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Progressivism: Civil Rights Ch 26 p. 580-581


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Title: Progressivism: Civil Rights Ch 26 p. 580-581

Progressivism Civil RightsCh 26 p. 580-581
  • Civil Rights
  • Booker T. Washington Believed that African
    Americans should be happy that they were no
    longer slaves. He argued for immediate self
    improvement for all African Americans. His
    famous Atlanta Compromise stated that African
    Americans should integrate themselves into white
  • W.E.B. Dubois Accused Washington if supporting
    segregation. He argued that education and
    legislation would lead equality. He wanted all
    African Americans to get a full university
    education. He was also one of the founders of
    the NAACP
  • Progressive Presidencies There were two
    presidents who led progressive administrations -
    Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson.

The Rise of ProgressivismCh 26 p. 588-592
  • Women Suffrage
  • Professional Woman Women were getting involved
    in Teaching and Nursing for the first time in
    U.S. History. They started a movement toward
    womens suffrage.
  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton Believed that women were
    the arbiter of her own destiny and deserved the
    same rights as men. She was one of many to lead
    the movement.
  • National American Women Suffrage Association
    (NAWSA) Anna Howard Shaw and Carrie Chapman
    brought membership to 2 million in 1917. The
    movement was noticed and the 19th Amendment
    passed - guaranteeing womens suffrage.
  • Temperance Movement
  • Alcohol was seen as the root of all domestic
    problems, called a sinister trust. This
    movement was primarily run by women.
  • Womens Christian Temperance. Union and the Anti
    Saloon League pushed for a bill to ban alcohol.
    The result was the 18th Amendment, which led to

Agrarian RevoltChapter 28 p. 623-628
  • Farmers
  • Grangers Farmers were having major problems in
    the 19th century. In order to help themselves,
    they created a network to teach each other new
    techniques. This group eventually promoted
    political action.
  • Granger Laws These laws tried to curb railroad
    rates and practices. This movement led to
    another part of the agrarian movement.
  • Farmers Alliance Farmers in the south banded
    together establishing banks, stores and
    processing plants. This pushed the movement into
    a new phase.
  • Populist Party Farmers started their own
    political party and created the Omaha Platform in
    1892, which wanted several things such as public
    ownership of Railroads, abolish the gold standard
    and direct election of senators.

Panic of 1893Ch 28 p. 628-630
  • March 1893
  • Philadelphia and Reading Railroads these two RR
    declared bankruptcy, as they could not pay back
    British loans.
  • Collapse in the Stock Market The stock market
    fell as result of these failures. Many
    businesses were tied to the Railroad business.
  • Banks Fail Banks invested in the Stock Market
    and the crash triggered a series of Bank
    Failures, leading to contraction of credit.
  • Total Damage 8,000 businesses, 156 RR, 400
    banks failed low agricultural prices fell worse
    1 million workers lost their jobs (20 of

Gold StandardCh 28 p. 634-638
  • Silver Question Gold was the basis for all
    currency in the United States. For every dollar,
    there was gold to back it up. With the panic,
    many people wanted to expand the currency by
    using silver.
  • Silver v. Gold Silver was not worth as much as
    gold and often times it dropped in value, making
    it a bad resource to pin the American dollar.
    This became the debate for the Election of 1896.
  • Election of 1896
  • McKinley V. Bryan Willaim McKinley (Rep) ran
    against William Jennings Bryan (Dem Populist).
    Bryan made a famous Cross of Gold Speech saying
    that if the U.S. did not embrace silver then they
    would crucified on a cross of gold.
  • Gold Standard Bryan lost and the Gold Standard
    remained until 1933 when Franklin Roosevelt took
    the United States off the Gold Standard.

American Foreign PolicyRead all of Chapter 29
  • EQ How was American foreign policy a driving
    force for change in the 20th century?

New American Foreign Policy
  • Alfred Thayer Mahan Wrote a book entitled
    -Influence of Sea Power on History, which argued
    that in order to be a world power the United
    States must have 1. Strong Navy 2. Ports around
    the world.
  • Frederick Jackson Turner Stated in his Frontier
    Thesis that it had closed. With that in mind,
    the US looked elsewhere for new markets and
    something to fill that void
  • Panic of 1893 The Depression led America to
    look at new markets for its goods. This is the
    seed for globalization.
  • Teddy Roosevelt Assistant Secretary of the Navy
    used his influence to strengthen the Navy with
    this idea in mind.

Spanish American War
  • Cuba The Spanish and the Cubans are fighting a
    war for Cuban Independence. The United States
    saw this as an opportunity to expand into other
    regions while protecting the United States.
  • Yellow Press William Randolph Hearst and Joseph
    Pulitzer fought a newspaper war for circulation.
    They would sensationalize the headlines.
  • Public Opinion Americans wanted the President
    to do something about the issues in Cuba. Some
    in the government also saw it as an opportunity
    to bring America onto the world stage.

Spanish American War
  • The Maine The US ship Maine exploded in Havana
    Harbor. This incident prompted people in America
    to want war with Spain. The chant Remember the
    Maine became a rally cry for war.
  • Telegram The United States intercepted a
    telegram saying that McKinley (The President at
    the time) would not do anything and had the
    backbone of a chocolate éclair.
  • The Splendid Little War McKinley asked for war
    and received it. It would only last three
    months, but many believed it was exactly what the
    United States needed to establish itself in the

Spanish American War
  • Dewey At the onset of war, Mckinley sent
    Admiral Dewey to the Philippines and they
    confronted the Spanish Fleet. Dewey was able to
    destroy the entire fleet with very little
    American casualties - establishing dominance in
    that region.
  • Rough Riders While Dewey attacked the fleet,
    the Military landed in Cuba and Puerto Rico to
    attack the Spanish, while also blockading the
    island. Teddy Roosevelt led the famous Rough
    Riders in battle, and the United States beat the

Spanish American War
Spanish American War
  • Treaty of Paris At the end of the war the
    United States acquired Puerto Rico, Guam, and the
    Philippines. They paid the Spanish 20 Million
    dollars to soften the blow.
  • American Foreign Policy American foreign policy
    changed after the war. Two very good examples
  • 1. Filipino War The US was involved in a war
    in the Philippines on the same scale as the Iraq
    conflict. There was great debate within America
    if we had the right to be there.
  • 2. Cuba The US passed the Platt Amendment to
    the Cuban constitution, which gave us a base in
    that region (Mahans idea), allowed us to
    intervene in their affairs if necessary, and
    banned Cuba from making treaties with other

The Rise of Teddy RooseveltCh 30 p. 670-671
  • In the election of 1900, William McKinley ran
    with Teddy Roosevelt as his Vice President.
  • Soon after the inauguration, in 1901, McKinley
    is assassinated and Teddy Roosevelt became
    President of the United States.
  • Roosevelt saw the office as an opportunity to do
    something for the public good. He combined the
    elements of the Progressive Era and the New
    American Foreign Policy to usher in the Modern

TR Speak Softly, Carry a Big Stick(New American
Foreign Policy)Ch 30 p. 671-678
  • Nobel Peace Prize When the Japanese and the
    Russians were at war, TR brought them to
    Portsmouth, NH and negotiated a peace deal with
    the countries winning the Nobel Peace Prize. On
    the side, he made a deal with the Japanese that
    would protect US trade in China.
  • Great White Fleet When the Japanese reneged on
    the deal, TR responded by sending out the Great
    White Fleet of destroyers around the world. It
    was an act to demonstrate the power of the United
  • Roosevelt Corollary When Latin American
    countries were threatened by European Nations
    over debts, TR issued the RC to the Monroe
    Doctrine. This stipulated that the US had the
    right to 1. Oppose European Intervention in the
    Hemisphere 2. Interfere in the domestic affairs
    of its neighbors (Latin America).
  • Panama Canal TR made a deal with Panama to
    build the canal after he supported their
    revolution from Colombia. He did it without the
    advice of congress and after the original deal
    fell through with the Colombian government.

The Rise of ProgressivismCh 31 p. 682-684
  • Beliefs Society was capable of change and
    growth was the nations destiny. The natural
    laws of Laissez Faire and Social Darwinism were
    not sufficient.
  • 1. Human intervention was necessary
  • 2. Government should play a significant role
  • Progressive Impulse
  • 1. Anti Monopoly - Fear of concentrated power
  • 2. Social Cohesion - Individuals are a part of a
    web of social relationships.
  • 3. Organization and Efficiency - Social order
    was the result of social organization

The Rise of ProgressivismCh 31 p. 684-689
  • Voice of the Progressives
  • Muckrakers crusading journalists who exposed the
    issues of society.
  • 1. Lincoln Steffens - Wrote for McClures
    Magazine about the Boss and Machine politics.
  • 2. IdaTarbell - Exposed big business.
  • 3. Thomas Nast - Political Cartoonist who
    destroyed Tammany Hall
  • Community Outreach
  • 1.Hull House Jane Addams set up settlement
    housing for the poor, immigrants and others who
    needed help
  • 2. Social Gospel Some organizations such as the
    Salvation Army used religion to drive reform.

TR The Square Deal(Progressive Presidency)Ch
31 p. 689-695
  • Railroad Industry TR wanted to solve the issue
    of the Railroads for the American people. He
    issued the Hepburn Railroad Act, which gave the
    government the authority to inspect the books and
    ensure fair practices.
  • Food, Drug and Labor Reform TR passed the Pure
    Food and Drug Act to regulate the sale of
    dangerous or ineffective medicine, establishing
    the FDA Also passed the Meat Inspection Act
    after reading Upton Sinclairs The Jungle, which
    exposed the issues in the meat business.
  • Conservation TR established the National Parks
    system with Gifford Pinchot, his chief forester
    He also used federal funds under the New Lands
    Reclamation Act to construct dams
  • Trust Buster TR did some work to curb
    monopolies and even sided with labor in the Coal
    Mining Strike of 1902

Election of 1912Ch 31 p. 697-700
  • William Howard Taft Taft was elected to the
    presidency in 1908 after TR left. He did not
    follow up on the Progressive measures that TR
    held sacred. When TR came back to NY, he went
    for the republican nomination to run for
  • Progressive Bull Moose Party TR did not get the
    Republican Nomination so he went off an formed
    his own progressive party to run in the election.
    It was during the Election of 1912 that he was
    shot before he gave a speech and went on to give
    the speech anyway.
  • Election of 1912 Taft and TR split the ticket.
    Taft 23, TR 27, and Woodrow Wilson received 42
    of the vote. Wilson became president and he
    ushered in his own series of reforms for the
    American people.

Wilsonian ProgressivismCh 32 p. 706-709
  • New Freedom
  • Underwood Simmons Tariff Cut the tariff
    substantially in an effort to embrace the concept
    of globalization and hurt the trusts.
  • Federal Reserve Act Created 12 regional banks
    to assist the smaller banks. These federally
    funded banks would give loans and held assets in
    reserve. Closest thing we had to a National
    Bank, since the bank in Jacksons era.
  • Federal Trade Commission First time that the
    federal government investigated the practices on
    Wall Street - increasing government authority.
  • Louis Brandeis Appointed the first Jewish
    Supreme Court Justice.
  • Keating Owen Act A child labor law that would
    not allow the transport of goods made by children
    across state lines.
  • Smith Lever Act Matched state grants that were
    aimed at helping Farmers.
  • Wilsons Foreign Policy Measures, however, were
    interrupted by WWI

World War ICh 32 p. 715-717
  • Chaos in Europe On June 28, 1914 Arch Duke
    Franz Ferdinand (heir to the throne of
    Austro-Hunagria) was assassinated by a Serbian
    Nationalist. Due to alliances and treaties,
    Europe was in a state of war. The organized
    into the Triple Entente (Britain, France, Russia)
    and the Triple Alliance (Germany, Austro-Hungary,
    and Italy) The United States, however, was torn
    on the issue.
  • U.S. Reaction Since the United States consisted
    of so many immigrants, it was difficult to choose
    sides. That being said, due to the New American
    Foreign Policy, US banks were tied to foreign
    markets and needed them to survive. Most
    prevalent on the list were the British. JP
    Morgan had a great deal of money tied to a
    British victory.
  • Submarine Warfare Since the United States was
    still trading with Britain and France, the
    Germans were attacking American shipping with
    U-Boats. The Lusitania, a British ocean liner,
    was carrying arms to Europe and sunk by Germans
    killing 128 Americans. After the incident, the
    Germans promised to leave American shipping

World War ICh 33 p. 722-724
  • Leading to war
  • Zimmerman Note The British intercepted a
    telegram from the Germans to the Mexicans. It
    read that that if the Mexicans entered the war on
    Germanys side and attack the United States, then
    at the end of the war the Mexicans will get back
    their land lost from the Mexican War.
  • Unrestricted Submarine warfare In addition to
    the telegram, the Germans attacked ALL American
    merchant shipping, thinking that the US could
    never get involved in the war in time to make a
  • War Wilson was able to get a war declaration
    from congress. Though it should be noted that
    there were some in congress who did not want to
    get involved in a world war.
  • Peace without victory Wilson stated that the US
    had no Material Gains in mind He wanted to
    bring Peace to the world - creating a new world
    order. He believed that he could use the same
    progressive attitudes in fostering peace at the
    end of the war that America had used to make
    themselves better.

World War ICh 33 p. 725-727
  • War at Home
  • Creel Commission George Creel led the Committee
    on Public Information, which fought a propaganda
    war to foster support in America. They crafted
    recruiting posters for enlistments, war bonds,
    and dehumanizing the Germans. For example Sour
    Kraut became Liberty Cabbage.
  • Espionage Act of 1917 This act prevented
    citizens from speaking out against the war. In a
    famous Supreme Court Ruling, Schenk V. the United
    States, a citizen was told that he was causing a
    panic by handing out leaflets against the war.
    The court claimed it was akin to shouting fire in
    a crowded theater creating a Clear and Present
  • Liberty Bonds The government, in an effort to
    pay for the war encouraged people to buy bonds
    and support the war.
  • War Industries Board Headed by Bernard Baruch,
    this coordinated the purchase of military
    supplies, gearing up the economy for the war.

World War ICh 33 p. 731-734
  • Battlefront
  • Trench Warfare This war brought a new type of
    fighting that involved trenches and powerful
    weapons. Men would fight for control of the
    trenches in No-Mans Land, the place in between
    the trenches. No Mans Land was riddled with
    mines, obstacles and barbed wire, making it
    nearly impossible to get through.
  • Selective Service Act Wilson drafted 3 million
    soldiers and another 2 million enlisted in the
  • Battles The US were involved in few battles.
    Chateau Thierry was important to moving the
    Germans out of France and the Battle of Argonne
    Forest pushed the Germans back into Germany.
    Argonne lasted 7 weeks and went for 200 miles.
    This was the final battle of the war - on the
    11th day at the 11th hour of the 11th Month in
    1918 the Germans surrendered.
  • Casualties France - 1.7 Million, Britain - One
    third of the men born between 1892-1895 and 1
    million from the empire, Germany 2 Million,
    Austro Hungary - 1.5 Million, Russia 1.7 million,
    US - 112,000 half to influenza, it battle.

World War ICh 33 p. 734-737
  • Peace Conference Versailles
  • Big Four The Leaders of the peace conference
    were Vittorio Orlando (Italy), Georges Clemenceau
    (France), David Lloyd George (Britain), and
    Woodrow Wilson (US).
  • 14 Points Wilson came with a plan for peace.
    The fourteen points were broken down as follows -
    First Five Principles to govern freedom of the
    seas, Next Eight Post war Boundaries (Not much
    different than Pre War Boundaries), and 14th
    Point - A League of Nations. No Material Gains -
    Very Progressive
  • Treaty of Versailles The other countries wanted
    the Germans to pay and instead of using the first
    13 points made the following provisions
  • 1. War Guilt Clause The war was Germanys
    fault and in turn lost a great deal of land and
    could no longer have a standing Army.
  • 2. War Reparations The Germans had to pay the
    other countries for the loss from the war.
  • 3. League of Nations The European Nations
    agreed that there should be a world
    organization and approved this measure for the
  • Wilson needed to get the Treaty passed through
    congress, but dealt with a lot of resistance

World War ICh 33 p. 737-740
  • Getting the Peace Treaty Approved
  • Congress The United States did not want to
    approve the treaty because of the League of
    nations. They saw this as a way to get the
    United States involved in a foreign war. May in
    America did not like this war and the league was
    not popular.
  • Wilson The president went around the country
    stumping the league to the people in an effort to
    get them to write their congresspeople to approve
    the league. So involved in this endeavor was he
    that he collapsed from a cerebral thrombosis and
    was unable to perform his duties as a president
    for the rest of his term.
  • The Treaty Congress never passed the treaty and
    never joined the league of nations.
  • Warren Harding In 1920, Harding was elected to
    the presidency and it ushered in a new age for

The 1920s and the Depression
  • EQ How did America deal with crisis?

The 1920s in AmericaCh 34
  • A New Economy
  • Technology In the 20s America experiences new
    innovations in technology. These innovations
    resulted in the BULL MARKET - meaning that many
    people were making money.
  • 1. Automobile Industry The Automobile, led by
    Henry Ford represented innovation on the
    assembly line and with the American consumer. It
    helped other industries such as steel, rubber
    and oil.
  • 2.Radio This new invention brought a new
    culture to America. Everything was centered
    around the radio. Newscasts, serials, all pointed
    to a new method of communicating information.
  • 3. Planes and Trains Trains became much more
    efficient and regulated. The plane became the
    center for the transportation of goods and
    eventually used commercially for travel.
    Charles Lindberg made his famous flight from
    New York to Paris - bringing the Spirit of St.
    Louis into the spotlight.
  • 4. Appliances The array of new appliances
    (dish washers, washing machines, vacuums) made
    house work easier, but also helped the economy as
    new products resulted in many people working to
    bring those products to the market.

The 1920s in America Ch 34
  • Labor and Farming
  • Times were better in the 20s for the workers,
    but farmers continued to struggle
  • 1. Better Working Conditions many factory
    owners embraced the 8 hour work week. Labor
    Unions were indifferent, mostly because people
    were making a lot of money on their products.
  • 2. Farmers Ironically, the new methods in
    farming created a problem with prices as there
    were too many goods in the market - hurting the

The 1920s in America Ch 34 American culture
was very pervasive and powerful. It set the
tone for the rest of the century in many ways.
  • Women
  • 1. Flapper Women led a revolution against the
    norms of society, promoting an independent woman.
  • 2. Margaret Sanger Promoted the use of birth
    control (very radical at the time) in a weekly
    newspaper in an effort to empower women to take
    control of their lives. She argued that poverty
    was the related to overpopulation.
  • Literature
  • 1. F. Scott Fitzgerald The Great Gatsby
    illuminated the issues surrounding the American
    Dream and how Americans were materialistic.
  • 2. TS Eliot Poems such as the Hollow Men and
    Wasteland, depicted a society in decay after the
    First World War - This is the way the world
    ends, not with a bang, but with a wimper.
  • 3. Ernest Hemingway Most known for his novels,
    wrote in short, terse prose about the issues of
    the age as well as the First World War.

The 1920s in America
  • Prohibition
  • 1. Bootlegging Illegal sale of alcohol led to
    organized crime. Mobsters such as Al Capone came
    to power from this.
  • 2. Speak Easies These illegal bars were hidden
    from the public, but people went to drink.
  • Strong Nativism
  • 1. Emergency Immigration Act 1921 Put a quota
    on the immigration into the United States. 3 of
    the number of a nationality living in the US
    according to the 1910 census were allowed to
    immigrate into the country
  • 2. National Origins Act 1924 Strengthened the
    above act by changing it to 2 and basing the
    number on the 1890 census.
  • 3. KKK This strong sentiment toward nativism
    led to the rise if a new Klan who hated not only
    the freed slaves but also anyone not truly

The 1920s in America
  • Religious Fundamentalism
  • 1. Scopes Trial There was a growing sentiment
    in some parts of the country to stay away from
    evolution in the classroom. A Tenn law was
    challenged by a teacher. Clarence Darrow, a
    member of the ACLU ( American Civil Liberties
    Union) put evolution on trial.
  • Harlem Renaissance
  • 1. Langston Hughes In his poetry, Hughes wrote
    I am negro and beautiful, illuminating the
    beauty of the African Americans.
  • 2. Jazz Louis Armstrong and others ushered in a
    unique American art form.

The 1920s in AmericaCh 35 p. 771-772 777-782
  • Warren Harding
  • 1. Age of Normalcy When elected, Harding stated
    that this would be an age of normalcy. In
    other words, America would focus on themselves
    and not foreign nations.
  • 2. Teapot Dome Scandal Involved Attorney
    General Harry Daughtery and Senator Albert Fall
    leasing oil reserves to big business. Fall
    received millions in loans from the businesses
  • Harding died in office from food poisoning
    resulting in a heart attack.
  • Calvin Coolidge
  • 1. Gov. of Mass The former Gov of Mass. Was
    most known for how he handled the Boston Police
    Strike. Where Harding was very personable,
    Coollidge was the opposite.
  • Coolidge was elected again in 1924 and chose not
    to run for another term in 1928.
  • Instead Herbert Hoover ran against Al Smith and

The Great CrashCh 35 p. 785-786According to
John Kenneth Galbraith
  1. Poor Distribution of Wealth 5 of the population
    controlled 33 of the money in America.
  2. Poor Corporate Structure American businesses
    were set up haphazardly, resulting in problems
    that led to unemployment and bankruptcy.
  3. Poor Banking Structure The banking system had no
    safeguards. They invested the peoples money in
    the stock market. When the market crashed,
    people lost their savings.
  4. Poor Economic Intelligence There was confusion
    on how to invest your money. People were Buying
    stocks on Margin (putting very little down and
    financing the rest) so when the market crashed
    they lost millions of dollars in assets.
  5. Dubious Foreign Trade We loaned money to the
    Germans (Dawes Plan), which they used to pay back
    war reparations to countries like Britain and
    France. Those countries used that money to pay
    the United States back. When we cut off the
    loans to Germany - it set a chain reaction that
    hurt everyone.

The Depression UnfoldsCh 35 p. 787-791
  • Bank Failures Due to the stock market falling
    banks had to close because their money
    disappeared with the crash.
  • Run on the Bank In addition to the market
    collapse, people lost faith in the banking
    institution and attempted to take out their
    money, which led to more issues.

The Depression UnfoldsCh 35 p. 787-791
  • Foreclosures People lost their homes because the
    bank could not handle the debt. They were forced
    to live in the street.
  • Hooverville Shanty Towns popped up all over
    the country from these people who were forced out
    of their homes. These small communities were
    called Hoovervilles after the president.

The Depression UnfoldsCh 35 p. 787-791
  • Foreclosures Farmers also lost their homes as
    result of the crisis and were forced to leave
    their homes as well.
  • Dust Bowl To make matters worse, the farmers
    experienced the worst drought in American
    history. Dust storms forced many farmers to
    leave their homes and make an exodus for the
    city. Most of them came from Oklahoma, earning
    the nickname Oakies.

The Depression UnfoldsCh 35 p. 787-791
  • Unemployment Reaching an all-time high in 1932
    (25) this was the worst time for workers of all
    walks and ages.

The Depression UnfoldsCh 35 p. 787-791
  • Bonus Army In an effort to gain some income, WWI
    Vets marched on Washington to get their pension
    promised to them by congress. Originally, they
    were supposed to receive the bonus in 1945, but
    the vets wanted in earlier.
  • Hoovers Response Hoover sent to Army to tear
    down the demonstration (Tent City).

The Election of 1932Ch 36 p.795-815
  • Here Comes FDR Franklin Roosevelt defeated
    Herbert Hoover in a landslide victory.
  • The New Deal At his inauguration FDR said that
    The only thing we have to fear is fear itself.
    He argued that people would soon be able to trust
    the government and the economic system.

The New DealCh 36 p.795-815
  • First 100 Days 15 Major Bills, 15 major Addresses
  • Bank Holiday FDR called for a bank holiday to
    reorganized them and bring back confidence in our
  • Gold Standard FDR took the country off the gold
    standard in an effort to expand the currency.
    This was done in an effort to Prime the Pump and
    get the economy moving again.
  • Fireside Chats FDR used the radio to tell the
    American people about his programs to help the
    economy. People would sit around the radio and
    listen to his speeches.
  • Around America people were so confident in
    Roosevelt that they had pictures of him up in
    their homes

The New DealCh 36 p.795-815
  • Brain Trust FDR asked Columbian Professors to
    design a system to jumpstart the economy.
  • The Structure In order to teach you the New
    Deal I organized it into the following
    categories Banking, Farming, Industry and Relief
  • The Function Focus on what these programs did.
    Do not try to memorize every single program.

The New DealCh 36 p.795-815
  • Commercial and Investment Banking
  • SEC The Security Exchanges Commission was
    developed to police the stock market and watch
    for illegal activities.
  • FDIC Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation was
    developed to bring confidence back into the
    system by insuring money in the banks up to

The New DealCh 36 p.795-815
  • Farming
  • AAA The Agricultural Adjustment Act paid farmers
    for the their surplus of goods in an effort to
    bring up the prices of those goods.
  • The Supreme Court The courts struck this measure
    down because they believed that it was price
    fixing. In the Second New Deal, FDR passed the
    FSA (Farm Security Administration) which gave
    Farmers loans to relocate or enrich the soil.

The New DealCh 36 p.795-815
  • Industrial Recovery
  • NIRA The National Industrial Recovery Act
    created two programs
  • The National Recovery Administration (NRA) which
    secured collective bargaining between workers and
    management under Section 7(a) of the act.
  • The Public Works Administration (PWA) created
    jobs for people by building roads, schools, etc.
  • The Supreme Court The courts struck this measure
    down because they believed that the government
    had no business to tell management they had to
    collectively bargain with the employees and it
    disagreed with section 7(a). While the PWA was
    not a problem, it was also shut down because they
    were both a part of the NIRA.

The New DealCh 36 p.795-815
  • Relief
  • TVA The Tennessee Valley Authority was designed
    to bring cheap electricity to parts of the
    country where there was none. It also provided
    jobs by their efforts.
  • CCC The Civilian Conservation Corp worked in
    national parks, reservoirs and the country side.
    It provided jobs mostly for young men because
    they would live on site.
  • FERA The Federal Emergency Relief Act gave out
    grants to states to assist with relief.

The New DealCh 36 p.795-815
  • Critics of the New Deal
  • Huey Long The Louisiana Senator believed that
    FDR was wrong. He developed a Share our Wealth
    program to take from the rich and give to the
    poor through taxes.
  • Father Charles Coughlin The Catholic Priest had
    radio shows that said FDR needed to do more for
    the economy. Called the New Deal and Raw Deal.
  • Dr. Francis Townsend Former health official
    wanted there to be better old age benefits.
  • Supreme Court as stated before, stuck down
    measures of the New Deal

The New DealCh 36 p.795-815
  • SECOND NEW DEAL Responding to the critics
  • Brandeis-Frankfurter In an effort to stay away
    from the courts, FDR employed the help of these
    supreme court justices, who, like the braintrust,
    designed the response to the critics.
  • Second New Deal While there were not as many
    programs, this flurry of reforms brought new
    solutions to the problems people faced.

The New DealCh 36 p.795-815
  • SECOND NEW DEAL Responding to the critics
  • Fixing Industry
  • WPA The Works Progress Administration took the
    place of the PWA and gave jobs to artists,
    writers, actors in addition to the public works
  • Wagner Act Taking the place of section 7(a) this
    created the National Labor Relations Board which
    intervened in labor matters and collectively
    bargained with both parties.
  • Social Reform
  • 1. Social Security Act This measure provided
    old age benefits and pension for people over the
    age of 65.

The New DealCh 36 p.816-818
  • SECOND NEW DEAL Responding to the critics
  • Court Packing
  • Expand the Courts FDR proposed that the courts
    were overworked. He proposed to add SIX new
    justices - bringing it to 15 justices
  • Shot Down Congress shot down FDRs proposal
    saying that it put too much power in the courts
    and that he was tampering with the process.
  • Impact of the New Deal
  • Despite the failure of court packing, FDR was
    still able to get his programs passed.
  • The Second World War was ultimately the final
    event that brought the United States out of