The Versatile Salmonella: Contaminating Cantaloupes, Peanut Butter, Chocolate and Sprouts - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – The Versatile Salmonella: Contaminating Cantaloupes, Peanut Butter, Chocolate and Sprouts PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 5f1da9-YmYwY



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

The Versatile Salmonella: Contaminating Cantaloupes, Peanut Butter, Chocolate and Sprouts

Description:

Title: Virulence of Foodborne Pathogens Author: Preferred Customer Last modified by: AAutry Created Date: 8/4/2000 1:06:58 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:122
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 41
Provided by: Prefer1233
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: The Versatile Salmonella: Contaminating Cantaloupes, Peanut Butter, Chocolate and Sprouts


1
The Versatile Salmonella Contaminating
Cantaloupes, Peanut Butter, Chocolate and Sprouts
  • Michael Doyle

2
The Versatile Salmonella
  • Incidence and trends of salmonellosis in United
    States
  • Risk factors for acquiring salmonellosis
  • Prevalence and trends of Salmonella in meat and
    poultry
  • Survival characteristics of Salmonella
  • Infectious dose
  • Food-assisted outbreaks of salmonellosis (other
    than meat or poultry)
  • Salmonella contamination of imported foods

3
(No Transcript)
4
Incidence of cases of Campylobacter, Salmonella,
and Escherichia coli O157 infections under
surveillance in the Foodborne Diseases Active
Surveillance Network (Food Net), 2000 - 2006
National Health
Pathogen Year No. of cases/100,000 persons Objective for 2010

Campylobacter 2000 15.7
2001 13.8
2002 13.4
2003 12.6
2004 12.9
2005 12.9
2006 12.7 12.3

Salmonella 2000 14.4
2001 15.1
2002 16.1
2003 14.5
2004 14.7
2005 14.6
2006 14.8 6.8

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
5
Risk Factors for Sporadic Salmonella Enteritidis Infections in the United States (2002 2003) Risk Factors for Sporadic Salmonella Enteritidis Infections in the United States (2002 2003) Risk Factors for Sporadic Salmonella Enteritidis Infections in the United States (2002 2003)

Risk Factors Identified Population Attributable Fraction Population Attributable Fraction

Eating chicken outside the home Eating chicken outside the home 35
International travel International travel 30
Eating undercooked eggs inside the home Eating undercooked eggs inside the home 15
Lizard in the home Lizard in the home 7
Bird in the home Bird in the home 5
Eating eggs outside the home Eating eggs outside the home 5

R. Marcus et al. Epidemiol. Infect. 2006 R. Marcus et al. Epidemiol. Infect. 2006 R. Marcus et al. Epidemiol. Infect. 2006

6
Selected case-control studies demonstrating risk of acquiring salmonellosis from food prepared outside the home Selected case-control studies demonstrating risk of acquiring salmonellosis from food prepared outside the home Selected case-control studies demonstrating risk of acquiring salmonellosis from food prepared outside the home
Salmonella Serotype Risk factor Population Attributable Risk

MDR Typhimurium Eating scrambled eggs prepared outside the home 13
Heidelberg Eating eggs prepared outside the home 39
Serogroup B or C Eating eggs prepared in a restaurant 9
T. F. Jones and F. J. Angulo, Clin. Infect. Dis. 431324 (2006) T. F. Jones and F. J. Angulo, Clin. Infect. Dis. 431324 (2006) T. F. Jones and F. J. Angulo, Clin. Infect. Dis. 431324 (2006)
7
Prevalence of Salmonella in Meat and Poultry
Determined by USDA-FSIS Pathogen Reduction/HACCP
Verification Testing Program
Calendar Year Broiler Carcasses Broiler Carcasses Ground Chicken Ground Turkey Steer Heifer Carcasses Bull Cow Carcasses Ground Beef Hog Carcasses
( Positive) ( Positive) ( Positive) ( Positive) ( Positive) ( Positive) ( Positive)
Baseline Baseline
(Pre-1998) (Pre-1998) 20 44.6 49.9 1.0 2.7 7.5 8.7
1998 1998 10.8 4.2 36.5 0 1.1 6.4 5.8
1999 1999 11.4 16.2 31.6 0.3 2.2 4.3 9.8
2000 2000 9.1 13.8 25.7 0.4 2.2 3.3 6.2
2001 2001 11.9 19.5 26.2 0.6 2.4 2.8 3.8
2002 2002 11.5 29.1 17.9 0.3 1.7 2.6 3.2
2003 2003 12.8 35.5 25.4 0.4 1.5 1.7 2.5
2004 2004 13.5 25.5 19.9 0.3 0.8 1.6 3.1
2005 2005 16.3 32.4 23.2 0.6 1.3 1.1 3.7
2006 2006 11.4 45.0 20.3 0.3 0.8 2.0 4.0
USDA-FSIS (http//www.fsis.usda.gov/OPHS/haccp/salm6year.htm) USDA-FSIS (http//www.fsis.usda.gov/OPHS/haccp/salm6year.htm) USDA-FSIS (http//www.fsis.usda.gov/OPHS/haccp/salm6year.htm) USDA-FSIS (http//www.fsis.usda.gov/OPHS/haccp/salm6year.htm) USDA-FSIS (http//www.fsis.usda.gov/OPHS/haccp/salm6year.htm) USDA-FSIS (http//www.fsis.usda.gov/OPHS/haccp/salm6year.htm) USDA-FSIS (http//www.fsis.usda.gov/OPHS/haccp/salm6year.htm) USDA-FSIS (http//www.fsis.usda.gov/OPHS/haccp/salm6year.htm) USDA-FSIS (http//www.fsis.usda.gov/OPHS/haccp/salm6year.htm)
8
Some Salmonella strains have unusual resilience
to extreme environmental conditions
  • Preexposure to adverse environmental conditions
    can precondition salmonellae to tolerate extreme
    conditions
  • Preexposure to sodium chloride in acidic
    environment can increase tolerance of salmonellae
    to low concentrations of organic acids
  • Anaerobic conditions can potentiate greater salt
    tolerance
  • Brief exposure of S. Typhimurium cells to mild
    acidic environments (pH 5.5 - 6.0) followed by
    exposure of adapted cells to pH lt 4.5 (acid
    shock) triggers acid tolerance response
  • Cells can survive in extreme acidic environments
    (pH 3 - 4)

9
Acid stress can trigger enhanced resistance of
salmonellae to other adverse environmental
conditions
  • Growth of S. Typhimurium at pH 5.8 engendered
  • increased thermal tolerance at 50ºC
  • enhanced thermal tolerance to high osmotic stress
    (2.5 M NaCl)
  • increased resistance to the antibacterial
    lactoperoxidase system and surface active agents
    such as polymyxin B

10
Salmonella can persist in hostile environments
  • Heat resistance increases with decreased moisture
    content/water activity
  • Acquires greater heat resistance following
    exposure to sublethal temperatures
  • Synthesizes heat shock proteins
  • S. infantis can grow in tomatoes at pH 4.0

11
Infectious dose of Salmonella
  • Newborns, infants, the elderly and
    immunocompromised individuals are more
    susceptible to Salmonella infections than healthy
    adults
  • Incompletely developed immune system in newborns
    or infants
  • Weak or delayed immune response in the elderly
    and debilitated persons
  • Low gastric acid production in infants and seniors

12
Human infectious dose of Salmonella Human infectious dose of Salmonella Human infectious dose of Salmonella
Food Serovar Infectious Dose (CFU)
Eggnog Meleagridis 104 107
Anatum 105 107
Imitation Ice Cream Typhimurium 104
Chocolate Eastbourne 102
Hamburger Newport 101 102
Cheddar Cheese Heidelberg 102
Chocolate Napoli 101 102
Cheddar Cheese Typhimurium 100 101
Chocolate Typhimurium 101
Alfalfa Sprouts Newport lt 4.6 X 102
Ice Cream Enteritidis lt 2.8 X 101
13
High fat content of food influences infectious
dose
  • High fat content of chocolate (cocoa butter),
    cheese (milk fat), and meat (animal fat) is
    common factor among foods associated with low
    infectious dose
  • Suggested that entrapment of salmonellae within
    hydrophobic lipid micelles affords protection
    against the bactericidal action of gastric
    acidity
  • Rapid emptying of gastric contents could also
    provide alternate mechanism

14
Examples of Major Outbreaks of Salmonellosis Associated with Chocolate-based Products Examples of Major Outbreaks of Salmonellosis Associated with Chocolate-based Products Examples of Major Outbreaks of Salmonellosis Associated with Chocolate-based Products Examples of Major Outbreaks of Salmonellosis Associated with Chocolate-based Products
Year Country Salmonella serovar No. of Cases
1973 Canada and USA Eastbourne 217
1982 England and Wales Napoli 245
1987 Norway and Finland Typhimurium 361
2000-2001 Germany International Oranienburg gt439
2006 United Kingdom Montevideo gt 50
15
Contributing factor to Chocolate-associated
outbreaks of salmonellosis
  • Contamination of chocolate during processing via
    leaking pipe/contaminated water

16
Salmonella Survival in a Chocolate Confectionary
Product
  • Thermal inactivation of salmonellae in molten
    chocolate is not practically possible because the
    time-temperature conditions required to kill the
    pathogen in this high sucrose-containing product
    of low water activity would result in
    organoleptically unacceptable product
  • Salmonellae can survive for many years in
    finished chocolate products when stored at
    ambient temperature
  • Effective decontamination of raw cocoa beans and
    stringent in-plant control measures to prevent
    cross-contamination of products are critical

17
Salmonella Tennessee Outbreak Associated with
Peanut Butter
  • From August 2006 May 2007, 628 persons in 47
    states were infected with S. Tennessee
  • Vehicle was two brands of peanut butter made by
    same manufacturer at same processing facility
  • Source of contamination was a leaky roof over
    area after peanut roasting
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, June
    1,
  • 2007

18
Salmonellosis from Raw Almonds
  • In 2003 2004, 29 cases of Salmonella
    Enteritidis infections in 12 states and Canada
    from California-grown raw almonds
  • 13 million pounds of raw almonds recalled
  • In 2001, outbreak of S. Enteritidis infections,
    mostly in Canada, during 6-month period
  • Traced to 3 CA orchards
  • MMWR 53(22)484-487 (June 11, 2004)

19
Salmonellosis from Raw Almonds
  • Almonds are Californias largest agricultural
    crop (1.5 billion annually)
  • 1 billion pounds produced in 2003
  • 5 of almonds consumed in US are raw
  • Harvesting, drying and hulling-shelling practices
    enable cross contamination
  • Salmonella isolated for many months from soil of
    almond orchards almonds that contact soil can be
    contaminated
  • Almonds can be pasteurized with heat, steam or
    propylene oxide to reduce risk of contamination

20
Examples of Outbreaks of Salmonellosis Associated
with Tomatoes
  • Two multistate (midwest) outbreaks of
    salmonellosis identified by laboratory-based
    surveillance
  • In 1990, 176 cases of S. Javiana
  • In 1993, 100 cases of S. Montevideo
  • Source Tomatoes from a single South Carolina
    tomato packer
  • Contamination likely occurred at packing shed
  • Field-grown tomatoes dumped into common water
    bath
  • Tomatoes placed in water cooler then tomato pulp
    absorb water and salmonellae into core tissues
    through stem scar
  • C. W. Hedberg et al. Epidemiol. Infect. 122385
    (1999)

21
Examples of Outbreaks of Salmonellosis Associated with Tomatoes Examples of Outbreaks of Salmonellosis Associated with Tomatoes Examples of Outbreaks of Salmonellosis Associated with Tomatoes Examples of Outbreaks of Salmonellosis Associated with Tomatoes Examples of Outbreaks of Salmonellosis Associated with Tomatoes
Date Pathogen Location No. of Cases Likely Source of Contamination
1990 S. Javiana Multistate 176 Packinghouse
1993 S. Montevideo Multistate 100 Packinghouse
1998-99 S. Bailden Multistate 85 Field Contamination
2002 S. Newport 24 States 512 Packinghouse
2004 Multiserotypes Salmonella Multistate 564 Packinghouse
2005 S. Newport Multistate 72 Field Contamination (Irrigation Pond)
2005 S. Braenderup Multistate 82 Field Contamination
2006 S. Newport Multistate 115 Not Determined
2006 S. Typhimurium Multistate 190 Packinghouse
22
Salmonellosis Outbreak Associated with Cantaloupes
  • More than 400 cases of Salmonella Poona infection
    in 23 states and Canada during June-July 1991
  • Vehicle cantaloupe
  • Likely source of cantaloupe was Rio Grande region
    of Texas
  • Implicated cantaloupe associated with fruit
    salads from salad bars
  • FDA survey of imported cantaloupes and
    watermelons at U.S. border in 1990 and 1991
    isolated Salmonella spp. from about 1 of rinds
  • Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 40549, 1991

23
Examples of Salmonellosis Outbreaks Associated with Cantaloupes Examples of Salmonellosis Outbreaks Associated with Cantaloupes Examples of Salmonellosis Outbreaks Associated with Cantaloupes Examples of Salmonellosis Outbreaks Associated with Cantaloupes Examples of Salmonellosis Outbreaks Associated with Cantaloupes
Year Type of Melon Pathogen Location No. of Cases
1989-90 Cantaloupe S. Chester Multistate 245
1991 Cantaloupe S. Poona Multistate gt 400
1997 Cantaloupe S. Saphra California 24
1998 Cantaloupe S. Oranienburg Canada 22
2000 Cantaloupe S. Poona Multistate 47
2001 Cantaloupe S. Poona Multistate 50
2002 Cantaloupe S. Poona Multistate, Canada 58
2006 Fruit salad cantaloupe honeydew S. Oranienburg 10 States, Canada 41
24
Salmonella Contamination during Cantaloupe
Production
  • 6 cantaloupe farms and packing plants in South
    Texas and 3 farms in Colima State, Mexico were
    sampled to evaluate Salmonella contamination of
    cantaloupe during production and processing
  • Sampled cantaloupe surface and irrigation water
  • E. coli detected on 3.9 of melons from Texas and
    25.7 from Mexico
  • A. Castillo et al. J. Food Protect. 67713-720
    (2004)

25
Salmonella Contamination during Cantaloupe
Production
  • Salmonella isolated from

Texas Mexico
Cantaloupes at melon farm Cantaloupes at melon farm Cantaloupes at melon farm
Field Field 1/400 (0.2) 1/400 (0.2) 0/75
Before wash Before wash 1/150 (0.6) 1/150 (0.6) 0/75
After wash After wash 1/150 (0.6) 1/150 (0.6) 1/75 (1.3)
In cooler In cooler 2/250 (0.8) 2/250 (0.8) 0/75

Irrigation water (at source) Irrigation water (at source) Irrigation water (at source) 9/70 (13) 9/70 (13) 4/15 (27)
After filtration After filtration 0/5 0/5 5/15 (33)
As delivered to field As delivered to field 2/25 (8) 2/25 (8) 1/15 (7)
26
Salmonella Associated with Cantaloupes
  • Reported outbreaks have been associated both with
    whole melons contaminated in growing fields and
    with precut melons
  • Disinfection of irregular surface of cantaloupes
    is difficult
  • Cut fruit can be contaminated when rind is
    removed and fruit is sliced
  • Inner flesh of melons contains nutrients that
    support microbial growth improper refrigeration
    of cut melon can cause Salmonella growth

27
  • What Food Is Considered by Many Food Safety
    Experts to be the Most Hazardous?

28
Examples of Salmonellosis Outbreaks Associated with Sprout Consumption Examples of Salmonellosis Outbreaks Associated with Sprout Consumption Examples of Salmonellosis Outbreaks Associated with Sprout Consumption Examples of Salmonellosis Outbreaks Associated with Sprout Consumption Examples of Salmonellosis Outbreaks Associated with Sprout Consumption
Sprout No. of
Date Type Pathogen Location Cases
1988 Bean Salmonella Saint-Paul UK 143
1994 Alfalfa S. Bovismordificans Sweden 282
Finland 210
1995 Alfalfa S. Newport Oregon 58
British Columbia 70
1995 Alfalfa S. Newport Denmark 154
1995 Alfalfa S. Stanley Multistate, Finland 242
1996 Alfalfa S. Montevideo, S. Meleagridis California gt500
1997 Alfalfa S. Infantis, S. Anatum Kansas, Missouri 109
1998 Alfalfa S. Havana, S. Cubana, S. Tennessee California 34
1999 Sprouts Salmonella Colorado 79
1999 Alfalfa S. Paratyphi B Canada 51
2000 Mung Bean S. Enteritidis California 45
2001 Mung Bean S. Enteritidis Canada 85
2001 Alfalfa S. Kottbus Washington 23
2003 Alfalfa Salmonella Oregon gt 9
2007 Alfalfa S. Weltevreden Norway 10
29
FDA Warning Regarding Sprout Consumption
  • July 9, 1999 consumer advisory by U.S. Food and
    Drug Administration
  • All consumers (not just those at highest risk of
    foodborne illness) can reduce the risk of
    foodborne illness by cooking sprouts or
    completely avoiding consumption of sprouts
  • FDA believes that all sprouts (not only alfalfa
    or clover sprouts) may pose a risk

30
Microbiological Safety Issues Associated with
Imported Foods
  • Sanitation practices for food production and
    preparation are not universally equivalent
    throughout the world

31
Chicken/Shrimp Farming in Thailand
  • Chicken/shrimp farming is only means of income
    for many small stakeholders
  • Chicken coops (e.g., 20,000 birds/farm) sit in
    rows suspended over ponds that hold shrimp and
    fish
  • Livestock below feeds on waste from above
  • BBC News, January 27, 2004

32
(No Transcript)
33
Food Safety Issues with Imported Fishery/Seafood
Products
  • Salmonella is the most common contaminant of fish
    and fishery products resulting in detention by
    FDA
  • In 2001, of 6,405 violations 28.6 were for
    adulteration by Salmonella
  • More than half of violations for Salmonella were
    for contaminated shrimp and prawns
  • J. Allhouse et al., USDA, ERS, International
    Trade and Seafood Safety, AER-828, p. 109-124,
    Nov 2003

34
Examples of FDA Food Import Refusals for Salmonella Contamination for August 2007 Examples of FDA Food Import Refusals for Salmonella Contamination for August 2007 Examples of FDA Food Import Refusals for Salmonella Contamination for August 2007 Examples of FDA Food Import Refusals for Salmonella Contamination for August 2007 Examples of FDA Food Import Refusals for Salmonella Contamination for August 2007


Country Country Product Product


China China Shrimp Harvested in India then sent to China Shrimp Harvested in India then sent to China
China China Chives Chives
China China Whole Black Peppercorns Whole Black Peppercorns
China China Dog Chicken Strips Dog Chicken Strips
Egypt Egypt Basil Basil
Egypt Egypt Fennel Fennel
India India Frozen Ginger Frozen Ginger
India India Frozen Fish Chunks in Tray Frozen Fish Chunks in Tray
India India Black Pepper Black Pepper
India India Cumin Cumin

(Continued) (Continued)
35
Examples of FDA Food Import Refusals for Salmonella Contamination for August 2007 (Continued) Examples of FDA Food Import Refusals for Salmonella Contamination for August 2007 (Continued) Examples of FDA Food Import Refusals for Salmonella Contamination for August 2007 (Continued) Examples of FDA Food Import Refusals for Salmonella Contamination for August 2007 (Continued) Examples of FDA Food Import Refusals for Salmonella Contamination for August 2007 (Continued)


Country Country Product Product


Indonesia Indonesia Cinnamon Cinnamon
Indonesia Indonesia Frozen Grouper Fillets Frozen Grouper Fillets
Malaysia Malaysia Frozen Shrimp Frozen Shrimp
Mexico Mexico Dry Hard Cheese Dry Hard Cheese
Pakistan Pakistan Coriander Powder Coriander Powder
Philippines Philippines Frozen Octopus Frozen Octopus
Philippines Philippines Dried Taro Leaves Dried Taro Leaves
Thailand Thailand Shrimp Prawns Shrimp Prawns
Vietnam Vietnam Frozen Grouper Frozen Grouper
Vietnam Vietnam Ground Black Pepper Ground Black Pepper


FDA Import Program (www.fda.gov/ora/import/ora_import_program.html) FDA Import Program (www.fda.gov/ora/import/ora_import_program.html) FDA Import Program (www.fda.gov/ora/import/ora_import_program.html) FDA Import Program (www.fda.gov/ora/import/ora_import_program.html) FDA Import Program (www.fda.gov/ora/import/ora_import_program.html)
36
Conclusions
  • Salmonella spp. is the leading cause of foodborne
    bacterial disease in the United States
  • There has been minimal progress in reducing the
    incidence of salmonellosis during the past decade

37
Conclusions
  • Substantial progress has been made in reducing
    Salmonella contamination of meat products but not
    ground poultry products

38
Conclusions
  • Eggs and poultry are major vehicles of Salmonella
    infections, however, many other foods, including
    fresh produce and occasionally some RTE products
    are also important contributors
  • Many imported foods are vehicles of Salmonella
    because they are produced or processed under
    unsanitary conditions

39
Conclusions
  • Many strains of Salmonella are unusually
    resilient to extreme environmental conditions
  • Preexposure to sodium chloride or acid increase
    tolerance to acid
  • Heat resistance increases with decreased moisture
    content
  • Salmonella can persist for months to years in
    soil and in dry locations in food processing
    facilities

40
Conclusions
  • Need for renewed emphasis by food industry to
    prevent and control Salmonella contamination from
    farm to plate
About PowerShow.com