM IN WHICH
  • OVER A THIRD OF THE STUDENTS NEVER GRADUATE,
    AND ANOTHER THIRD ARE TRAPPED INTO A SITUATION
    WHERE THEY DONT HAVE THE SKILLS THAT ARE GOING
    TO GIVE THEM A GOOD LIFETIME OUTCOME? (GATES
    2006)

7
MODERN EDUCATION
  • MERITOCRACY OBJECTIVE
  • CREDENTIALED SOCIETY
  • FORM gt FUNCTION
  • TRACKING
  • ACADEMIC
  • VOCATIONAL
  • CURRICULUM BASIS
  • NATIONAL OR DECENTRALIZED MODEL?
  • PERSONAL OPPORTUNITY vs. STRUCTURAL NEED

8
PROBLEMS IN EDUCATION
  • FUNDING
  • ADJUSTED FOR INFLATION LESS PER STUDENT FUNDING
    TODAY THAN IN 1955
  • SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE IN STRUCTURAL NEEDS
  • CHANGING ECONOMIC STRUCTURES
  • EVOLUTION FROM MATERIAL PRODUCT TO INTELLECTUAL
    PRODUCT AND RELATED SERVICE

9
RELIGION
  • ITS SOCIAL SIGNIFICANCE

10
DEFINITON
  • SOCIAL ACTION THAT ENCOMPASSES THOSE HUMAN
    RESPONSES THAT GIVE MEANING TO THE ULTIMATE AND
    INESCAPABLE PROBLEMS OF EXISTENCE BIRTH, DEATH,
    ILLNESS, AGING, INJUSTICE, TRAGEDY, AND SUFFERING
    (Abercrombie and Turner)

11
THE POWER OF RELIGION
  • BUILDS SOCIAL CAPITAL THROUGH PROVIDING
  • ANSWERS TO THE ULTIMATE AND INESCAPABLE PROBLEMS
  • COMMON PURPOSE AND CAUSE
  • FRAMEWORK FOR DURABLE SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • SOCIO-HISTORICAL BASIS FOR SOCIETY AND SOCIAL
    CONTROL

12
ESSENTIAL COMPONENTS
  • BELIEF - IN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE SACRED
    AND THE PROFANE
  • ORGANIZATION (ONE OR MORE)
  • SACRAMENTAL
  • PLACES, OBJECTS ACTIONS
  • PROPHETIC
  • HISTORY, REVELATION THE WAY
  • MYSTICAL
  • TRANSCENDENTAL EXPERIENCE
  • COMMUNITY

13
THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES
  • FUNCTIONALISM (VARIABLES OF RELIGION)
  • EMOTIONAL COMFORT (SALVATION)
  • SOCIAL SOLIDARITY
  • NORMS
  • CONTROL MECHANISMS
  • ADAPTATION DEVICES
  • GOVERNMENT
  • SOCIAL CHANGE

14
THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES
  • CONFLICT THEORY
  • DIVERSION FROM REALITY OPIUM OF THE PEOPLE
  • PERPETUATES ECONOMIC INEQUALITY AND REPRESSION
  • ADVANCES INAPPROPRIATE STRATIFICATION
  • OBSCURES KNOWLEDGE
  • SERVES AND ADVANCES AGENDAS OF ELITE

15
THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES
  • SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM
  • SUSTAINABLE ONLY THROUGH RELIANCE ON SYMBOLS
  • RELIES ON FAITH CONNECTED TO SHARED SYMBOLS
  • USEFUL FOR ADVANCING SOCIAL EQUALITY
  • WEBER THE PROTESTANT ETHIC AND THE SPIRIT OF
    CAPITALISM

16
RELIGIONS WITH GREATEST IMPACT OF WESTERN SOCIAL
STRUCTURE
  • JUDAISM
  • CHRISTIANITY
  • ISLAM
  • BUDDHISM
  • HINDUISM
  • LISTED IN ORDER OF IMPACT

17
JUDAISM
  • MONOTHEISTIC
  • EMERGES APPROX 3,800 YEARS AGO
  • DIRECT RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ABRAHAM AND GOD
    DESCENDS THROUGH ABRAHAM TO 12 TRIBES
  • DOES NOT SEEK CONVERTS LOOKS INWARD RATHER THAN
    OUTWARD
  • 13-18 MILLION WORLDWIDE

18
CHRISTIANITY
  • MONOTHEISTIC
  • EVOLVED FROM JUDAISM APPROX 2,000 YEARS AGO
  • EMBRACES JEWISH TEXTS
  • RELATIONSHIP TO GOD CEMENTED THROUGH ACCEPTANCE
    OF SALVATION VIA A MESSIAH
  • SEEKS GLOBAL CONVERSION
  • 2.1 BILLION FOLLOWERS WORLDWIDE

19
ISLAM
  • MONOTHEISTIC
  • EMERGES APPROX 570 c.e. WITH BIRTH OF MUHAMMAD
  • SHARES TEXTS AND PROPHETS WITH BOTH JEWS AND
    CHRISTIANS
  • RELATIONSHIP TO GOD, AND SALVATION, CEMENTED
    THROUGH FOLLOWING TEACHINGS OF PROPHETS
  • FIVE PILLARS
  • SEEKS GLOBAL CONVERSION
  • 1.3 BILLION FOLLOWERS WORLDWIDE

20
HINDUISM
  • POLYTHEISTIC
  • OVER 3,000 DEITIES, INCLUDING JESUS AND MUHAMMAD
  • PERFECTION ACHIEVED THROUGH MULTIPLE INCARNATIONS
  • ULTIMATE UNITY WITH UNIVERSE
  • OPEN, BUT DOES NOT SEEK CONVERTS
  • 870 MILLION FOLLOWERS WORLD WIDE

21
BUDDHISM
  • SPIRITUAL RATHER THAN THEISTIC
  • FOUNDATION IS FOUR TRUTHS
  • EXISTENCE IS SUFFERING
  • ORIGIN OF SUFFERING IS DESIRE
  • SUFFERING CEASES WHEN DESIRE CEASES
  • WAY TO END SUFFERING IS THROUGH FOLLOWING THE
    EIGHTFOLD PATH

22
CULTS
  • NEWLY ESTABLISHED SOCIAL GROUPS BUILT AROUND
    PROPHETIC TEACHINGS
  • EVOLVE INTO RELIGION IF
  • FAITH AND TEACHING SURVIVE PROPHET
  • INITIAL STIGMA OVERCOME
  • EMERGES FROM SECRECY INTO OPEN, SHARED SOCIAL
    PRACTICE
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