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SW Project Management Nature of IT Projects


SW Project Management Nature of IT Projects INFO 420 Glenn Booker INFO 420 Chapter 1 * Chapter 1 * INFO 420 Design Define the high level design of the system ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: SW Project Management Nature of IT Projects

SW Project Management Nature of IT Projects
  • INFO 420
  • Glenn Booker

  • IT projects are organizational investments
  • Need to expect commitment of considerable time,
    money, and people
  • Some aspects of traditional project management
    need to be tweaked for IT projects take from
    software engineering and system analysis

  • Focus reducing costs, reducing cycle time
  • Connect organizations strategy to its
    deployment, help improve competitiveness
  • PM and IS evolve in parallel timelines
  • Three generations of PM strategy
  • The EDP era, micro era, and network era

EDP era - 1960s to early 1980s
  • Central mainframe or minicomputer
  • Automate separate tasks, e.g. inventory mgmt,
    accounting, production scheduling
  • Data processing manager
  • Similar to early steam power use same process,
    with more power behind it

Micro era - 1980s to mid-90s
  • Introduction of the PC, and soon client-server
  • Network is contained within the organization
  • Lost central control over MIS IT is everywhere,
    changing often
  • Security, data integrity, support issues
  • Fast, cross-area IT projects

Network era - mid-1990s to now
  • Due to awareness of the Internet
  • More strategic partners, alliances, vendors
  • Network focus is outside the organization
  • Need scalable network architecture
  • Digital convergence of data, AV, graphics
  • Creates new products and services
  • Needs new organization and strategy

  • The omnipresence of computers and the Internet is
    bringing about a globalization previously
  • Work with anyone, any place, any time
  • Increases both risks and rewards
  • IT has some budget in both good times and bad,
    the question is how to use it best

The key decision
  • So it boils down to Which IT projects are
    worth supporting?
  • Which will provide the most benefit and value to
    the organization?

IT project management
  • So far, were not doing well at managing IT
  • In 1968 the software development crisis was
  • In 1994, CHAOS study said 16 of IT projects were
    successful, 31 cancelled before completion, and
    53 completed badly

IT project management
  • More recent studies have shown improvement trend
  • In 2006, 35 successful, 19 failed, and 46 weak
  • Factors for successful projects, as identified in
    both 2001 and 2006, included
  • User involvement, clear business objectives, and
    formal methodology

Why do we fail?
  • Partly a definition problem how far from the
    plan is a failure? 5? 10? 20?
  • Traits of failed or weak projects include
  • Incomplete requirements, changing requirements
    and specs, lack of exec support, technology
    illiteracy/incompetence, lack of resources, and
    unrealistic expectations

Why do we fail?
  • Communication is a key as well
  • The 1 reason for project failure, and a factor
    in many other causes
  • Resource issues also include staffing, training,
    tools, and facility issues

How help success?
  • Four approaches are themes throughout
  • A value-driven approach
  • A socio-technical approach
  • A project-management approach
  • A knowledge-management approach

A value-driven approach
  • Make IT projects prove they provide value to the
  • The value the project delivers must more than
    offset its time, money, and opportunity costs

A socio-technical approach
  • Tools, techniques, and methodologies are not
  • Need to consider the impact of the project on its
    users, and other affected organizations
  • Does anyone want the new system?
  • Will they use it?

A project-management approach
  • Need to follow some methodology during the IT
  • Dont just wing it!
  • What are the processes and infrastructure?
  • What tools and controls are used?
  • Plan appropriate resources, manage expectations
    (communicate!), consider outsourcing efficiency
    effectiveness goals

A knowledge-management approach
  • Have a systematic process for capturing and
    sharing knowledge from past projects
  • Record lessons learned and best practices
  • How can we do it better next time?

Project management context
  • Our approach for project management is based on
    the Project Management Institute (PMI)s Guide to
    the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK,
  • A project is a temporary effort to accomplish a
    product, service, or result

Project attributes
  • Time frame
  • Purpose or goal PM should meet or exceed
    stakeholders needs and expectations
  • Ownership (mainly by sponsor)
  • Resources the triple constraints of scope,
    schedule, and budget

Project attributes
  • Roles project manager, subject matter experts
    (SME), technical experts, etc.
  • Risks and assumptions
  • Risks can be internal or external
  • Interdependent tasks in the project
  • Organizational change may result
  • Operating in a larger environment

Project life cycle
  • The project life cycle (PLC) defines the life of
    a project in phases
  • Any project should have one or more deliverables
    as its output(s)
  • Phases help control the project
  • Provide gates to decide whether to proceed
  • Fast tracking can be done start next phase early

PLC Phases
  • Define project goal
  • Plan project
  • Execute project plan
  • Close project
  • Evaluate project

Define project goal
  • Have at least one!!!
  • How will this project provide value to its
  • And make sure stakeholders agree
  • Define not only the deliverables, but also the
    way project success will be measured

Plan project
  • Effort (staffing levels) starts low, then rises
    until mid-project, then drops off
  • Risks are often highest initially
  • Stakeholder input is highest initially
  • Cost of correcting scope errors gets higher as
    the project progresses

Plan project
  • Define the projects plan
  • What will happen?
  • Why?
  • How?
  • Who?
  • How long will it take?
  • How much will it cost?
  • What are the risks, and how will we manage them?
  • How did we estimate the duration and budget?
  • How are decisions reached?
  • Were we successful?

Plan project
  • Plan must define, for each project phase
  • Deliverables
  • Tasks
  • Resources
  • Time
  • This defines the baseline project plan

Execute project plan
  • Now actually conduct the project!
  • Manage project budget, scope, and duration based
    on stakeholder needs
  • Track progress against the baseline plan
  • Keep an eye on the overall goal
  • At the end, deliver the deliverables

Close project
  • End the project clearly
  • Make sure all obligations have been met
  • Document the processes used, final actual budget
    and schedule data
  • Give final report, presentation, etc.
  • Have sponsor sign off the project

Evaluate project
  • The value of IT projects may be hard to measure
    most dont directly earn
  • Document the lessons learned carefully
  • What went well? Dont forget that part!
  • Define best practices, when possible
  • Evaluate the team as well as the project

System Development Life Cycle
  • In contrast, the actual development of a system
    has its own life cycle, which takes place inside
    the project
  • The SDLC defines the phases needed to create a
    system, then maintain it
  • There are many versions of SDLC to choose from

Generic SDLC Phases
  • Planning
  • Analysis
  • Design
  • Implementation
  • Maintenance support

  • Defines the problem to be solved, or opportunity
    to be taken, and outlines the goal and scope of
    the system
  • The plan for developing the system is defined
  • Should include budget, schedule, technology,
    development processes, methods, and tools

  • Documents the existing system or processes (the
    as is model)
  • Leads to requirements analysis
  • Might use JAD, surveys, brainstorming,
    interviews, etc. to determine requirements
  • Define how the new system will work (the to be

  • Define the high level design of the system
    (architecture) based on the requirements
  • Refine the design to produce the low level
  • Designs include software, hardware, network,
    databases, user interface concept, etc.

  • Construct, test, and install the system
  • Easy to say, huh?
  • Also develop the documentation, training
    materials, and supporting information

Maintenance support
  • Maintenance of a system is often a separate
    ongoing project
  • After installation, the system is in production
    mode for most of its life
  • Still need to make improvements (enhancements),
    and fix bugs (maintenance)
  • May manage a call center or help desk

  • Eventually, a production system becomes obsolete,
    leading to a new project to replace it
  • As part of that project, phasing out the old
    system will be done, until its completely offline

SDLC Examples
  • Implementing the SDLC can follow several types of
  • The oldest is the structured approach, better
    known as the waterfall life cycle
  • Its simple and sequential do each phase
    completely before moving to the next one
  • Requirements, design, code, test, deploy

Waterfall SDLC
  • Some versions of the waterfall model
    (DOD-STD-2167a, MIL-STD-498) defined very
    precisely how the results of each phase were
  • Waterfall depends on very clearly defined
    requirements and well known methodology and tools
    rarely the case

Waterfall SDLC
  • Still useful for maintenance or small projects
  • Also good for inexperienced development teams
  • Can be good for shrink wrapped software

Iterative system development
  • Need for faster development, and accommodation of
    changing requirements led to a variety of
    iterative SDLC models
  • Iterative approaches include
  • RAD
  • Prototyping
  • Spiral
  • Agile
  • RUP

  • Rapid Application Development (RAD) compresses
    the life cycle using special software development
    tools (CASE tools)
  • Each iteration produces more and more of the
    final product in usable form, until its completed

  • Generally, prototyping is used to refine or
    discover system requirements
  • Prototyping depends on close work between the
    developer and the customer to create a partially
    functional system
  • Then full system development takes place

  • The spiral model (Boehm, 1988) is used to
    address big risks facing a project
  • Each spiral miniproject is a short life cycle
    devoted to resolving one key risk area
  • After all the major risks have been resolved,
    then another life cycle is used for full system

  • Agile software development is defined loosely as
  • An iterative and incremental (evolutionary)
    approach to software development which is
    performed in a highly collaborative manner by
    self-organizing teams within an effective
    governance framework with "just enough" ceremony
    that produces high quality software in a cost
    effective and timely manner which meets the
    changing needs of its stakeholders.

From http//www.agilemodeling.com/essays/agileSoft
  • Agile methods include various methodologies, such
  • DSDM (Dynamic Systems Development Method)
  • ASD (Adaptive Software Development)
  • XP (eXtreme Programming)

Extreme Project Management
  • Extreme Project Management (XPM) is a project
    management approach to go with eXtreme
    Programming (XP)
  • It is designed for projects with very high rates
    of requirements and environment change
  • Change is inevitable, so planning is iterative
  • Has been adapted for architectural projects

  • The Rational Unified Process (RUP), now owned by
    IBM, is an object oriented, iterative life cycle
  • RUP promotes iterative development and organizes
    the development of software and systems into four
    phases, each consisting of one or more executable
    iterations of the software at that stage of

From http//www-01.ibm.com/software/awdtools/rup/
PLC vs. SDLC???
  • So how does the project life cycle relate to the
    software development life cycle?
  • The SDLC is conducted entirely within the PLC
    phase of Execute project plan
  • The structure and details of the project plan
    depend on your choice of SDLC

  • The Guide to the Project Management Body of
    Knowledge captures the major topics within
    project management
  • First defined in 1987
  • Current version is ISBN 1933890517 (2008)
  • It has nine knowledge areas

PMBOK knowledge areas
  • Project integration management
  • Coordinating changes to the project plans
    development and execution
  • Project scope management
  • Ensuring complete definition and completion of
    the project scope

PMBOK knowledge areas
  • Project time management
  • Developing, monitoring, and managing the project
  • Project cost management
  • Develop and complete project per its budget
  • Project human resource management
  • Create, develop and manage the project team

PMBOK knowledge areas
  • Project quality management
  • Create a quality environment to help project meet
    stakeholder needs and expectations
  • Project communications management
  • Ensure project communicates with stakeholders

PMBOK knowledge areas
  • Project risk management
  • Identify and respond to risks facing the project
  • Project procurement management
  • Manage procurement of products and services from
    outside the organization

  • Weve introduced the major topics in IT project
  • History of IT project management
  • Reasons for project failure and success
  • Our approach for encouraging success
  • Define a project
  • Project and system development life cycles
  • PM body of knowledge
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