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Chapter 5 Project management


Chapter 5 Project management Project management : Is Organizing, planning and scheduling software projects Topics covered Management activities Project planning ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 5 Project management

Chapter 5 Project
Project management Is Organizing, planning and
scheduling software projects
Topics covered
  • Management activities
  • Project planning
  • Project scheduling
  • Risk management

Software project management
  • Concerned with activities involved in ensuring
    that software is delivered on time and on
    schedule and in accordance with the requirements
    of the organizations developing and procuring the
  • Project management is needed because software
    development is always subject to budget and
    schedule constraints that are set by the
    organization developing the software.

Software engineering distinctions (differences)
(which can make the software management difficult)
  • The product is intangible (cant be seen or
    touched), the managers cant see the progress of
  • The software development process is not
    standardized as building engineering, the process
    varies from organization to another
  • Many software projects are 'one-off
  • each project is different from previous
    others, even the manager who have a long
    experience may find it difficult to solve he
    problem in new software project, Because of rapid
    technological change in computer .
  • Lessons learned or experienced may not be
    transfer to new project.

5.1 Management activities
  • It is difficult to put standards for
    software projects managers, the ob of manager
    varies depending on the product being developed
    and organization.
  • Most managers have these responsibilities
  • Proposal writing, objectives of project and how
    it will be carried out. It include cost and
    schedule estimates.
  • Project planning and scheduling, identifying
    activities, milestone and deliverable produced by
  • Project costing, cost estimation for resources
    needed to a accomplish the project plan .
  • Project monitoring and reviews, it is a
    continuing activities which can predict potential
    problems, and track the progress of the project.
    Such as daily discussion with project staff.
  • Personnel selection and evaluation, select a
    skilled personal .
  • Report writing and presentations, write a report
    with critical information to client and
    contractor , present this report during progress

Project staffing
  • May not be possible to appoint ???? the ideal
    people to work on a project because of
  • Project budget may not allow for the use of
    highly-paid staff
  • Staff with the appropriate experience may not be
  • An organization may wish to develop employee
    skills on a software project
  • Managers have to work within these constraints.

5.2 Project planning
  • Probably the most time-consuming project
    management activity
  • It is the tasks required to define resources,
  • The project plan sets out, the resources
    available to the project, the work breakdown
    ?????, and schedule for the work

Continuous activity (planning is iterative
process) from initial concept through the system
delivery. Plans must be regularly changed as
new information becomes available, it evolves as
the better information becomes available. .
Various types of plans may be developed to
support the main software project plan that is
concerned with schedule plan budget
plan quality plan validation plan configuration
plan maintenance plan staff plan
5.2 Project planning, cont
Types of project plan
5.2.1 Project plan structure
  • Most plans should include the following sections
  • Introduction, describe objectives and set
    constraints (budget, time).
  • Project organization, the way the development
    team is organized.
  • Risk analysis, describe possible risks, and the
    risk reduction strategies.
  • Hardware and software resource requirements,
    describe the hardware and the support software
    required to carry out the development, estimate
    of the price.

Project plan structure, cont..
  • Work breakdown, describe the breakdown of the
    project into activities and identifies the
    milestones and deliverables associated with each
  • Project schedule, describe the dependencies
    between activities, estimate time required to
    reach each milestone and allocation of people to
  • Monitoring and reporting mechanisms, describe the
    management reports which should be produced.

5.2.2 Activity organization (milestones and
  • Milestones are the end-point of a process
    activity, the software process must be broken
    down into basic activities.
  • At the end of each milestone there should be a
    formal output such as a report.
  • Deliverables are project results delivered to
  • deliverables are milestones but milestones need
    not be deliverables.
  • Milestones are an internal project result used by
    manager to check project progress that are not
    delivered to customer

Milestones in the RE(Req. Eng.) process or
5.3 Project scheduling
  • Split project into tasks and estimate time and
    resources required to complete each task
  • Organize tasks concurrently (simultaneously or
    side by side) to make optimal use of workforce.
  • Minimize task dependencies to avoid delays caused
    by one task waiting for another to complete
  • Dependent on project managers intuition and
  • schedules must be continually updated as better
    progress info becomes available.

The project scheduling process
  • The maximum a mount of time of any activity is
    from 8-10 weeks.
  • The minimum at least 1 week
  • If it is larger than this , it must be divided.

5.3.1 Bar charts and activity networks
  • Graphical notations used to illustrate the
    project schedule
  • Show project breakdown into tasks. Tasks should
    not be too small. They should take about a week
    or two
  • Network Activity show task dependencies and the
    the critical path
  • Bar charts show schedule against calendar time
  • The minimum time required to finish the project
    is called the critical path, which it is the
    longest path in the activity graph.

Task duration and dependencies Example T3 start
after T1 finish.
Activity network for example, if T8 is delayed 2
weeks, it will not affect the completion date
because it does not lie on critical path. The
critical path is T1 ?T3? T9? T11?T12The minimum
days required to complete project is 8 15
15710 55 day
Activity timeline
Staff allocation
5.4 Risk management Risk management is concerned
with identifying risks and drawing up plans to
minimize their effect on a project. What are the
top ten risks for this project? For each of the
risk, what is the chance that risk will become a
problem and what is the impact if it does?
Risk management continues..
  • A risk is a probability that some adverse
    (unfavorable) circumstance will occur, such
    categories are
  • Project risks affect schedule or resources.
  • e.g. Loss of an experienced designer
  • Product risks affect the quality or performance
    of the software being developed.
  • e.g. the failure of a purchased component.
  • Business risks affect the organization developing
    or procuring the software
  • e.g. a competitor introducing a new product
  • All risk types are overlap if an experienced
    programmer leave the project (project risk)?
    replacement with new one with less experience
    will result in programming errors (product risk)

Possible Software risks
The risk management process (iterative process)
  • Risk identification
  • Identify project, product and business risks
  • Risk analysis
  • Assess the likelihood and consequences of these
  • Risk planning
  • Draw up plans to avoid or minimize the effects of
    the risk
  • Risk monitoring
  • Monitor the risks throughout the project

The risk management process
5.4.1 Risk identification
  • Six types of risks that can be found
  • Technology risks Risks derived from Hw SW
  • People risks
  • Tool risks Risks derived from CASE tool
  • Organizational risks from Organization
  • Requirements risks from Req. Change
  • Estimation risks from estimate the resources
    used to build the system

Risks and risk types
5.4.2 Risk analysis
  • Assess probability and affects of each risk
  • Probability may be very low, low, moderate, high
    or very high
  • Risk effects might be catastrophic, serious,
    tolerable or insignificant

Risk analysis
5.4.3 Risk planning
  • Consider each risk and develop a strategy to
    manage that risk, these strategies fall into
    three categories
  • Avoidance strategies
  • The probability that the risk will arise is
  • E.g. deal with defective component by bought a
  • Minimization strategies
  • The impact of the risk on the project or product
    will be reduced. E.g. staff illness overlap
  • Contingency plans
  • If the risk arises, contingency plans are plans
    to deal with that risk, if the worse happens, you
    are prepared for it.
  • E.g financial problem

Risk management strategies
5.4.4 Risk monitoring
  • Assess each identified risks regularly to decide
    whether or not it is becoming less or more
  • Also assess whether the effects of the risk have
  • Each key risk should be discussed at management
    progress meetings

Key points
  • Good project management is essential for project
  • The intangible nature of software causes problems
    for management
  • Managers have diverse roles but their most
    significant activities are planning, estimating
    and scheduling
  • Planning and estimating are iterative processes
    which continue throughout the course of a

Key points
  • A project milestone is a predictable state where
    some formal report of progress is presented to
  • Risks may be project risks, product risks or
    business risks
  • Risk management is concerned with identifying
    risks which may affect the project and planning
    to ensure that these risks do not develop into
    major threats