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Chapter Seven: Research Questions and Hypotheses

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Chapter Seven: Research Questions and Hypotheses Chapter Outline Qualitative Research Questions Example 7.1. A Qualitative Central Question From an Ethnography ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter Seven: Research Questions and Hypotheses


1
Chapter SevenResearch Questions and Hypotheses
2
Chapter Outline
  • Qualitative Research Questions
  • Example 7.1. A Qualitative Central Question From
    an Ethnography Example 7.2. Qualitative Central
    Questions From a Case Study
  • Quantitative Research Questions and Hypotheses
  • Example 7.3. A Null Hypothesis
  • Example 7.4. Directional Hypotheses
  • Example 7.5. Nondirectional and Directional
    Hypotheses
  • Example 7.6. Standard Use of Language in
    Hypotheses
  • A Model for Descriptive Questions and Hypotheses
  • Example 7.7. Descriptive and Inferential
    Questions
  • Mixed Methods Research Questions and Hypotheses
  • Example 7.8. Hypotheses and Research Questions
    in a Mixed Methods Study
  • Example 7.9. A Mixed Methods Question Written
    Using Methods and Content Language

3
Research Questions and Hypothesis
  • Investigators place signposts to carry the reader
    through a plan for a study.
  • An important signpost is the research question or
    the hypothesis that narrows the purpose statement
    to predictions about what will be learned or
    questions to be answered in the study.

4
Qualitative Research Questions
  • Qualitative researchers pose research questions
  • Not objectives
  • Not hypotheses
  • Two types of qualitative research questions to
    focus a study's purpose
  • Central question
  • Broad question that asks for exploration of the
    central phenomenon
  • Subquestions
  • Questions that narrow the focus of the study

5
Writing Qualitative Research Questions
  • Ask 1-2 central questions, these should be broad
    and ask for an explanation of the central
    phenomenon or concept in the study. Here the
    intent is to explore the general factors relevant
    to the central phenomenon.
  • Ask no more than 5-7 subquestions these will
    narrow the study but leave open the questioning.
  • Relate the central question to the strategy of
    inquiry
  • Ethnography, questions verify accuracy of data
  • Critical ethnography, questions build on an
    existing body of literature
  • Phenomenology, questions broadly stated without
    specific reference to existing literature
  • Grounded theory, questions generate a theory

6
Writing Qualitative Research Questions
  • Begin with "what" or "how to convey an open or
    emerging design
  • Focus on a single phenomenon or concept, what is
    the one single concept, that you want to explore?
  • Use exploratory verbs as nondirectional rather
    than directional words, like affect, influence,
    impact, determine, cause and relate
  • Use open-ended questions without reference to the
    literature or theory
  • Specify the participants and research site
    (unless stated previously)

7
A Script for Writing a Qualitative Central
Question
  • (How or What) is the (story for for narrative
    research meaning of the phenomenon for
    phenomenology theory that explains the process
    of for grounded theory culture-sharing
    pattern for ethnography issue in the case
    for case study) of (central phenomenon) for
    (participants) at (research site).

8
A Qualitative Central Question From an Ethnography
9
Qualitative Central Questions From a Case Study
10
Quantitative Research Questions and Hypotheses
  • Quantitative researchers pose research questions
    or hypotheses and objectives to focus the study's
    purpose
  • Quantitative research questions
  • Questions about the relationships among variables
    that the investigator seeks to know
  • Quantitative hypotheses
  • Predictions that the researcher makes about the
    expected relationships among variables
  • Predictions about the population values that the
    researcher will estimate based on data from a
    sample
  • Quantitative objectives
  • Indicate a study's goals
  • Used frequently in proposals for funding

11
Writing Quantitative Research Questions and
Hypotheses
  • Write questions or hypotheses, not both
  • Consider 3 approaches to the variables for a
    question or hypothesis
  • Compare groups
  • Relate variables
  • Describe responses
  • Specify questions and hypotheses based on theory
    if possible
  • Measure the independent and dependent variables
    separately
  • Generally use demographic information as
    intervening variables
  • Use consistent words and ordering for independent
    and dependent variables

12
Scripts for Writing Quantitative Research
Questions and Hypotheses
  • Quantitative research question describing
    outcomes
  • What is the frequency and variation of scores on
    ____________ (name the variable) for
    ______________(participants) in the study?
  • Quantitative research question focused on
    examining the relationship among variables
  • Does _________ (name the theory) explain the
    relationship between _________ (independent
    variable) and _________ (dependent variable),
    controlling for the effects of _________ (control
    variable)?
  • Quantitative null hypothesis
  • There is no significant difference between
    _________ (the control and experimental groups on
    the independent variable) on _________ (dependent
    variable).

13
Forms for Writing Quantitative Research Questions
and Hypotheses
  • The use of variables in research questions or
    hypothesis if one wants to do
  • An experiment or group comparisons
  • A survey that correlates variables
  • A descriptive study
  • Write research questions and hypothesis that
    logically follow from relationship among
    variables in a theory
  • Research questions or hypothesis may indicate
    cause and effect logic
  • Research questions and hypothesis should have no
    redundancies, do not write both

14
A Null Hypothesis
15
Directional Hypotheses
16
Forms for Writing Quantitative Research Questions
and Hypotheses
  • If writing hypotheses, use a consistent form
  • Null hypotheses (predict no difference or no
    relationship)
  • Alternative hypothesis or directional hypotheses
    (predict direction of difference or relationship)
  • Nondirectional hypotheses (predict a difference
    or relationship, but not its direction)
  • Use non demographic variables
  • Use the same pattern of word order in the
    questions or hypotheses to enable a reader to
    easily identify the major variables
  • If writing research questions
  • First, specify descriptive questions for each
    important variable
  • Next, state inferential questions that relate
    variables or compare groups
  • Finally, add questions in which variables are
    controlled

17
Nondirectional and Directional Hypotheses
18
Standard Use of Language in Hypotheses
19
A Model for Descriptive Questions and Hypotheses
20
Mixed Methods Research Questions and Hypotheses
  • Advance both qualitative and quantitative
    research questions (or hypotheses) in order to
    narrow and focus the purpose statement
  • Use guidelines for writing good qualitative and
    quantitative questions and hypotheses
  • Order questions to match the mixed methods design
  • In a two-phase design, order to match the phases
  • In a one-phase design, order according to the
    method given the most weight
  • Include a mixed methods research question that
  • Conveys the methods and procedures
  • Conveys the content of the study
  • Combines the methods and content

21
Different Ways to Write Questions and Hypotheses
into a Mixed Methods Study
  • Write separate qualitative questions and
    quantitative questions or hypotheses
  • At the beginning or as they emerge in phases
  • This places emphasis on the two approaches
  • Write separate questions or hypotheses followed
    by a mixed methods question
  • This highlights the two approaches as well as
    their combined strength
  • Write only a mixed methods question
  • This emphasizes the integration and not the
    individual parts

22
Hypotheses and Research Questions in a Mixed
Methods Study
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