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Public Health, War, and Militarism

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Title: Public Health, War, and Militarism


1
Public Health, War, and Militarism
  • Martin Donohoe

2
Am I Stoned?
  • A 1999 Utah anti-drug pamphlet warns
  • Danger signs that your child may be smoking
    marijuana include excessive preoccupation with
    social causes, race relations, and environmental
    issues

3
Perspective
  • The earth spins at 1,038 mph at the equator,
    between 700 mph and 900 mph at mid-latitudes
  • The earth rotates around sun at 18.5 miles/sec
  • The solar system orbits the center of the Milky
    Way Galaxy at 137 miles/sec
  • One rotation per 225 million years

4
Perspective
  • The sun is one of hundreds of billions of stars
    in the Milky Way Galaxy
  • The Milky Way is one of over one hundred billion
    galaxies in the known universe
  • The universe may be one of an infinite number of
    universes

5
The Planets
6
Our Solar System
7
Jupiter one pixel, Earth invisible
8
Sun one pixel, Jupiter invisible
9
History of war
  • 10,000 yrs ago agriculture
  • Stable populations, division of labor, warrior
    class
  • 3500 yrs ago bronze weapons and armor
  • 2200 yrs ago iron
  • 1900 yrs ago widespread use of horses

10
History of war
  • Ninth Century China - bombs
  • Thirteenth Century China rockets
  • Forgotten until the 19th Century
  • 1783 Balloon (Montgolfier brothers)

11
History of War
  • 1803-1814 (Napoleonic Wars) English General
    Henry Shrapnel fills cannonballs with bullets and
    exploding charges to increase killing capacity
  • 1903 airplane (Wright Brothers)
  • 20th Century nuclear weapons, increasingly
    sophisticated chemical and biological weapons

12
Atomic Weapons - History
  • Hiroshima, August 6, 1945
  • 15 kiloton bomb, 140,000 deaths
  • Nagasaki, August 9, 1945
  • 22 kiloton bomb, 70,000 casualties

13
Atomic Weapons Today
  • Approximately 23,360 nuclear weapons at 11 sites
    in 14 countries (1/2 active or operationally-deplo
    yed)
  • Down from over 71,000 at height of Cold War
  • 5,200 active U.S. warheads today (more than ½ on
    hair-trigger alert) 8,000 in Russia
  • Several thousand megatons (100,000 Hiroshimas)

14
History of War
  • 20th Century
  • Small arms
  • 90 of the 300,000 yearly deaths from violent
    conflict
  • Land mines
  • 24,000 deaths/yr (est.), tens of thousands more
    disabled
  • Predator drones
  • Weaponization of space
  • Cyberwar

15
History of War
  • Belief that each new invention would eliminate
    warfare
  • Instead - increased casualties, killing at a
    distance

16
Epidemiology of Warfare
  • Deaths in war
  • 17th Century 19/million population
  • 18th Century 19/million population
  • 19th Century 11/million population
  • 20th Century 183/million population
  • Increasing casualties to civilians
  • 85-90 in 20th Century (vs. 10 late 19th Century)

17
Contemporary Wars
  • 250 wars in the 20th Century
  • 72 million lives lost in 20th Century wars,
    another 52 million through genocides
  • Incidence of war rising since 1950

18
War Deaths, 1945-2010
19
War Deaths
  • Korean War 3 million
  • Vietnam War 1.7 million
  • Iran-Iraq War 700,000
  • Soviet War in Afghanistan 1.5 million
  • Second Congo War 3.8 million
  • Second Sudanese Civil War 1.9 million

20
Gulf War I
  • 105,000 military and 110,000 civilian deaths
    (almost all Iraqis)
  • Over 2.25 million refugees
  • 2/3 of US casualties from friendly fire
  • Cost 61 billion (82 billion in 2003 dollars)
  • Environmental devastation

21
War Deaths (as of 12/1/12)
  • Second Iraq War
  • 4,485 U.S. soldiers 17,000 Iraqi military
  • U.S. Afghan War
  • Over 2,000 U.S. soldiers 1,200 coalition forces
  • Civilian deaths
  • 193,000 violent 1 million indirect
  • Financial cost of these two wars 1.5-5 trillion
    (est.)
  • Higher estimate includes fighting, rebuilding,
    veterans health care, economic losses, etc.

22
Casualties Among Soldiers and Civilians Continue
  • More US soldiers have committed suicide than have
    died in Afghan War
  • More military contractors killed than US soldiers
  • Veteran health care needs massive (TBI,
    psychiatric disorders, etc.)

23
Josef Stalin
  • The death of one man is a tragedy. The death of
    millions is a statistic.

24
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25
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26
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27
Colonial Exploitation
  • Christopher Columbus log entry upon meeting the
    Arawaks of the Bahamas
  • Theybrought usmanythingsThey willingly
    traded everything they ownedThey do not bear
    armsThey would make fine servantsWith fifty men
    we could subjugate them all and make them do
    whatever we want.

28
Colonial Exploitation
  • Cecil Rhodes (Rhodesia, Rhodes Scholarship,
    DeBeers Mining Company)
  • We must find new lands from which we can easily
    obtain raw materials and at the same time exploit
    the cheap slave labour that is available from the
    natives of the colonies. The colonies would also
    provide a dumping ground for the surplus goods
    produced in our factories.

29
Exploitation leads to
  • Maldistribution of wealth and resources
  • Environmental degradation
  • Wars

30
Consequences of War
  • Deaths, injuries, psychological sequelae
  • Collapse of health care system (affecting those
    with acute and chronic illnesses)
  • Famine

31
Consequences of War
  • Environmental degradation
  • Refugees, migrants, internally-displaced persons
  • 26 million displaced
  • Increasing poverty and debt
  • All lead to recurrent cycles of violence

32
Environmental Consequences of Militarization
  • Worlds single largest polluter
  • 8 of global air pollution
  • 2-11 of raw material use
  • Almost all high and low level radioactive waste

33
Violence Against Women
  • Common among U.S. servicewomen
  • A deployed female soldier is more likely to be
    raped by a fellow soldier than killed by enemy
    fire
  • Rape in war widespread, often genocidal
  • Some refugee camps unsafe

34
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35
Comfort Women
  • Japanese soldiers forced between 100,000 and
    200,000 women into sexual slavery (comfort
    women)
  • Some underwent forced hysterectomies to prevent
    menstruation, make them constantly available
  • More than half died due to mistreatment

36
Comfort Women
  • 3-5 year detention
  • 5-20 rapes per day
  • For 3 yrs of enslavement, low estimate is 7500
    rapes per woman
  • Japan has not compensated any victims
  • Historical blindness to atrocities

37
Violence and Rape in War
  • Occurs against backdrop of ongoing societal forms
    of violence against women
  • Legal, educational, social, and political
    marginalization

38
Economic Disparities
  • Women 79 cents/1 Men
  • Median income of black U.S. families as a percent
    of white U.S. families 62
  • 60 in 1968
  • 63 for Hispanic families

39
Status of Women
  • Women do 67 of the worlds work
  • Receive 10 of global income
  • Own 1 of all property

40
Worldwide, every minute
  • 380 women become pregnant (190 unplanned or
    unwanted)
  • 110 women experience pregnancy-related
    complications
  • 40 women have unsafe abortions
  • 1 woman dies from childbirth or unsafe abortion
  • Reason Lack of access to reproductive health
    services

41
Mothers Day Proclamation, 1870Julia Ward Howe
  • Arise then...women of this day!Arise, all women
    who have hearts!
  • Say firmly"We will not have questions answered
    by irrelevant agencies,Our husbands will not
    come to us, reeking with carnage,For caresses
    and applause.

42
Mothers Day Proclamation, 1870Julia Ward Howe
  • Our sons shall not be taken from us to
    unlearnAll that we have been able to teach them
    of charity, mercy and patience.
  • From the bosom of a devastated Earth a voice
    goes up withOur own. It says "Disarm! Disarm!

43
Mothers Day Proclamation, 1870Julia Ward Howe
  • Let women
  • promote the alliance of the different
    nationalities,The amicable settlement of
    international questions,The great and general
    interests of peace.

44
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45
  • Critical Public Health Issues

46
Poverty and Hunger
  • US 15 of residents and 22 of children live in
    poverty
  • Rates of poverty in Blacks and Hispanics 2X
    Whites
  • Poverty associated with worse physical and mental
    health

47
Jacob Riis
48
Dorothea Lange
49
Worldwide Poverty
  • 1 billion people lack access to clean drinking
    water
  • 3 billion lack adequate sanitation services
  • Hunger-related causes kill as many people in 8
    days as the atomic bomb killed at Hiroshima

50
James Nachtwey
51
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52
Maldistribution of Wealth
  • Top 250 billionaires worldwide worth 1 trillion,
    the combined income of bottom 2.5 billion people
    (45 of worlds population)
  • U.S Richest 1 of the population owns 40 of
    the countrys wealth -poorest 80 own 7-widest
    gap of any industrialized nation

53
Overconsumption (Affluenza)
  • U.S. 6.3 of worlds population
  • Owns 50 of the worlds wealth
  • U.S. responsible for
  • 25 of worlds energy consumption
  • 33 of paper use
  • 72 of hazardous waste production

54
Income Inequality Kills
  • Higher income inequality is associated with
    increased morbidity and mortality at all per
    capita income levels

55
Maldistribution of Wealth is Deadly
  • 880,000 deaths/yr in U.S. would be averted if the
    country had an income gap like Western European
    nations, with their stronger social safety nets
  • BMJ 2009339b4471

56
Voltaire
  • The comfort of the rich rests upon an abundance
    of the poor

57
Hudson River, 2009
58
Primo Levi
  • A country is considered the more civilized the
    more the wisdom and efficiency of its laws hinder
    a weak man from becoming too weak or a powerful
    one too powerful.

59
The State of U.S. Health Care
  • 49 million uninsured patients
  • Millions more underinsured
  • Remain in dead-end jobs
  • Go without needed prescriptions due to
    skyrocketing drug prices

60
Headline from The Onion
  • Uninsured Man Hopes His Symptoms Diagnosed This
    Week On House

61
The State of U.S. Health Care
  • US ranks near the bottom among westernized
    nations in life expectancy and infant mortality
  • Est. 51,000 deaths/year due to lack of health
    insurance
  • Racial disparities in coverage, processes, and
    outcomes of care

62
Racial Disparities in Health CareAfrican-America
ns
  • Equalizing the mortality rates of whites and
    African-Americans would have averted 686,202
    deaths between 1991 and 2000
  • Whereas medical advances averted 176,633 deaths
  • AJPH 2004942078-2081

63
Environmental Degradation and Social
Injustice(Causes)
  • Overpopulation
  • Pollution
  • Deforestation
  • Global Warming
  • Unsustainable Agricultural/Fishing Practices
  • Pesticides, indoor cooking with biomass

64
Environmental Degradation and Social
Injustice(Causes)
  • Overconsumption / Affluenza
  • Militarization
  • Maldistribution of Wealth
  • National and Global Political and Economic
    Institutions
  • Exploitation
  • Corporate Profiteering

65
Environmental Degradation and Social
Injustice(Causes)
  • Poor education
  • Media manipulation and inaccurate reporting
  • Money in politics
  • Citizen apathy

66
Environmental Degradation and Social
Injustice(Consequences)
  • Increased poverty and overcrowding
  • Famine
  • Global Warming
  • Weather extremes
  • Species loss
  • Human morbidity and mortality
  • 40 of worlds yearly deaths linked to water,
    air, and soil pollution
  • War
  • Malthusian chaos and disaster

67
Consequences of Global Warming
  • 300,000 deaths and 5.5 million disability-adjusted
    life years lost per year
  • WHO, UN Environment Program
  • Expected to double by 2020

68
World Military Spending (2012)(1.7 trillion in
2012 U.S. 34 of total)
69
U.S. Discretionary Spending (2012)
70
War and Peace
  • World military budget
  • 230X what the UN spends on peacekeeping
  • US
  • Largest arms supplier
  • Greatest debtor to U.N. (including U.N.
    peacekeeping fund)

71
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72
Skewed Priorities
  • The world spends 1.7 trillion/year on military
    goods and services
  • For 25 of this, we could
  • Eliminate starvation and malnutrition
  • Provide shelter for all
  • Eliminate illiteracy
  • Provide clean and safe water
  • Prevent soil erosion

73
Skewed Priorities
  • Prevent global warming
  • Stop deforestation
  • Aid all refugees
  • Retire developing nations debt
  • Provide clean, safe energy (through efficiency
    and renewables)

74
Skewed Priorities
  • Prevent acid rain
  • Fix the ozone hole
  • Stabilize world population
  • Provide basic universal health care and AIDS
    control
  • Eliminate nuclear weapons and land mines

75
DOD Announcement(September, 2011)
  • Pentagon Lacks Funding to Fix Public Schools on
    Military Bases

76
Dwight Eisenhower
  • Every gun that is made, every rocket fired,
    signifies in the final sense a theft from those
    who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold
    and not clothed

77
Martin Luther King
  • A nation that continues year after year to
    spend more money on military defense than on
    programs of social uplift is approaching
    spiritual death.

78
Health Costs of Militarization
  • 3 hours of world arms spending annual WHO
    budget
  • ½ day of world arms spending immunization for
    all the worlds children
  • 3 days of US arms spending amount spent on
    health, education and welfare programs for US
    children in one year

79
Health Costs of Militarization
  • 3 weeks of world arms spending primary health
    care for all in poor countries, including safe
    drinking water and full immunizations
  • Brain drain 2/3 of US scientists work in
    military-industrial complex (although much work
    has widespread applicability)

80
Foreign Aid
  • In total dollars U.S. 1
  • As a of GDP, U.S. ranks 21st among the worlds
    wealthiest nations
  • U.S. Aid Over 1/3 military, 1/4 economic, 1/3
    for food and development
  • Most U.S. aid benefits U.S. corporations

81
Foreign Aid
  • Americans think that 24 of the federal budget
    goes toward foreign aid
  • 0.9 of the total federal budget, 1.6 of the
    U.S. discretionary budget

82
U.S. Charitable Giving
  • 2.5 of income
  • 2.9 at height of Great Depression

83
The US Rogue Nation
  • History Native Americans, slavery, current
    excesses, disparities and injustices
  • Co-opting Nazi and Japanese WWII scientists
  • Minimum 277 troop deployments by the US in its
    225 year history
  • Over 1,000 bases worldwide today
  • In U.S. and 69 other countries

84
The US Rogue Nation
  • Since the end of WWII, the US has bombed
  • China, Korea, Indonesia, Cuba, Guatemala, Congo,
    Peru, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Nicaragua, El
    Salvador, Grenada, Libya, Panama, Afghanistan,
    Sudan, Yugoslavia, and Iraq

85
The US Rogue Nation
  • Conservative estimate 8 million killed
  • US invasions/bombings often largely at behest of
    corporate interests
  • Drone strikes on allied/other nations and on U.S.
    citizens

86
The US Rogue Nation
  • Continued funding of the Western Hemisphere
    Institute for Security Cooperation
  • Formerly the School of the Americas
  • Over 60,000 graduates, including many of the
    worst human rights abusers in Latin America
    (e.g., Manuel Noriega, Omar Torrijos, and the
    assassins of Archbishop Oscar Romero)

87
Hermann Goering(at the Nuremberg Trials, shortly
before being sentenced to death)
  • Of course the people don't want war. Butit is
    the leaders of the country who determine the
    policy, and it is always a simple matter to drag
    the people along, whether it is a democracy, or a
    fascist dictatorship, or a parliament, or a
    communist dictatorship . . .

88
Hermann Goering
  • Voice or no voice, the people can always be
    brought to the bidding of the leadersAll you
    have to do is to tell them they are being
    attacked, and denounce the pacifists for lack of
    patriotism and exposing the country to danger.

89
Horace Odes (III.2.13)
  • Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori
  • It is sweet and fitting to die for ones country

90
"Dulce Et Decorum Est"Wilfred Owen, 1917-18
  • In all my dreams, before my helpless sight, He
    plunges at me, guttering, choking, drowning.
  • If in some smothering dreams you too could pace
    Behind the wagon that we flung him in, And
    watch the white eyes writhing in his face, His
    hanging face, like a devil's sick of sin

91
"Dulce Et Decorum Est"Wilfred Owen
  • If you could hear, at every jolt, the blood
    Come gargling from the froth-corrupted lungs,
    Obscene as cancer, bitter as the cud Of vile,
    incurable sores on innocent tongues,- My friend,
    you would not tell with such high zest To
    children ardent for some desperate glory, The
    old Lie Dulce et decorum est Pro patria mori.

92
International Non-Cooperation/Isolationism
  • Failure to sign or approve
  • Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change
  • Convention on the Prohibition of Anti-Personnel
    Land Mines
  • Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

93
International Non-Cooperation/Isolationism
  • Failure to sign or approve
  • Convention on the Rights of the Child
  • Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination
    Against Women Convention on Economic, Social and
    Cultural Rights
  • Convention for the Suppression of Traffic in
    Persons
  • UN Convention on the Rights of Disabled Persons

94
International Non-Cooperation/Isolationism
  • Failure to sign or approve
  • Protocol 1, Article 55 of the Geneva Conventions,
    which bans methods of warfare which can cause
    severe environmental damage
  • The Basel Convention on the Control of
    Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes

95
The US Rogue Nation
  • Torture (involving health care professionals)
  • Death Penalty
  • US executes more of its citizens than any other
    country except China, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and
    Iran
  • Until recently, the US was the only country to
    execute both juveniles and the mentally ill

96
The US Rogue Nation
  • Failure to follow World Court Decisions
  • Failure to recognize International Criminal Court

97
Solutions
  • Activism (PSR, IPPNW, etc.)
  • Education (APHA Militarism Education Group)
  • Tolerance and appreciation of diversity
  • Redirect money towards social justice and
    environmental preservation
  • Eliminate WMDs

98
Solutions
  • Eliminate military recruiting in public schools
  • APHA Resolution
  • Increase foreign aid
  • Create Dept. of Peace
  • Assist victims of war (PHR, MSF, etc.)
  • Treaties

99
World Health Organization
  • The role of the physician in the preservation
    and promotion of peace is the most significant
    factor for the attainment of health for all.

100
Speak Up for the Disenfranchised
  • The first job of a citizen is to keep your mouth
    open.
  • - Günter Grass

101
First they came for the Jewsby Pastor Niemoller
  • First they came for the Jews, and I did not
    speak up, for I was not a Jew.
  • Then they came for the communists, and I did not
    speak up for I was not a communist.
  • Then they came for the trade unionists, and I did
    not speak up, for I was not a trade unionist.
  • Then they came for me, and there was no one left
    to speak up for me.

102
Have Faith in Your Ability to Affect Change
  • "If you think you are too small to have an
    impact, try going to bed with a mosquito in your
    tent
  • - African Proverb

103
Act Out of Love
  • People
  • Environment
  • Earth

104
Our Home
105
Earth/Moon Seen by Voyager Spacecraft through
Saturns Rings
106
  • Public Health and Social Justice Website
  • http//www.publichealthandsocialjustice.org
  • http//www.phsj.org
  • martindonohoe_at_phsj.org
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