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Environmental Health Health Hazards in Public Schools

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Title: Environmental Health Health Hazards in Public Schools


1
Environmental HealthHealth Hazards in Public
Schools
  • Loretta S. Shaw, Ph.D. student
  • Walden University
  • PUBH-8165-3
  • Instructor Dr. Jeff Wu
  • Summer Term, 2009

2
Purpose
  • This program is designed to increase the
    participants knowledge regarding in-door
    environmental hazards found within the public
    school systems

3
Program Objectives
  • - Understand the importance of in-door air
    qualities
  • - Introduce chemicals used frequently in schools
  • - Discuss day to day exposure of hazardous
    materials
  • - Explain what causes illness
  • - Examine school safety options regarding air
    quality

4
Target Audience
  • Council Bluffs Public School District
  • Lewis Central Community School District
  • St. Alberts Catholic Schools

5
Stakeholders
  • School Administrators
  • School Board Members
  • Principals
  • Facility Managers
  • Teachers
  • Custodians
  • School Nurses
  • Parents
  • Community Members

6
Mission of Stakeholders
  • To become a voice for the health and wellbeing
    of our students, faculty, staff and community so
    that a positive learning environment is achieved.

7
Did you know?
  • More than 53 million children and 6 million
    adults
  • utilize schools each day
  • In the United States there are more than 120,000
  • public and private schools
  • Most people spend 87-90 of their time inside
  • According to the EPA indoor air pollution is
    ranked among the top 5 environmental risks to
    public health
  • Source Environmental Protection Agency, 2009

8
How Do Our Schools Compare?
  • USA Today published statistics on 128,000 schools
    across the United States.
  • This publication measured the amount of outdoor
    air pollution that was found within our school
    buildings.
  • An Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) tool was
    used to collect the data.
  • Source USA Today, (2009) The Smoke Stack Effect

9
Abraham Lincoln High School
  • School District Council Bluffs Community Schools
  • National Rank 31st percentile
  • 39,528 of 127,809 schools have worse air.
  • Note Rankings are based on modeled
    concentrations and severity of chemicals known or
    believed to cause cancer or other health related
    problems
  • Source USA Today (2009) The Smoke Stack Effect

10
Chemicals Most Responsible for the Toxicity
  • Manganese and manganese compounds 52 of overall
    toxicity
  • Sulfuric acid 11 of overall toxicity
  • Toluene diisocyanate (mixed isomers) 9 of
    overall toxicity
  • Hydrochloric acid 7 of overall toxicity
  • Lead and lead compounds 4 of overall toxicity
  • Source U. S. Environmental Protection Agency
    (2009)

11
Businesses Most Responsible for Toxics Outside
Abraham Lincoln High School
 
  • Griffin Pipe Products Co. Council Bluffs, Iowa
  • MidAmerican Energy Co Council Bluffs Energy
    Center Council Bluffs, Iowa
  • Future Foam Inc Council Bluffs, Iowa
  • Omaha Public Power District North Omaha Station
    Omaha, Nebraska
  • Fres-Co System USA Inc. Red Oak Red Oak, Iowa
  • Sources U.S. Environmental Protection
    Agency, University of Massachusetts at Amherst
    Political Economy Research Institute and USA
    Today (2009) Smoke Stack Effect Report

12
Thomas Jefferson High School
  • School District Council Bluffs Community Schools
  • National Rank 1st percentile
  • 326 of 127,809 schools have worse air.
  • Note Rankings are based on modeled
    concentrations and severity of chemicals known or
    believed to cause cancer or other health related
    problems
  • Source USA Today (2009) The Smoke Stack Effect

13
Chemical Most Responsible for Toxicity
  • Manganese and manganese compounds 93 of overall
    toxicity
  • Lead and lead compounds 5 of overall toxicity
  • Toluene diisocyanate (mixed isomers) 1 of
    overall toxicity
  • Sulfuric acid 0 of overall toxicity
  • Xylene (mixed isomers) 0 of overall toxicity
  • Source Environmental Protection Agency (2009)

14
Businesses Most Responsible for Toxics outside
Thomas Jefferson High School
  • Griffin Pipe Products Co. Council Bluffs, Iowa
  • Future Foam Inc Council Bluffs, Iowa
  • MidAmerican Energy Co Council Bluffs Energy
    Center Council Bluffs, Iowa
  • Omaha Public Power District North Omaha Station
    Omaha, Nebraska
  • Paxton Vierling Steel Co Carter Lake, Iowa
  • Sources U.S. Environmental Protection
    Agency, University of Massachusetts at Amherst
    Political Economy Research Institute and USA
    Today (2009) Smoke Stack Effect Report

15
Lewis Central Senior High School
  • School District Lewis Central Community
  • National Rank 12th percentile
  • 14,385 of 127,809 schools have worse air
  • Note Rankings are based on modeled
    concentrations and severity of chemicals known or
    believed to cause cancer or other health hazards
  • Source USA Today (2009) The Smoke Stack Effect
    Report

16
Chemicals Most Responsible for the Toxicity
Outside Lewis Central High School
  • Manganese and manganese compounds 60 of overall
    toxicity
  • Toluene diisocyanate (mixed isomers) 13 of
    overall toxicity
  • Sulfuric acid 7 of overall toxicity
  • Hydrochloric acid 5 of overall toxicity
  • Lead and lead compounds 4 of overall toxicity
  • Source Environmental Protection Agency (2009)

17
Businesses Most Responsible for Toxics Outside
Lewis Central High School
  • Griffin Pipe Products Co. Council Bluffs, Iowa
  • MidAmerican Energy Co Council Bluffs Energy
    Center, Council Bluffs, Iowa
  • Future Foam Inc, Council Bluffs, Iowa
  • Omaha Public Power District North Omaha Station,
    Omaha, Nebraska
  • Bunge North America Inc, Council Bluffs, Iowa
  • Sources U.S. Environmental Protection
    Agency, University of Massachusetts at Amherst
    Political Economy Research Institute and USA
    Today (2009) Smoke Stack Effect Report

18
Gerald W Kirn Junior High School
  • School District Council Bluffs Community
  • National Rank 27th percentile
  • 33,776 of 127,809 schools have worse air.
  • Note Rankings are based on modeled
    concentrations and severity of chemicals known or
    believed to cause cancer or other illnesses
  • Source USA Today (2009) The Smoke Stack Effect

19
Chemicals Most Responsible for the Toxicity
Outside Kirn Junior High
  • Manganese and manganese compounds 49 of overall
    toxicity
  • Toluene diisocyanate (mixed isomers) 15 of
    overall toxicity
  • Sulfuric acid 10 of overall toxicity
  • Hydrochloric acid 6 of overall toxicity
  • Lead and lead compounds 4 of overall toxicity
  • Source Environmental Protection Agency (2009)

20
Businesses Most Responsible for Toxics Outside of
Kirn Junior High
  • Griffin Pipe Products Co. Council Bluffs, Iowa
  • MidAmerican Energy Co Council Bluffs Energy
    Center Council Bluffs, Iowa
  • Future Foam Inc Council Bluffs, Iowa
  • Omaha Public Power District North Omaha Station
    Omaha, Nebraska
  • Fres-Co System USA Inc. Red Oak Red Oak, Iowa
  • Sources U.S. Environmental Protection
    Agency, University of Massachusetts at Amherst
    Political Economy Research Institute and USA
    Today (2009) The Smoke Stack Effect Report 

21
Lewis Central Middle School
  • School District Lewis Central Community
  • National Rank 18th percentile
  • 22,170 of 127,809 schools have worse air.
  • Note Rankings are based on modeled
    concentrations and severity of chemicals known or
    believed to cause cancer or other illnesses
  • Source USA Today (2009) The Smoke Stack Effect

22
Chemicals Most Responsible for the Toxicity
Outside this School
  • Manganese and manganese compounds 69 of overall
    toxicity
  • Toluene diisocyanate (mixed isomers) 8 of
    overall toxicity
  • Sulfuric acid 6 of overall toxicity
  • Lead and lead compounds 4 of overall toxicity
  • Hydrochloric acid 4 of overall toxicity
  • Source Environmental Protection Agency (2009)

23
Businesses Most Responsible for Toxics Outside
Lewis Central Middle School
  • Griffin Pipe Products Co. Council Bluffs, Iowa
  • MidAmerican Energy Co Council Bluffs Energy
    Center Council Bluffs, Iowa
  • Future Foam Inc Council Bluffs, Iowa
  • Omaha Public Power District North Omaha Station
    Omaha, Nebraska
  • Fres-Co System USA Inc. Red Oak Red Oak, Iowa
  • Sources U.S. Environmental Protection
    Agency, University of Massachusetts at Amherst
    Political Economy Research Institute an USA Today
    (2009) the Smoke Stack Effect Report

24
Bloomer Elementary School
  • School District Council Bluffs Community
  • National Rank 2nd percentile
  • 1,627 of 127,809 schools have worse air.
  • Note Rankings are based on modeled
    concentrations and severity of chemicals known or
    believed to cause cancer or other illnesses
  • Source USA Today (2009) The Smoke Stack Effect

25
Chemicals Most Responsible for the Toxicity
Outside Bloomer Elementary
  • Toluene diisocyanate (mixed isomers) 80 of
    overall toxicity
  • Manganese and manganese compounds 9 of overall
    toxicity
  • Hexane, n- 9 of overall toxicity
  • Sulfuric acid 1 of overall toxicity
  • Lead and lead compounds 1 of overall toxicity
  • Source Environmental Protection Agency (2009)

26
Businesses Most Responsible for Toxics Outside
Bloomer Elementary
  • Future Foam Inc Council Bluffs, Iowa
  • Bunge North America Inc Council Bluffs, Iowa
  • Griffin Pipe Products Co. Council Bluffs, Iowa
  • MidAmerican Energy Co Council Bluffs Energy
    Center Council Bluffs, Iowa
  • Omaha Public Power District North Omaha Station
    Omaha, Nebraska
  • Sources U.S. Environmental Protection
    Agency, University of Massachusetts at Amherst
    Political Economy Research Institute and USA
    Today (2009) The Smoke Stack Effect Report
  •  

27
Edison Elementary School
  • School District Council Bluffs Community
  • National Rank 1st percentile
  • 326 of 127,809 schools have worse air.
  • Note Rankings are based on modeled
    concentrations and severity of chemicals known or
    believed to cause cancer or other illnesses
  • Source USA Today (2009) The Smoke Stack Effect

28
Chemicals Most Responsible for the Toxicity
Outside Edison Elementary
  • Manganese and manganese compounds 93 of overall
    toxicity
  • Lead and lead compounds 5 of overall toxicity
  • Toluene diisocyanate (mixed isomers) 1 of
    overall toxicity
  • Sulfuric acid 0 of overall toxicity
  • Xylene (mixed isomers) 0 of overall toxicity
  • Source Environmental Protection Agency (2009)

29
Businesses Most Responsible for Toxics Outside
Edison Elementary
  • Griffin Pipe Products Co. Council Bluffs, Iowa
  • Future Foam Inc Council Bluffs, Iowa
  • MidAmerican Energy Co Council Bluffs Energy
    Center Council Bluffs, Iowa
  • Omaha Public Power District North Omaha Station
    Omaha, Nebraska
  • Paxton Vierling Steel Co Carter Lake, Iowa
  • Sources U.S. Environmental Protection
    Agency, University of Massachusetts at Amherst
    Political Economy Research Institute and USA
    Today (2009) The Smoke Stack Effect Report
  •  

30
Franklin Elementary School
  • School District Council Bluffs Community
  • National Rank 2nd percentile
  • Note Rankings are based on modeled
    concentrations and severity of chemicals known or
    believed to cause cancer or other illnesses
  • Source USA Today (2009) The Smoke Stack Effect

31
Chemicals Most Responsible for the Toxicity
Outside Franklin Elementary
  • Manganese and manganese compounds 91 of overall
    toxicity
  • Lead and lead compounds 5 of overall toxicity
  • Toluene diisocyanate (mixed isomers) 2 of
    overall toxicity
  • Sulfuric acid 1 of overall toxicity
  • Hydrochloric acid 0 of overall toxicity
  • Source Environmental Protection Agency (2009)

32
Businesses Most Responsible for Toxics Outside
Franklin Elementary
  • Griffin Pipe Products Co. Council Bluffs, Iowa
  • Future Foam Inc Council Bluffs, Iowa
  • Paxton Vierling Steel Co Carter Lake, Iowa
  • MidAmerican Energy Co Council Bluffs Energy
    Center Council Bluffs, Iowa
  • Omaha Public Power District North Omaha Station
    Omaha, Nebraska
  • Sources U.S. Environmental Protection
    Agency, University of Massachusetts at Amherst
    Political Economy Research Institute and USA
    Today (2009) The Smoke Stack Effect Report 

33
Gunn Elementary School
  • School District Council Bluffs Community
  • National Rank 29th percentile
  • 36,783 of 127,809 schools have worse air.
  • Note Rankings are based on modeled
    concentrations and severity of chemicals known or
    believed to cause cancer or other illnesses
  • Source USA Today (2009) The Smoke Stack Effect

34
Chemicals Most Responsible for the Toxicity
Outside Gunn Elementary
  • Manganese and manganese compounds 52 of overall
    toxicity
  • Toluene diisocyanate (mixed isomers) 11 of
    overall toxicity
  • Sulfuric acid 10 of overall toxicity
  • Hydrochloric acid 6 of overall toxicity
  • Lead and lead compounds 4 of overall toxicity
  • Source Environmental Protection Agency (2009)

35
Businesses Most Responsible for Toxics Outside
Gunn Elementary
  • Griffin Pipe Products Co. Council Bluffs, Iowa
  • MidAmerican Energy Co Council Bluffs Energy
    Center Council Bluffs, Iowa
  • Future Foam Inc Council Bluffs, Iowa
  • Omaha Public Power District North Omaha Station
    Omaha, Nebraska
  • Fres-Co System USA Inc. Red Oak Red Oak, Iowa
  • Sources U.S. Environmental Protection
    Agency, University of Massachusetts at Amherst
    Political Economy Research Institute and USA
    Today (2009) The Smoke Stack Effect Report 

36
Healthy School Environment
  • Safety
  • Cleanliness
  • Positive Attitudes and Behaviors
  • Exposure to Chemicals
  • Air and Water Quality
  • Source Healthy Schools Campaign, 2009

37
American Lung Association
  • - Indoor air pollutants may be 2-5 times higher
    than outdoor air pollution
  • Poor indoor air quality may be subtle
  • Source American Lung Association, 2009

38
Lungs
  • Most Affected Organ from Air Pollution
  • Source Colome, McCunney, Samet Swankin, 1994

39
Indoor Air Quality for Schools
  • - As important as maintaining the facilities
  • - Linked to test performance
  • - Better air quality leads to better attendance
  • - Physical comfort
  • Source Healthy Schools Campaign, 2009

40
Health Concerns
  • - Bronchial Infections
  • - Exacerbation of Asthma
  • - Rhinitis
  • - Conjunctival Inflammation
  • - Dyspnea
  • - Cough
  • - Fever
  • - Malaise
  • - Chest Tightness
  • Source American Lung Association, 2009

41
Children and Air Quality
  • - Children may be more vulnerable to
    environmental exposure because of the following
  • Rapid growth and development
  • More breaths per minute in proportion to their
    body size
  • Their behaviors can expose them to more chemicals
    and organisms.
  • Source Environmental Protection Agency, 2009

42
Six Main Sources of Indoor Air Pollution
  • Combustion by-products
  • Microorganisms and allergens
  • Formaldehyde and other organic compounds
  • Asbestos Fibers
  • Tobacco Smoke
  • Radon
  • Source Environmental Protection Agency, 2009

43
Environmental Dangers in Schools
  • Chemical Releases
  • Pesticide Exposure
  • Mold
  • Asbestos
  • Lead Based Paint
  • Volatile Organic Chemicals
  • Source Healthy Schools Campaign, 2009

44
How Do We Improve?
  • Every person within the school district has a
    role
  • Clean Indoor Air Faculty Program
  • Informational Meeting for All Families
  • Educational Campaigns
  • Source Healthy Schools Campaign, 2009

45
Strategies to Improve Air Quality
  • Pollutant Source Removed
  • Increased Ventilation Rates
  • Air Cleaning
  • Education and Communication
  • Source Healthy Schools Campaign, 2009

46
Sick Building Syndrome
  • Illnesses due to poor air quality
  • Caused by chemicals within the building
  • 3 Factors
  • - Inadequate ventilation
  • - Poor system performance in the building
  • - Ventilation system is the problem
  • Source American College of Medical Technology,
    2009

47
Healthy Seat Program
  • Computerized Tool
  • Sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency
  • Source Environmental Protection Agency, 2009

48
High Performance Schools
  • Better Learning Environment
  • Saves Energy
  • Comfortable
  • Source Environmental Protection Agency, 2009

49
Benefits of High Performance Schools
  • Higher Test Scores
  • Increased Daily School Attendance
  • Teacher Satisfaction
  • Reduction of Negative Environmental Impacts
  • Heat/Air Minimizes Pollutant Sources
  • Source Environmental Protection Agency, 2009

50
Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools
  • Helps to maintain a healthy environment
  • Website to download these tools is
  • http//www.epa.gov/iaq/schools/index.html
  • Source Environmental Protection Agency (2009)

51
Particulates
  • - Minute substances in the air
  • - Unable to see with the naked eye 25-100 times
    thinner than a strand of hair
  • - 2.5-10 micrometers Smoke, dirt, dust, mold and
    pollen
  • - lt 2.5 micrometers Toxic organic compounds and
    heavy metals
  • Source Flynn, Matz, Woolf Wright, 2008

52
Heavy Metals
  • Lead
  • Affects cognitive abilities
  • Toxicity acute illness
  • Lead levels gt 10 g/dl major health concern
  • Indoors Lead dust
  • Source EPA, 2009
  • Mercury
  • 1990 latex paint contained elevated mercury
    levels
  • Phenyl mercuric Acetate used to increase the
    shelf life of paint
  • No longer in use

53
Mold and Moisture
  • Mold Also known as fungi or mildew
  • Requires moisture to grow
  • Can grow on any surface
  • Increases allergic and asthma reactions
  • Source Environmental Protection Agency, 2009

54
Radon
  • Occurs naturally with the breakdown of uranium
  • Radioactive gas that can cause lung cancer
  • Enters buildings through the ground underneath a
  • building
  • The Environmental Protection Agency recommends
    that all schools be tested for radon gas
  • Source Environmental Protection Agency, 2009

55
Asbestos
  • Mineral fiber added to buildings for
    strengthening
  • Asbestos fibers can be present in the air and
    inhaled
  • Asbestos fibers in the lung can causes illnesses
    such as
  • asbestosis, lung cancer or mesothelioma
  • Source Environmental Protection Agency, 2009

56
Volatile Organic Compounds
  • - Known as VOCs
  • - Emitted as gases at room temperature from
    solids and liquids
  • - Concentrations of VOCs are 10 times greater
    indoors than outside
  • - Found in many household items hairsprays,
    paints, lacquers, pressed wood products, copiers,
    printers, markers, correction fluids, glues,
    adhesives and photography solutions
  • Source Healthy Schools Campaign, 2009

57
What Can Be Done to Improve Air Quality
  • - Every person from the students to the
    superintendent can help improve indoor air
    quality
  • - Each person has a specific job and
    responsibility

58
Chemical Uses
  • Cleaning
  • Printing
  • Science Labs
  • Art Classes
  • Vocational Shop Courses
  • Auto Repair Classes
  • Source Healthy Schools Campaign, 2009

59
Green Cleaning
  • Green Clean Schools National Healthy Schools
    Campaign
  • - Training of personnel for proper and safe use
  • - Procedures for storage, mixing and application
  • - 5 Step Process
  • Source Healthy Schools Campaign, 2009

60
5 Steps to a Green School
  • All solutions used within the school meet green
    standards as provided by one of the following
    companies CA VOC, Eco Logo, Green Seal or DFE
  • Green equipment should be used
  • Green cleaning procedures
  • Use paper and plastic products that are green
  • Education for green schools should be provided
    to all people using the school.
  • (Healthy Schools Campaign, 2009)

61
Steps to Improve Air Quality
  • Personal Responsibility
  • Decrease Emissions
  • Clean Air Filters
  • Maintain Heating and Air Systems
  • Reduce Clutter
  • Source Healthy Schools Campaign, 2009

62
Development of an Indoor Air Quality Plan (IAQ)
  • Yearly budgeting should include maintenance and
    repair of heating and air units
  • Choose professional contractors that are aware of
    indoor air quality plans
  • Test all buildings fro radon and record radon
    levels
  • Share annual indoor air quality reports with
    school personnel, parents and interested
    community members
  • Source Healthy Schools Campaign, 2009

63
School Administrators
  • Develop and Indoor Air Quality Plan (IAQ)
  • Educate the School Board regarding IAQs
  • Indoor Air Quality Budget
  • Schedule Routine Maintenance Checks
  • Source Minnesota Department of Health, 2009

64
Facility Operators
  • Clean Filters
  • Outdoor Pollutants
  • Heating and Air Unit Maintenance
  • Movement of Air
  • Source Minnesota Department of Health, 2009

65
Facility Operators
  • Heating and air scheduled maintenance
  • Heating and air filter changed per guidelines
  • Outdoor Emissions
  • Source Minnesota Department of Health, 2009

66
Teachers and Staff
  • DO NOT BLOCK AIR DUCTS
  • Watch that refrigerators and computers are not
    put next to thermostats
  • Promote ventilation by arranging furniture a
    couple of inches from the wall
  • Minimize the amount of chemicals brought into the
    building
  • Source Minnesota Department of Health, 2009

67
Classroom Cleanliness
  • Staff and students need to be active participants
    in
  • keeping the rooms free from clutter and waste.
  • - Eating and drinking should be limited in
    classrooms
  • - Report all spills and leaks immediately to the
  • custodial staff
  • - All approved chemicals should be stored in
    their
  • original containers
  • - Each room should be dusted and vacuumed daily
  • Source Healthy Schools Campaign, 2009

68
Personal Belongings
  • Each school district should have a policy
    regarding approved chemicals
  • Strict adherence to the chemical list is expected
  • Minimize the amounts of chemicals brought into
    the classroom
  • Minnesota Department of Health, 2009)

69
Parent Responsibility
  • Report IAQ concerns
  • Volunteer
  • Support Tax Levis
  • Source Healthy Schools Campaign, 2009

70
Public Communication
  • Indoor Air Quality Policy
  • Building surveys
  • Indoor Air Quality Committee
  • Source Healthy Schools Campaign, 2009

71
Public Responsibility
  • Each person who uses the school buildings have a
    responsibility to help improve the quality of the
    air within the schools. These responsibilities
    include
  • - Do not bring chemicals into the buildings
    unless approved by the designated air quality
    specialist
  • - Make sure your shoes are free of debris by
    wiping them off on the floor mats before entering
    the buildings
  • - Adhere to know smoking within any public
    building
  • - Report any foreign odors, leaks or spills to
    the custodial staff
  • Source Healthy Schools Campaign, 2009)

72
References
  • American Lung Association. (2009). Indoor air
    quality. Retrieved July 6, 2009 from
  • http//www.lungusa.org
  • Colome, S., McCunney, R.J., Samet, J. M.,
    Swankin, D. (1994). Indoor air pollution An
    introduction for health professionals. Retrieved
    July 5, 2009 from www.epa/gov/iaq/pdfs/indoor_air_
    pollution.pdf
  • Environmental Protection Agency. (2009). Asbestos
    in schools. Retrieved June 30, 2009
    fromhttp//www.epa.gov/asbestos/pubs/asbestos_in_s
    chools.html

73
References
  • Environmental Protection Agency. (2009). Healthy
    schools campaign. Retrieved June 30, 2009 from
  • http//www.epa.gov/iaq/schools/environmental.h
    tml
  • Environmental Protection Agency. (2009). Healthy
    seat campaign. Retrieved June 30, 2009 from
  • http//www.epa.gov/schools/healthyseat/basicinfor
    mation.html
  • Environmental Protection Agency. (2008). High
    performance schools. Retrieved June 30, 2009
  • from http//www.epa.gov/iaq/school
    design/highperformance.html

74
References
  • Environmental Protection Agency. (2009). Indoor
    air pollution. Retrieved July 6, 2009 from
  • http//www.epa.gov/iaq/pdfs/indoor_air_polluti
    on.pdf
  • Environmental Protection Agency. (2009). Mold.
    Retrieved June 30, 2009 from
  • http//epa.gov/mold/pdfs/moldremediation.pdf
  • Environmental Protection Agency. (2009).
    Yosemite. Retrieved June 28, 2009 from
  • http//www.yosemite.epa.gov/ochp/ochpweb.nsf/conte
    nt/fastfacts.htm

75
References
  • Flynn, E., Matz, P., Woolf, A., Wright, R.
    (2008). Indoor air pollutants affecting child
    health.
  • Retrieved July 1, 2009 from
    http//acmt.net/_Library/docs/IndoorAirPollution.p
    df
  • Healthy Schools Campaign. (2009). Program guide.
    Retrieved June 28, 2009 from
  • http//www.healthyschoolscampaign.org/program/gcs
    /guide.2/1-4use.htm
  • Minnesota Department of Health. (2009). Indoor
    air quality in schools. Retrieved June 28, 2009
    from
  • http//www.health.state.mn.us/divs/eh/indoorair/s
    chools/admin.htm

76
References
  • Moeller, D. W. (2005). Air in the home and
    community. In Environmental Health (pp. 117-120).
  • Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press.
  • National Partnership Healthy Schools Campaign.
    (2009). Green cleaning. Retrieved July 5, 2009
    from
  • http//www.healthyschoolscampaign.org/programs/gc
    s/index.php
  • Potera, C. (2008). School siting poses
    particulate problem. Environmental Health
    Perspectives,
  • 116(11), 52-56.

77
References
  • USA Today (2009). The smoke stack effect Toxic
    air in Americas schools. Retrieved July 12, 2009
    from http//content.usatoday.com.news/nation/envir
    onment/smokestack/index
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