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Historical Perspectives of Research Animal Protection

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Title: Historical Perspectives of Research Animal Protection Author: Crystal Anderson Last modified by: Susan Wilson-Sanders Created Date: 8/13/2003 8:23:38 PM – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Historical Perspectives of Research Animal Protection


1
Historical Perspectives of Research Animal
Protection
  • Dr. Susan Wilson-Sanders

2
(No Transcript)
3
Participants in the Process
  • Laboratory Animal Scientists
  • Animal Care Panel
  • AALAS
  • AAALAC
  • ILAR
  • Public
  • Animal-centric organizations
  • Health care consumers
  • Research community
  • Government
  • Congress
  • USDA
  • HHS PHS (NIH, FDA)

4
Laboratory Animal Scientists Five Founding
Fathers
  • Dr. Robert J. Schroeder
  • Dr. Nathan R. Brewer
  • Dr. Elihu Bond
  • Dr. Robert J. Flynn
  • Dr. Bennet J. Cohen

5
Timeline Continued
  • 1967 Name of the ACP changes to the
    American Association for laboratory Animal
    Science (AALAS)

6
The Public Changing Attitudes
7
Animal-centric organizations
8
Publics Involvement
  • 1962 Silent Spring, by Rachel Carson
  • 1966 LIFE magazine and Sports Ill
    articles
  • 1969 Greenpeace founded
  • 1975 Animal Liberation, by Peter Singer
  • 1982 The Silver Spring Monkeys
  • 1983 University of Pennsylvania head
    injury studies

9
Sports Illustrated Article
10
Life Magazine
11
Life Magazine
12
RESEARCH INVOLVEMENT
  • ACADEMIC FREEDOM

13
Government Involvement
  • 1962 NIH Contract First Guide
  • 1966 Laboratory Animal Welfare Act (1970,
    1976, 1985, 1990)
  • 1971 NIH Policy
  • 1973 Public Health Service Policy (1979)
  • 1985 PHS Act (Health Research Extension)

14
1966 Laboratory Animal Welfare Act
  • Preventing theft of dogs and cats
  • Registration limited facilities with dogs/cats
  • Holding areas only
  • Only records of acquisition required
  • Developed 8 areas of minimum standards
  • Housing
  • Feeding
  • Watering
  • Sanitation
  • Shelter
  • Separation of Species
  • Ventilation
  • Adequate Vet Care

15
1970 Animal Welfare Act
  • LAWA changed to AWA
  • Extension into the laboratory
  • Report number of animals by pain categories
  • Require appropriate use of anesthetics
  • Included standards for animal transport
  • Include all warm blooded except those excluded by
    the Sec of Ag

16
  • T
  • R
  • A
  • N
  • S
  • P
  • O
  • R
  • T

17
1985 Animal Welfare Act Amendments
  • Establishment of IACUC
  • Assign responsibility to Institutional Official
  • Review of protocols
  • Semiannual program review inspection
  • Search for alternatives to painful procedures
  • Personnel qualifications
  • Environmental enrichment for NHPs
  • Exercise for dogs

18
Animal Welfare Act
  • Applies to any live or dead warm-blooded animal
    which is being used, or is intended for used for
    research, teaching, testing, experimentation, or
    exhibition purposes, or as a pet.

19
Definition of Animals
  • Includes
  • Wilds mammals used in field research and
    laboratory research
  • Farm mammals used in biomedical research

20
Act Applies To
  • Horseshows (particularly Gaited, prevention of
    soreing.
  • Dog/cat breeders with more than three breeding
    bitches or queens.

21
Definition Excludes
  • Production farm animals
  • Laboratory rats and mice
  • Birds, bred for or used in research (new in 2004)

22
Animal Welfare Act
  • The Act is administered by the U. S. Department
    of Agriculture. At least once a year,
    unannounced inspections of all registered
    facilities are conducted by USDA veterinarians.
    These inspectors have the authority to review all
    housing areas, laboratories and offices where
    animals or records pertaining to animals are kept.

23
Animal Welfare Act
  • Fines and penalties are levied for violating the
    act

24
AWA
  • Establishes the Institutional Animal Care and Use
    Committee (IACUC) as the internal regulatory
    authority for each Research Facility

25
1971 NIH Policy
  • Institution had to have Assurance
  • AAALAC
  • Local Committee
  • Annual Inspections
  • Compliance with AWA
  • Follow Guide

26
1985 PHS Policy
  • Health Research Extension Act
  • More detailed Assurance
  • IO ultimately responsible
  • CEO appoints IACUC members
  • Minimum of 5 IACUC members
  • DVM program authority
  • Once practicing scientist
  • One community member
  • Protocol Review
  • Semiannual reports of program review
  • Detailed training program description

27
Public Health Service Policy
  • The Public Health Service Policy on the Care and
    Use of Laboratory Animals is a Congressionally
    mandated Act in the same way the AWA is, but
    applies only to vertebrate animals used in PHS
    funded research. Such research includes that
    performed by the National Institutes of Health
    (NIH), National Cancer Institute (NCI) and other
    branches of the PHS.

28
PHS Policy
  • Under the PHS Policy farm animals, birds,
    laboratory rodents, fish, amphibians, and
    reptiles, as well as all other vertebrates, would
    be covered, as long as the study was funded by
    PHS.

29
PHS Policy
  • In 1966, a panel of experts commissioned by the
    PHS wrote the Guide for the Care and Use of
    Laboratory Animals, which has become the primary
    reference in the United States for animal care
    and use programs.

30
PHS Policy
  • The Policy addresses concerns for the welfare of
    PEOPLE, as well as animals.
  • Requirement that each Institution have an
    Occupational Health Program to protect humans
    against animal hazards.

31
PHS Policy
  • No routine inspections however, NIH inspects
    several institutions per year checking for
    compliance with the Guide and Policy
  • Major violations? Loss of all PHS funding to the
    institution

32
PHS Policy
  • Requires each institution have an IACUC, which is
    the local authority over the animal care and use
    program

33
Animals at the UA
  • ALL VERTEBRATES animals, regardless of use are
    covered.

34
Other Federal Laws Affecting Animal Research
  • Good Laboratory Practices ActRequires to meet
    standards of PHS Policy and AWA
  • Animal Enterprise Protection Act
  • Controlled Substances Act
  • Patriot Act

35
Federal and State Wildlife Protection Laws
36
Non-Regulatory Policies Affecting Research
37
Association for Assessment and Accreditation of
Laboratory Care International
38
AAALAC
  • Considered the Gold Standard for animal care
  • AAALAC uses AWA, PHS and other sources as guides
  • Applies to all animals used by the institution

39
AVMA Panel on Euthanasia
40
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