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Hitler and the Rise of Nazi Germany

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Hitler and the Rise of Nazi Germany World Civilization – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Hitler and the Rise of Nazi Germany


1
Hitler and the Rise of Nazi Germany
  • World Civilization

2
Germany after WWI
  • 1919- the Kaiser abdicated
  • The Weimar Republic was created.
  • Strain of reparations payments Great Depression
    depressed Germanys economy.
  • hyperinflation

3
Adolf Hitlers Early Life
  • Born in Austria-1889
  • Developed strong anti-Semitic feelings while
    living in Vienna.
  • Rejected from art school
  • Mothers doctor was a Jew
  • Many Jews were rich
  • Fought for the Germans in WWI after Austria
    rejected him.

4
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5
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6
Hitlers Background
  • Joined the Nazi party in 1919.
  • National Socialist German Workers
  • Arrested in 1923 for treason after he tried to
    stage a takeover. 9 months in jail.
  • Wrote Mein Kampf while in prison.
  • My Struggle

7
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8
Mein Kampf
  • Main Ideas
  • Germans belonged to master race
  • Jews, Serbs, Poles, etc were enemies
  • All Germans should unite to form 1 great nation.
  • Germany should expand to gain lebensraum, or
    living space.

9
The Nazi Party
  • Nazi membership increased to 1 million.
  • Hitler promised to end reparations, create jobs,
    and rearm Germany.
  • Basically, make Germany great again.
  • Instilled strong feelings of nationalism.
  • Appealed to Germans b/c of horrible economy.

10
Hitler becomes Chancellor
  • Hitler was named chancellor of Germany in 1933
  • Not popular with politicians, but better choice.
  • Communism was spreading rapidly Hitler seemed
    the lesser of 2 evils.

11
Hitler creates a totalitarian state
  • Abolished all parties except Nazi party
  • Ended civil rights
  • Used military force to arrest/execute opponents
  • SS (Schutzstaffel)
  • Gestapo
  • All Quiet on the Western Front burned

12
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13
Nazism and Religion
  • The Nazis came first for the Communists. But I
    wasnt a Communist, so I didnt speak up. Then
    they came for the Jews, but I wasnt a Jew, so I
    didnt speak up. Then they came for the
    Catholics, but I was a Protestant so I didnt
    speak up. Then they came for me. By that time,
    there was no one left to speak up.
  • Martin Niemoller, Lutheran min.

14
Hitlers anti-Semitism
  • 1933- Nuremberg Laws passed
  • Prohibited Jews from
  • Attending/teaching at German schools
  • Holding govt. jobs
  • Practicing law or medicine
  • Publishing books
  • Many Jews fled (Albert Einstein)

15
Night of the Broken Glass
  • Kristallnacht Nov. 9-10, 1938
  • Nazi mobs attacked Jewish communities
  • Homes, businesses, synagogues were damaged
  • Beginning of the elimination of Jews

16
Concentration Camps Auschwitz
  • Auschwitz

17
Hitler disobeys Versailles Treaty
  • Hitler began rebuilding the military
  • Also sent German troops into the Rhineland
  • 30 mile wide buffer zone between France and
    Germany.
  • The League of Nations was supposed to enforce the
    Treaty of Versailles.

18
Policy of Appeasement
  • Why wasnt Hitler stopped?
  • Hitler was encouraged by lack of response
  • Formed alliance with Italy and Japan.
  • Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis
  • The three nations became known as the Axis Powers.

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20
Appeasement
  • 1938- Germany annexed Austria
  • Anschluss
  • 1938- Hitler demands the Sudetenland
  • Western region of Czechoslovakia
  • 3 million Germans
  • Czech govt. asks France for help.
  • Prepare for war.

21
The Munich Conference
  • 1938- Germany, Italy, GB, France
  • GB and France agree to give Hitler the
    Sudetenland in exchange for his promise that he
    would stop there.
  • Less than 6 months later, he had taken over all
    of Czechoslovakia.

22
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23
Nazi-Soviet Pact
  • Nonaggression pact between Hitler and the Joseph
    Stalin, dictator of the Soviet Union.
  • NOT a friendly alliance, but one based on mutual
    benefit.

24
Hitler and Stalin
25
WWII Begins
  • Sept. 1, 1939 Germany invades Poland
  • GB and France had promised to protect its
    independence.
  • Sept. 3, 1939 GB and France declare war on
    Germany.

26
Blitzkrieg
  • Lightning War
  • Luftwaffe, tanks, infantry
  • Poland was wiped off the map in less than a
    month
  • Winter 1939-Spring 1940- quiet
  • sitzkrieg or phony war

27
Germanys Expansion
  • April 1940- Hitler launched a blitzkrieg against
    Norway and Denmark.
  • Change in British leadership
  • Neville Chamberlain stepped down
  • King George VI asked Winston Churchill to take
    over as GBs new Prime Minister.
  • Netherlands, Belgium fell next.

28
Dunkirk
  • May 1940- Germans came through the Ardennes
    Forest to France.
  • Bypassed the Maginot Line system of
    fortifications along the German/French border.
  • British and French troops were trapped!

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30
Dunkirk
  • Dunkirk- port city on the English Channel.
  • British sent any and all ships/boats to rescue
    the trapped soldiers.
  • Evacuated troops across the Channel to Britain
    amidst German air raids.
  • Saved 338,000 soldiers.

31
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32
The Fall of France
  • France surrendered in June 1940.
  • Germans occupied northern France set up a puppet
    govt in the South. Vichy France

33
Operation Sea Lion
  • The only major power left in Hitlers way was
    Britain.
  • Prior to invading, he launched heavy air strikes.
  • Aug. 1940 Daily bombings began.
  • Brilliant air battles between the Luftwaffe and
    the RAF.

34
The Blitz
  • Sept 1940-bombings on London began.
  • Cont. for 57 straight nights
  • Britain refused to surrender!
  • Londoners hid underground in the Subway for
    shelter.
  • Operation Sea Lion failed!

35
  • Hitler abandoned the idea of conquering GB for
    awhile.
  • Germany Italy sent troops to North Africa.
  • GB controlled Egypt, and the Axis Powers wanted
    access to the oil-rich Middle East.
  • Erwin Rommel the Desert Fox

36
Erwin Rommel
37
  • Next, Hitler conquered the Balkan nations.
  • Operation Barbarossa- Hitlers plan to invade the
    Soviet Union.
  • He wanted the land and vast resources of this
    region.
  • Also wanted to crush communism and his powerful
    rival- Stalin.

38
  • Invasion began on June 22, 1941.
  • The USSRs Red Army was not prepared. As they
    retreated, they burned and destroyed anything
    useful to the Germans.
  • Whats this policy called?
  • By December, temps in the Soviet Union had
    reached -40 degrees.

39
Leningrad
  • German army had the city surrounded. Hitler
    tried to starve the 2.5 million citizens living
    there.
  • Ate cattle/horse feed, cats, dogs, crows, rats,
    and wallpaper to survive.
  • Over 1 million people died.
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