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Germany Attacks Poland

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Title: World War II Last modified by: dwoolley Created Date: 2/14/2007 7:30:38 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show Company: Lloyd High School – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Germany Attacks Poland


1
Germany Attacks Poland
  • Germany invades Poland (1 September 1939)
  • Britain and France declare war on Germany
  • Mutual aid treaties with Poland
  • Now both are forced into war and Hitler has
    gained the initiative

2
Blitzkrieg was born in Poland
  • Lighting Warfare
  • Attack enemy at weakest point
  • Combination of lateral and forward movements
  • Large mechanized ground forces
  • Coordinated use of airpower
  • Speed, Speed, Speed!!!!

3
Poland
  • Conquered in 3 weeks
  • Russian invasion from East a major factor. They
    had invaded from the east.
  • Showed power of offensive
  • Balanced combination of motorized infantry,
    armor, and air under a single commander.
  • Fast moving tanks and airplanes, followed by
    infantry, then crush the enemy with overwhelming
    force

4
Sitzkrieg
  • Phony War
  • No real fighting for 7 months
  • French Maginot Line opposite the German Siegfried
    Line, but neither side attacks.
  • April 9, 1940 Hitler attacks Norway and Denmark
  • Denmark falls in 4 hours
  • Norway falls in 2 months
  • Hitler then takes Belgium, Holland, and Luxembourg

5
Maginot Line
  • A line of concrete fortifications, tank
    obstacles, machine gun posts and other defenses
    which France constructed along her borders with
    Germany and Italy
  • The fortifications did not extend through the
    Ardennes Forest which was considered impassable

6
The Plans
  • Allies expected the Germans to attack using a
    variant of the WWI Schlieffen Plan
  • The French expected the Germans to attack through
    the north part of Belgium and planned to counter
    it with the Dye Plan
  • Instead the Manstein Plan (German Plan) called
    for an attack further south and anticipated the
    French plan.

7
Invasion of France
  • Germans 135 divisions, Allies 136 divisions
    German divisions larger and better trained
  • Hitler goes around the Maginot Line, squeezing
    through the Ardennes Forest, an area where no one
    could attack through
  • 10 days later Germany is a the North coast of
    France
  • Were able to trap French and British troops at
    Dunkirk
  • GB sent 850 ships of all types to the rescue
  • 338,000 troops rescued

8
Miracle at Dunkirk
  • German army smashes through the Ardennes Forest
    and traps the French/British on the north coast
    of Belgium/France.
  • May 26, 1940- Allies trapped at Dunkirk. No way
    out. Surrounded by the Germans, but they do not
    attack.
  • This allows the British navy and merchant ships
    to rescue the Allies.
  • Armada of 850 ships, yachts, lifeboats, etc.
    rescue 338,000 allied troops.
  • Hitlers 1st Big mistake.

9
The Fall of France
  • On June 22, France signed an armistice with
    Germany, agreeing to German occupation of
    northern France and the coast.
  • The French military was demobilized, and the
    French government, now located at Vichy, in the
    south (and headed by Marshall Henri Philippe
    Pétain), would collaborate with the German
    authorities in occupied France.
  • Refusing to recognize defeat, General Charles de
    Gaulle escaped to London and organized the Free
    French forces.
  • Britain now stood alone against Germany.

10
The Battle of Britain
  • Hitler expected Britain to make peace, however,
    Britain, led by a new Prime Minister, Winston
    Churchill, refused to surrender.
  • Hitler proceeded with invasion plans, Operation
    Sea Lion.
  • Germany must control air in order to successfully
    invade England.
  • Despite 3,000 to 1,200 advantage in aircraft,
    Luftwaffe is unable to defeat the RAF.
  • Hitler calls off plans for invasion in Sept 1940
    and shifts to bombing campaign (The Blitz).
  • Radar and ENIGMA help the British to win.
  • Britain held firm during the Blitz despite
    devastating destruction to English cities.
  • The British resistance convinced Hitler to
    postpone the invasion but he continued the
    bombing attacks.
  • Hitler calls of attacks on May 10, 1941

11
Four Phases of the War
  • Germans tried to control sea by attacking convoys
  • Shifted attack to main land RAF bases this was
    very effective
  • Bomb London to break British morale high
    civilian casualties
  • British countered by destroying 200 barges
    gathered by Germans for attack on England
  • This caused Germans to suspend Operation Sea Lion

12
End Result
  • British won the Battle
  • - Britain's will to win
  • - British radar and Enigma
  • German abandon the attacks on Britain in order to
    prepare for invasion of Russia

13
War in the Balkans
  • Hitler is secretly planning to invade the Soviet
    Union
  • Balkans are key to the plan
  • Bulgaria, Romania, and Hungary decide to
    cooperate and join the Axis
  • April 6, 1941 Hitler invade Greece and
    Yugoslavia
  • Greece falls in 17 days
  • Yugoslavia falls in 11 days

14
Operation Barbarossa The German Invasion of
Russia
  • Hitler believed the Russian Army could be
    destroyed in 3 months
  • 22 June 1941 - Hitler attacked (wanted to win
    before U.S. involvement)
  • Wanted Lebensraum- living space
  • Initial German aims were to capture Russian oil
    fields and industrial areas in order to
  • Support Germanys war in the west
  • Break Russian economic power so she could not
    attack at some later date

15
Invasion of the Soviet Union
  • Hitler gets tired of waiting for Great Britain to
    fall
  • The obliteration of Bolshevism was a key element
    of Hitlers ideology however, it was a gigantic
    military mistake.
  • Much violence and destruction
  • Over 27 Million dead Russians
  • Operation Barbarossa, consisting of an attack
    army of 4 million men spread out along a
    2,000-mile front in three massive offensives.
  • The German army quickly advanced, but at a
    terrifying cost. For the next three years, 90
    percent of German deaths would happen on the
    eastern front.
  • Hitler attacks on June 22, 1941. Russia didnt
    believe Germany would attack.

16
Russian strategy
  • Barter space for time intended retreats
  • Scorched earth policy withdrew and forced the
    Germans to overextend their lines of
    communications and supply. Forced Hitlers
    exposed army to spend the winter in -40 degree
    weather. Summer uniforms
  • Partisan organizations were to prey on Germanys
    lines of communications
  • Supply lines were so long that they slowed the
    advance
  • Vast area which had been taken was hard to
    control because of Partisan activity
  • The massive size of Russia exhausted German
    troops
  • The Russian winter set in and the Germans did not
    have adequate equipment to fight a winter battle

17
The Battle of Stalingrad
  • Hitler initiated a major summer offensive in 1942
    that was designed to destroy the Soviets' ability
    to resist.
  • Hitler believed that the Red Army had used up
    much of its manpower and materiel in the winter
    fighting.
  • If Hitler hadnt interfered, Stalingrad might
    have been taken without a fight.
  • Hitler vs. Stalin
  • In early September, the German infantry started a
    mass attack on Stalingrad.
  • Temps plummet.
  • The fighting was close-quarter combat from house
    to house.
  • Tanks became useless due to the rubble.
  • The Germans reached the center of the city a week
    later.
  • By January 25 the Russians had overran the
    German 6th Army.
  • Nearly 1 million German Soldiers were captured by
    the end of January.
  • Of all the German soldiers captured by the
    Russians, only around 5,000 would return back to
    Germany after the war.
  • Some historians believe that the victory at
    Stalingrad was the turning point.
  • War in the East is basically lost for the Germans

18
Turning Points of the War The Battle of
Stalingrad
  • The Battle of Stalingrad was the turning point of
    the war. The German Army (Wehrmacht) had already
    lost 2 million men on the eastern front.
  • In 1942-43, a German army of over 300,000 was
    defeated and captured at the Battle of
    Stalingrad.
  • The Germans then lost the battle of Kursk and
    began a long retreat.
  • The Red Army crossed into Poland in January 1944.

19
Battle of The Atlantic
  • Attempt by Germany to stop supplies reaching the
    Allies
  • Essentially conducted in five phases
  • Phase one (Sept. 1939 June 1940)
  • - German U-boat operations led to the sinking of
    numerous Allied ships
  • Phase two (June 1940 March 1941)
  • Germans build special bombproof submarine pens
  • Wolfpack operations began against convoys
  • Phase three (April December 1941)
  • - Growth of US participation
  • - 50 destroyers given to Britain, this allowed
    Russia to hold out against Germany
  • - Germans initiate unrestricted submarine
    warfare

20
Battle of Atlantic Contd
  • Phase four (January 1942 April 1943)
  • -Germans attack shipping routes near US Coast
  • - Air and surface-escorted interlocking Allied
    convoy system
  • -Increased loss of German submarines, turning
    point of the battle
  • Phase five (May 1943- May 1945)
  • - Germans shift attacks to Mediterranean
  • Eventually U-boats are defeated because of close
    air cover escorts and advances in technology
  • Allied victory shifted the balance of the war

21
The U.S. Aides Its Allies
  • War takes its toll on Europe, FDR begins to
    change policy, Pro-British.
  • Cash and Carry, a belligerent could pay in cash
    for U.S. arms.
  • Selective Service Act, 1940, registration of all
    men ages 21-35 and to train 1.2 million men.
    Isolationists upset.
  • Destroyers for Bases deal, U.S. gives G.B. 50
    older destroyers in exchange military bases in
    the Caribbean

22
FDR and the War
  • 6 January 1941 Four Freedoms, speech, religion,
    freedom from want, freedom from fear.
  • Lend-Lease Act, March 1941, U.S. to extend credit
    to G.B. for buying weapons.
  • Atlantic Charter, FDR and Churchill War Aims
  • 1. No extension of territory.
  • 2. Territorial self determination.
  • 3. Destruction of Nazism.
  • 4. International Organization to promote world
    peace.
  • September 4, 1941 German U-Boat fires on US
    destroyer
  • Roosevelt orders to fire on U-boats on sight

23
The Road to War
  • Japan sought to control of East Asia for
    additional markets and sources of raw materials
  • Invades China in 1931.
  • Invades French Indochina in 1940.
  • Colonial governments begin imposing embargoes
    to put brakes on Japanese expansion.
  • Japanese armed forces argue that they must strike
    to relieve pressure of embargoes.
  • Expect conflict, but buy time and surprise
    through negotiations.
  • US and UK focused on war in Europe.

24
Sneak Attack!
  • December 7, 1941- 755 am- 1st of 2 attacks on US
    Fleet at Pearl Harbor
  • 107 ships in harbor- 1/3 of fleet.
  • 183 planes in 1st wave. Aircraft carriers are 1st
    target, but they arent there.
  • Battleship row is 2nd target.
  • 167 planes in second wave at 854 am.
  • Third wave called off because Japan feels that
    the 1st two waves were successful enough.
  • 17 ships severely damaged
  • 188 US fighters destroyed
  • 3 ships completely destroyed (USS Arizona)
  • 2,403 Americans die (1,177 on the Arizona)
  • 29 Japanese planes shot down.

25
Or was it?
  • Many feel that FDR knew of the attacks and wanted
    them.
  • Most Americans did not want to get involved in
    the war unless attacked.
  • He felt Japan was the answer
  • Imposed trade embargos on Japan (Metal and Oil)
  • Japan had to fight or accept USs demands
  • With a puppet dictator and the military really in
    charge they chose war!

26
Pearl Harbor Conspiracy Theory
  1. In the summer of 1940 Roosevelt ordered the
    Pacific fleet to relocate to Pearl Harbor from
    California. Admiral Richardson protested and was
    replaced.
  2. October 7, 1940 a Navy intelligence analyst wrote
    FDR an 8 point memo on how to force Japan into a
    war, including embargoing Japans oil. All 8 were
    accomplished.
  3. FDRs advisor Harold Ickes wrote in his diary on
    Oct. 18, 1941. For along tie I have believed
    that our best entrance into the war by way of
    Japan.
  4. 60 years later the government refuses to identify
    or declassify pre-attack intelligence notices
    because of National Security.
  5. On Nov. 26, 1941 both the Aircraft Carriers, the
    USS Enterprise and USS Lexington were ordered out
    of Pearl Harbor. With this order 40 of Pearl
    Harbors aircrafts.
  6. The same day the US issued Japan an ultimatum to
    withdraw from SE Asia and China. This was called
    the The document that touched the button that
    started the war.

27
THE PURPLE MACHINEDecember 6, 1941
  • In Washington D.C. there was a top secret machine
    only known as Purple.
  • Purple was a message decoder.
  • On Saturday December 6, 1941 purple intercepted
    a message from Japan.
  • It was a message telling a general in Hawaii that
    Japan was going to attack.
  • The message was sent straight to Honolulu but it
    was received to late, before Honolulu had any
    time to tell pearl harbor what was going to
    happen Japan had already attacked.

28
Internment of Japanese Americans
  • After the tragedy of Pearl Harbor, Americans were
    eager to act on racial stereotypes
  • Eventually, the government build special
    relocation centers in remote sections of the U.S.
    and evacuated about 110,000 Japanese (including
    60,000 citizens of Japanese heritage).

29
Mobilization In the U.S.
  • The war effort required all of Americas huge
    productive capacity and full employment of the
    workforce.
  • Government expenditures soared.
  • U.S. budget increases
  • 1940 9 million
  • 1944 100 million
  • Expenditures in WWII greater than all previous
    government budgets combined (150 years)
  • GNP 1939 91 billion 1945 166 million

30
Mobilization for War
  • War time Economy, consumer goods to war materiel
  • War Production Board, managed war industries, set
    production priorities, pushed maximum output
  • Office of Price Administration, froze prices,
    wages, and rents, rationed meat, sugar, gasoline,
    and tires.
  • Financing the War, increased income tax, selling
    war bonds.
  • Office of War Information, controlled news about
    troop movements and battles.

31
Restoration of U.S. Prosperity
  • World War II ended the Great Depression.
  • Factories run at full capacity
  • Ford Motor Company one bomber plane per hour
  • People save money (rationing)
  • Army bases in South provide economic boom (most
    bases in South b/c of climate)
  • The national debt grew to 260 billion (6 times
    its size on Dec. 7, 1941)

32
War and Society
  • African Americans- Double V Campaign, victory
    over fascism and victory for equality, over a
    million in the military
  • Mexican Americans, over 300,000 in the military.
    Native Americans, 25,000 in the military
  • Japanese Americans, 20,000 served in the
    military, Internment camps Wyoming, Arizona, and
    Colorado
  • Women over 350,000 served in the military, close
    to 5 million joined the workforce.

33
The Turn of the Tide in Europe
  • Defeat of the Axis Powers
  • The turning point of the war came in 1942-43.
  • Allied victory in North Africa was followed by an
    invasion of Italy, which stopped the Axis powers
    string of victories.
  • The decisive theater of war, however, was the
    eastern front.

34
Strategic Bombing of Germany
  • Smashing the German war machine by bomber blitz
    similar to German tank blitz used in France and
    Poland
  • Until A-bomb, not sufficiently destructive to end
    war
  • 5 Main Targets
  • Military group - tactical, not strategic
  • Industrial group - would take years many
    aircraft to achieve results
  • Urban group - create demoralization revolt
  • Resources and energy group - coal, oil, etc.
  • Transportation group - means to transport war
    materials, i.e., bridges, railroads, etc.
  • Groups (4) and (5) became dominant targets

35
Race to Berlin
  • D-Day was the turning point of the western front.
    Stalingrad was the turning point of the eastern
    front.
  • The British, U.S., and Free French armies began
    to press into western Germany as the Soviets
    invaded eastern Germany.
  • Both sides raced to Berlin.

36
Surprise Fictitious Armies
  • By spurious radio transmissions, the Allies
    created an entire phantom army, "based" in
    southeast England (opposite Pas-de-Calais) and
    alleged to be commanded by Patton.
  • In addition, on the night of the invasion itself,
    airborne radar deception presented to German
    radar stations a "phantom" picture of an invasion
    fleet crossing the Channel narrows, while a radar
    blackout disguised the real transit to Normandy.

37
Surprise Ultra
  • At the same time, through the top-secret Ultra
    operation, the Allies were able to decode
    encrypted German transmissions, thus providing
    the Overlord forces with a clear picture of where
    the German counterattack forces were deployed.

38
Operation Overlord
  • Most massive and complex military endeavor in
    history
  • Numerous beaches were studied
  • Normandy or Pas de Calais

39
Pas de Calais - Advantages
Pas de Calais- Disadvantages
  • Best air cover
  • Shorter sea voyage
  • Best beaches and conditions
  • Close to Dutch and Belgium forts
  • Germans considered it the most likely avenue of
    approach
  • Beaches were too narrow to support follow on
    operations

40
Advantages of Normandy
Disadvantages of Normandy
  • Good beach conditions
  • Somewhat sheltered
  • Within air cover distance
  • Defenses were not strong
  • Port of Cherbourg could be quickly isolated and
    captured
  • Exits from the beach were difficult
  • Insufficient numbers of ports were readily
    available

41
Allied Plan
  • Eisenhower appointed Supreme Commander
  • Land on Normandy coast, build up and break out of
    beachhead
  • Attack on a broad axis with two armies
  • - one to attack east and north towards
    Germany
  • - the other to link up with the southern France
    invasion to the south

42
D-Day
  • After taking control of North Africa and the
    Mediterranean, Allies are ready to invade Europe.
  • 1,000 British Bombers pound the coast, but do
    little damage.
  • 23,000 U.S and British paratroopers were dropped
    in France to take strategic towns and bridges.
  • 150,000 troops landed on the beaches of Normandy.
    Largest amphibious assault ever.
  • 5 beaches- Juno, Gold, Sword, Omaha, Utah
  • 2,000 American casualties on Omaha

43
Allied Plan Contd
  • Maintain an unrelenting offense for complete
    destruction of enemy west of the Rhine
  • Launch a final attack a double envelopment of
    the Ruhr
  • Emphasis on the northern, left flank toward Ruhr
    and industrial Germany

44
Operation Overlord
  • On 6 June, 1944 some 6,500 vessels landed over
    130,000 Allied forces on five Normandy beaches
    codenamed Utah, Omaha, Gold, Juno and Sword.
  • Some 12,000 aircraft ensured air superiority for
    the Allies - bombing German defenses, and
    providing cover.
  • On Utah beach 23,000 troops were landed, with 197
    casualties.
  • Most of the 4,649 American casualties that day
    occurred at Omaha beach, where the landing was
    significantly more difficult to achieve, meeting
    with fierce German resistance.

45
Results
  • D-day casualties 2,500 KIAS, Allies expected
    10,000
  • Turning point in the European Theater
  • By 18 June, the U.S. 1st Army sealed off
    Cherbourg Peninsula
  • Caen fell to British on 8 July
  • St. Lo to the U.S. 1st Army on 18 July
  • The tide had turned.

46
Operation Overlord
  • Hitler's troubles were compounded by a Russian
    counterattack in June.
  • This drove 300 miles west to Warsaw, and killed,
    wounded or captured 350,000 German soldiers.
  • By the end of August the Russians had taken
    Bucharest. Estonia was taken within months, and
    Budapest was under siege by the end of the year.

47
The Battle of the Bulge
  • The Battle of Ardennes, (Belgium)
  • 16 December 1944 25 January 1945
  • German forces intended to split the Allied line.
  • G.B. and U.S. had 83,000 men. Germany over
    200,000
  • G.B. and U.S.
  • 80,987 casualties(10,276 dead, 23,218
    missing,47,493 wounded)
  • Germany
  • 84,834 casualties(15,652 dead,27,582
    missing,41,600 wounded
  • Allies keep moving into German Territory

48
End of the War in Europe
  • April 25, 1945 Soviet and U.S. troops meet at
    Torgau, on the Elbe River.
  • April 30, 1945 Hitler Commits suicide
  • May 2, 1945 Battle of Berlin ends
  • May 7, 1945 Rheims, France, surrender documents
    signed.
  • May 8, 1945 Victory in Europe. VE DAY

49
Into Germany!
  • Americans closing in from the West, Russians
    closing in from the East.
  • 13.6 million Russians and 3 million Germans die
    in the East
  • USSR- 27 Million civilian and military death.
  • April 1945- Soviets push towards Berlin.
  • 80 of city leveled
  • U.S. pushed to the south.
  • Hitler knows the end is near and commits suicide
    with his mistress, Eva Braun.
  • Germany surrenders to US, not USSR

50
Victory in Europe
  • Mussolini was captured and killed by Italian
    partisans and Hitler committed suicide in April
    1945, as the Russian troops took Berlin.
  • Germany surrendered unconditionally on May 7,
    1945 (V-E Day).
  • Fighting in the Pacific would continue until
    August.

51
The Pacific Theater
  • Within 6 months of Pearl Harbor, Japan had a new
    empire.
  • Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere
  • Japanese racial purity and supremacy
  • Treated Chinese and Koreans with brutality.
  • Rape of Nanjing- Japanese slaughtered at least
    100,000 civilians and raped thousands of women in
    the Chinese capital between Dec. 1937 and Feb.
    1938.
  • Could have consolidated
  • victory disease
  • After Pearl Harbor, American military leaders
    focused on halting the Japanese advance and
    mobilizing the whole nation for war.

52
The Pacific Theater Early Battles
  • American Forces halted the Japanese advances in
    two decisive naval battles.
  • Coral Sea (May 1942)
  • U.S. stopped a fleet convoying Japanese troops to
    New Guinea
  • Japanese designs on Australia ended
  • Midway (June 1942)
  • Japanese Admiral Yamamoto hoped to capture Midway
    Island as a base to attack Pearl Harbor again
  • U.S. Admiral Chester Nimitz caught the Japanese
    by surprise and sank 3 of the 4 aircraft
    carriers, 332 planes, and 3500 men.
  • American cryptanalysts

53
The War in the Pacific
  • 1942 Japan Occupied Korea, Eastern China, the
    Philippines, British Burma, Malaya, French
    Indochina, Indonesia, many islands west of Midway
    Island
  • May 7 8, 1942 Battle of the Coral Sea
  • Japan threatens New Zealand and Australia,
    looking to maintain a stranglehold on the Solomon
    Islands
  • United States and Australia hold off the Japanese
    attack.
  • No real victor, sets the stage for Midway

54
Importance of Midway
  • The Japanese defeat at Midway was the turning
    point in the Pacific.
  • Japanese advances stopped.
  • U.S. assumes initiative.
  • Japanese have shortage of able pilots.
  • Censorship and Propaganda
  • News of the defeat was kept from the Japanese
    public.

55
The War in the Pacific, MidwayJune 4-7, 1942
  • The United States
  • Commanders Chester Nimitz, Frank Fletcher,
    Raymond Spruance
  • Strength Three carriers,about 50 support
    ships233 carrier aircraft,127 land-based
    aircraft
  • Casualties1 carrier,1 destroyer sunk307
    killed
  • Destruction of 4 carriers means that the U.S. can
    now go on the offensive. Crushing defeat for the
    Japanese
  • Japan, plan to destroy U.S. carriers, under the
    impression that they would only have to deal with
    two carriers.
  • Commanders Isoroku Yamamoto, Chuichi Nagumo,
    Tamon Yamaguchi
  • Strength Four carriers,about 150 support
    ships248 carrier aircraft,16 floatplanes
  • Casualties 4 carriers,1 cruiser sunk3,057
    killed

56
The War in the Pacific
  • Island Hopping Campaign- isolate Japanese
    strongholds using Naval and air power, seize
    strategic islands along the Japanese supply line.
  • Begins August 1942, Marines land at Guadalcanal,
    Solomon Islands, Gilbert and Marshall Islands,
  • 23-26 October 1944 Invasion of the Philippines,
    Battle of Leyte Gulf, Japanese navy just about
    destroyed
  • February and March 1945 Battle of Iwo Jima, Mount
    Suribachi, U.S. Casualties 6,821 dead19,000
    wounded Japanese Casualties 20,500 dead 200
    captured
  • Battle of Okinawa, March June 1945, largest
    sea-land battle in history, Last major battle of
    the war. U.S. Casualties 12,500 killed or
    missing 38,000 wounded 33,096 non-combat wounded
    38 ships lost 763 aircraft lost Japanese
    Casualties 110,000 killed7,455 captured 16
    ships lost 7,800 aircraft lost

57
Guadalcanal
  • 7 August 1942
  • First offensive action of the war.
  • Critical airfield.
  • First plane makes emergency landing on 12 Aug.
  • 2 USMC squadrons arrive on 20 Aug.
  • Only one healthy carrier left by end of battle.
  • Jungle causes significant casualties.
  • Over 1k new cases of malaria per week.
  • Island secured in Feb 43.
  • Japan suffers critical losses in all areas.
  • 25,000 soldiers (1/2 in combat, ½ to illness)

58
The Beginning of the End in the Pacific
  • Yamamoto is assassinated by the U.S. (April 1943)
  • Loss of Saipan (August 1944)
  • the naval and military heart and brain of
    Japanese defense strategy
  • Political crisis in Japan
  • The government could no longer hide the fact that
    they were losing the war.
  • Tojo resigns on July 18, 1944
  • Intensive air raids over Japan
  • Iwo Jima (February, 1945)
  • American marines invaded this island, which was
    needed to provide fighter escort for bombings
    over Japan

59
Iwo Jima
  • D-Day 9 Feb 1945
  • Airfields again the objectives.
  • 450 ships
  • Pre-invasion bombardment shortened from 12 to 3
    days.
  • Weather limited effectiveness of even this.
  • Southern half of island in US hands by D2.
  • Takes 34 more days to secure remainder of island
    (8 square miles total).
  • Nothing fancy simple but costly.
  • Throwing human flesh against reinforced
    concrete.
  • 36 days, 26k US casualties including 6k KIA.
  • 1 of every 3 US personnel that went ashore was
    wounded or killed.   
  • 1k of 20k defenders survived 
  • 2400 B-29s w/ 27k crewmen made unscheduled
    landings on island by the time the war ended.
  • 27 Medals of Honor awarded.  

60
A Grinding War in the Pacific
  • In 1945, the U.S. began targeting people in order
    to coerce Japan to surrender
  • 66 major Japanese cities bombed
  • 500,000 civilians killed
  • Battle for Leyte Gulf
  • Total blockade of Japan
  • Japanese navy virtually destroyed
  • Kamikaze (divine wind) flights begin
  • Okinawa (April, 1945)
  • All 110,000 Japanese defenders killed
  • U.S. invaded this island, which would provide a
    staging area for the invasion of the Japanese
    islands.
  • If it is this bad at Okinawa, how bad will it get
    in Japan?

61
Manhattan Project
  • Albert Einstein
  • Developed the theory of relativity and set in
    motion the process of developing the atomic bomb
  • Manhattan Project
  • Committee that looked at the feasibility of an
    atomic bomb
  • July 16, 1945 they test the first atomic bomb
    in the desert at Alamogordo, New Mexico
  • The bomb left a huge crater in the earth and
    shattered windows up to 125 miles away

62
Decision to Drop the Bomb
  • The alternatives
  • Invading main land Japan
  • A naval Blockade and continued bombing
  • Softening of the idea of unconditional surrender
  • Dropping the bomb on a remote, deserted island to
    show its power
  • The decision
  • High casualties would result from invading Japan
  • The bitterness that Americans felt towards Pearl
    Harbor
  • The U.S. wanted to flex its muscles before the
    eyes of the communist rivals and the rest of the
    world

63
The Bombs
  • August 6, 1945, the first bomb, Little Boy, was
    dropped on Hiroshima
  • August 9, 1945, the second bomb, Fat Man, is
    dropped on Nagasaki
  • September 2, 1945, Japan surrenders

64
President Trumans SpeechAugust 9, 1945
  • The world will note that the first atomic bomb
    was dropped on Hiroshima, a military base. That
    was because we wished in this first attack to
    avoid, insofar as possible, the killing of
    civilians. But that attack is only a warning of
    things to come. If Japan does not surrender,
    bombs will have to be dropped on her war
    industries and, unfortunately, thousands of
    civilian lives will be lost. I urge Japanese
    civilians to leave industrial cities immediately,
    and save themselves from destruction.

65
VJ!
  • Some Japanese still want to fight after A-bombs,
    but Emperor Hirohito urges them to stop.
  • Surrender to General Douglas god MacArthur.
  • His goal was to demilitarize Japan (reduce their
    ability to fight)
  • Second goal was democratization, creating a
    democracy
  • Become a Parliamentary democracy similar to Great
    Britain, with Emperor as figurehead.
  • Hirohito forced to admit that he was not God!
  • Article 9- Japanes cannot make war. No Army, only
    SDF. We are still responsible for Japan.

66
Cost of War
  • Germany- 3 million combat deaths (3/4ths on the
    eastern front)
  • Japan over 1.5 combat deaths 900,000 civilians
    dead
  • Soviet Union - 13 million combat deaths
  • U.S. 300,000 combat deaths, over 100,000 other
    deaths
  • When you include all combat and civilian deaths,
    World War II becomes the most destructive war in
    history with estimates as high as 60 million,
    including 25 million Russians.

67
Aftershocks!
  • Many historic cities like London and Berlin,
    destroyed.
  • Countryside torn up. Crops?
  • Warsaw
  • 1.3 M before the war.
  • 153,000 after the war.
  • 95 of Berlin was rubble.
  • 4,000 a day die in Berlin in 1945.
  • Starvation, disease, etc.
  • Communists (Russians) dont leave Eastern Europe.
  • Iron Curtain develops.
  • Democracy v. Communism
  • Cold War

68
Nuremberg War Crimes Trial
  • 22 Nazis put on trial for war crimes and crimes
    against humanity.
  • Hitler and many top Nazis dead, but some still
    remain.
  • Reichsmarshall Herman Goering and Deputy Fuhrer
    Rudolf Hess among those tried.
  • 12 sentenced to death, Goering kills himself,
    escapes hanging.
  • I was just following orders.
  • Only 1, Hans Frank, the slayer of the Poles,
    expressed remorse.

69
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70
Truman Administration
  • Truman Doctrine I believe it must be the policy
    of the United States to support free peoples who
    are resisting attempted subjugation by armed
    minorities or by outside pressures.
  • Containment rather than liberating those
    countries already in the grip of Communism, the
    United States tried to keep it from spreading
  • Creation of NATO U.S., Belgium, Canada, Denmark,
    France, G.B., Iceland, Italy, Luxemburg,
    Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, and later Greece
    and Turkey form a front against Soviet
    Aggression.
  • Korean War, 1950-53 Invasion of South Korea by
    North Korean communist forces in June of 1950

71
U.S. World Power
  • New Challenges faced the United States
  • Safeguard its security and National interests
    against powerful and unfriendly nations
  • Help protect the sovereignty of the nations of
    Europe, Latin America, and Asia without provoking
    hostile relations with them or the Communist Bloc
  • Establish ties to newly independent nations of
    Asia and Africa
  • Balance the cost of domestic programs with
    defense needs.

72
The Cold War Begins
  • U.S.A. and USSR have ideological differences.
    Capitalism v. Communism
  • Wartime allies out of convenience, common enemy.
  • Postwar goals
  • U.S.A.- fought for democracy and economic freedom
    in Europe and Asian, wanted to see these
    continued.
  • USSR- wants to rebuild to protect their
    interests. Create satellite nations- countries
    subject to Soviet domination.

73
Iron Curtain
  • Communist regimes in East Germany, Poland, Czech,
    Hungary, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria and Romania.
  • Churchill asks US for help from Russians closing
    the Iron Curtain around any more nations in
    Europe.
  • Cold War- competition that developed between the
    US and the USSR for power and influence
    throughout the world.
  • Never directly fought, but almost.

74
Containment and the Truman Doctrine.
  • Containment- American policy of resisting further
    expansion of communism around the world, said
    that Eastern Europe was already lost.
  • GB cant support its former colonies and allies,
    like Turkey and Greece.
  • Asks US for help.
  • Truman gives speech that becomes known as Truman
    Doctrine.
  • US WOULD SUPPORT NATIONS THAT WERE BEING
    THREATENED BY COMMUNISM
  • Truman Doctrine and Containment led to Korean and
    Vietnam Wars, Cuban Missile Crisis, etc.

75
Marshal Plan
  • US doesnt want to make same mistakes as WWI.
  • Wants to rebuild not punish Europe for war.
  • Marshall Plan- program of American economic
    assistance to Western Europe to rebuild Western
    Europe and keep USSR out.
  • Named for General George C. Marshall

76
NATO and Korea
  • N. Korea (communist) invades S. Korea
  • US and UN intervene.
  • MacArthur whips Koreans, but Chinese volunteers
    push Americans back.
  • MarArthur second guesses the president and gets
    fired.
  • 38th parallel
  • UN is powerless to stop communism b/c Russia has
    veto power.
  • Western European countries form North Atlantic
    Treaty Organization (NATO)
  • If Russia attacks one, they all join in. Problem?
  • Russia forms Warsaw Pact with other communist
    nations
  • Collective Security- policy in which nations
    agree to protect on another against an attack.

77
Eisenhower Era
  • Russia develops A-bomb in 1949
  • Arms race develops between the US and USSR
  • Ike elected in 1952.
  • Believed in Domino Theory- theory that described
    the world as being overrun by Soviet Communism,
    as one country falls, so does the next.
  • If it starts, no way to stop it.

78
1957 Sputnik first satellite1960- 1st man in
space
79
Cold War Heats Up
  • Soviets first in space
  • Sputnik - First man-made satellite - 1957
  • Yuri Gagarin - First man in space - 1961
  • U-2 Incident - 1960
  • Francis Gary Powers shot down over Soviet Union
  • Khrushchev's speech at the UN We will bury you!
    - 1960
  • Berlin Wall - 1961
  • Kennedys speech Ich bin ein Berliner - 1963

80
Cold War Bay of Pigs
  • Bay of Pigs Invasion - 17 Apr 1961
  • 1400 invaders to overthrow Castro
  • Cuban Nationalists/Insurgents trained and backed
    by CIA
  • Poorly planned and poorly executed complete
    fiasco
  • No popular support in Cuba
  • No US military support
  • Total failure
  • U.S. loss of face

81
13 Days in October
  • 14th photographs of missiles on Cuba
  • 22nd Kennedy decides to blockade Cuba
  • 24th Soviet ships turn back
  • 24th message from Khrushchev saying must find
    peaceful solution
  • 25th U2 spy plane shot down
  • 26th 2nd message from Khrushchev
  • 28th agreement reached

82
Cuban Missile Crisis American Response
  • Quarantine
  • Actually a blockade
  • Fleet directed to block further shipments
  • Demand to remove missiles
  • Soviet ships reverse course, 1 ship boarded
  • Khrushchev stops shipments and removes missiles

Were eyeball to eyeball, and I think the other
fellow just blinked Dean Rusk, Secretary of
State
83
  • October 25 At the UN, Adlai Stevenson directly
    challenges the Soviet ambassador to admit to the
    existence of missiles, when the ambassador
    refuses, Stevenson wheels out pictures of the
    missile sites
  • http//www.history.com/media.do?actionclipidv2t
    16

84
Chronology, Continued
  • October 27 Soviets demand that Americans also
    withdraw missiles from Turkey Major Andersons
    plane is missing over Cuba, presumably shot down
    U.S. recon plane strays over Soviet airspacehigh
    tensions
  • Kennedy tells Khrushchev that he will accept the
    proposal of the 26th, Kennedy tells his brother
    to tell the Soviet Ambassador that though the
    Turkey missiles would not be part of the bargain,
    they would be removed in time
  • October 28 USSR agrees to withdraw missiles
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