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The Urban Environment Impacts on Health and Wellbeing

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The Urban Environment Impacts on Health and Wellbeing A successful urban area stimulates those who live and work there and reinforces self-esteem. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Urban Environment Impacts on Health and Wellbeing


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The Urban Environment Impacts on Health and
Wellbeing
  • A successful urban area stimulates those who live
    and work there and reinforces self-esteem.
  • The urban environment affect health and wellbeing
    of everyone who lives and works there.
  • Many problems are concentrated in the most
    deprived areas where environmental, social and
    economic factors interact especially children and
    older people.
  • Relationship between health, wellbeing and place
    are complex interacting and poorly understood.

3
Effects of Urban Environment on Health
  • Air pollution 24,000 deaths/yr brought forward
    by8 months and 24,000 hospital admissions.
  • Traffic accidents 3,300 deaths and 29,000
    serious injuries/yr.
  • Climate Winter - 25,700 extra deaths Dec
    2005-March 2006.
  • Summer - 2,000 excess deaths
    in heat-wave of 2003.
  • Mental health Strong association between urban
    residence and psychiatric disorders.
  • Infectious disease Spread of pandemic flue and
    new diseases with climate change.
  • Obesity 34,000 extra deaths each year.

4
The London Smog of December 1952
Clean Air Act of 1956
5
AIR POLLUTION PARTICLES AND THE LUNG
  • 1,000,000,000,000 particles enter into lungs
    daily
  • 10,000 lts of air pass through the lungs every 24
    hours.
  • Surface area exposed to the external environment
    - 150 m2

6
Tc99-Technigas lt100nm mmd
7
Percentage Change in Health End-point for a
10mg/m3 Increase in PM10 (summarised from over
100 studies)
4
3
Increase
2
1
Adverse health effects of particles persist after
controlling for smoking
8
Meta-analysis of TSP cardiovascular mortality
Anderson R et al

9
Cardiovascular Mortality PM2.5 and Black
SmokeLong-term Exposure
PM2.5
Black Smoke


Relative risk of all cause mortality per 10
mg/m3 change in annual average PM2.5 1.06 (95
CI1.02-1.11)
10
Cardiac Admissions PM10

11
Asthma Bronchitis Associated with PM10
Influence of Closing and Reopening a Steel Mill
in Utah Valley
Pope, Am J Public Health 1989
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Emission of nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide,
ammonia and non methyl VOC from anthrop0genic
sources by sector in the UK
14
Traffic growth by mode for the period 1980-2003
15
Proportion of diesel vehicles in car fleet
COUNTRY DIESEL CARS () Austria 54 Belgium 5
2.2 Spain 47.3 France 40.2 Italy 22.5 Ho
lland 20.3 Portugal 18.8 Germany 17.6 UK
15.3 Sweden 11.0 EUROPEAN MEAN 25.3
Forecast to increase to 50 by 2010
(DAmato et al, Clin Exp Allergy 2000 30
628-636)
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Particulate Matter
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Photochemical smogincluding OZONE
  • NO2 radiation ? NO O
  • O O2 ? O3
  • RO2 O2 ? RO O3

Sunshine
Pollutants
21
Ozone
22
Percentage change in PM10 emissions in selected
European countries between 1990 and 2001
23
Complex Interactions Influencing Individual Health
24
The web of connections between increased car
ownership and use and environmental and social
outcomes in urban areas The Urban Environment
Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution March
2007
25
Reccommendations that Directly Influence Health
  • Reduce hot spots of air pollution in urban
    settings.

26
Schematic representation of population exposure
to air pollution and potential Impacts of air
quality management strategies
27
Schematic representation of population exposure
to air pollution and potential Impacts of air
quality management strategies
28
Reccommendations that Directly Influence Health
  • Reduce hot spots of air pollution in urban
    settings.
  • Promotion of overall air pollution reduction for
    the whole population (Gap Closure).

29
Schematic representation of population exposure
to air pollution and potential Impacts of air
quality management strategies
30
Unravelling Environmental Factors Shaping Health
31
What we must aspire to
32
Reccommendations that Directly Influence Health
  • Reduce hot spots of air pollution in urban
    settings.
  • Promotion of overall air pollution reduction for
    the whole population (Gap Closure).
  • Develop a statutory framework for Health Impact
    Assessments as a component of Environment Impact
    Assessment in urban planning.
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