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TK 6123 COMPUTER ORGANISATION

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TK 6123 COMPUTER ORGANISATION & ARCHITECTURE Lecture 1: An Overview of Computer System (1) Prepared by: Dr Masri Ayob - TK2123 * The User s Point of View For ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: TK 6123 COMPUTER ORGANISATION


1
TK 6123COMPUTER ORGANISATION ARCHITECTURE
  • Lecture 1 An Overview of Computer System (1)

2
Synopsis
  • Computer architecture is concerned with
  • the operational methods of the hardware
  • the services provided by operating system
    software
  • the acquisition, processing, storage, and output
    of data and
  • the interaction between computers.
  • An understanding of computer architecture makes
    us possible to ride the wave of technology
    change, secure in the feeling that we are
    equipped to deal with the development as they
    occur, and to have fun doing so.
  • Topics covered in this course include an overview
    of computer system, data in the computer,
    computer performance, CPU, memory, input/output,
    computer peripherals, operating system, assembly
    language level, instructions set architecture
    level, micro-architecture level and digital logic
    level.

3
Learning Outcome (CO)
  • At the end of the course, students should be able
    to
  • Understand the representation of data in a
    computer.
  • Understand the operation, organisation,
    instruction set and electronic components of a
    simple computer.
  • Understand the variations in computer
    architecture that arises from different system
    designs, and the tradeoffs in performance and
    capability that result.
  • Understand the role of operating system software
    in a computer system, and to explore the
    components and fundamentals of internal design
    for operating systems.

4
Course Information
  • Text books
  • Irv Englander, (2003). The Architecture Of
    Computer Hardware And System Software, 3/E, John
    Wiley Sons.
  • Andrew S. Tanenbaum, (2006). Structured Computer
    Organization, 5/E, Prentice Hall.
  • William Stallings, (2006). Computer Organization
    and Architecture Designing for Performance, 7/E,
    Prentice Hall.
  • Class
  • Friday 800am-1100am BK1
  • Course website portal SPIN for TK6123
  • http//www.spin.ukm.my/
  • http//www.ftsm.ukm.my/masri/TK6123

5
Assessment
  • Assignments 10
  • Quiz 30
  • Mid Semester Examination 30
  • Final Examination 30
  • Warnings
  • Copying assignment/quiz/exam is prohibited.
  • Delay of submission influences on marks.

6
Contents
  • This lecture will address
  • The ways in which a knowledge of computer
    architecture enhances our abilities as computer
    users and professionals.
  • The input-output-process model of computing.
  • The basic components of a computer system.

7
Architecture Organization
  • Architecture is those attributes visible to the
    programmer
  • Instruction set, number of bits used for data
    representation, I/O mechanisms, addressing
    techniques.
  • e.g. Is there a multiply instruction?
  • Organization is how features are implemented
  • Control signals, interfaces, memory technology.
  • e.g. Is there a hardware multiply unit or is it
    done by repeated addition?

8
Introduction
  • Typical elements in computer-based information
    system
  • The data element
  • fundamental representation of facts and
    observations.
  • Data is processed by a computer system to provide
    the information that is the very reason for the
    computers existence.
  • As you will see, data can take on a number of
    different forms.

9
Introduction
  • The hardware element
  • Computer hardware processes the data by
  • Executing instructions.
  • storing data
  • and moving data and information between the
    various input and output devices that make the
    system and the information accessible to the
    users.

10
Introduction
  • The software element
  • Software consists of the system and application
    programs that define the instructions that are
    executed by the hardware.
  • The communication element
  • Modern computer information systems depend on the
    ability to share processing operations and data
    among different computers and users, located both
    locally and remotely. Data communication provides
    this capability.

11
Introduction
  • The combination of hardware, software,
    communication, and data make up the architecture
    of a computer system.
  • The architecture of computer systems is
    remarkably similar whether the system is a PC, a
    large mainframe etc.

12
Introduction
  • Even more remarkably, the basic architecture of
    computer systems has changed surprisingly little
    over the last fifty-five years.
  • The latest IBM mainframe computer executes
    essentially the same instruction set as the
    mainframe computer of 1965.
  • The basic communication techniques used in
    todays systems were developed in the 1970s.

13
Introduction
  • As new as it might seem, the Internet celebrated
    its thirtieth anniversary in 2000.
  • All of this is surprising considering the growth
    of computing, the rapid change of technology, and
    the increased performance, functionality, and
    ease of use of todays systems.
  • This makes the study of computer architecture
    extremely valuable as a foundation upon which to
    understand new developments in computing as they
    occur.

14
Introduction
  • All Intel x86 family share the same basic
    architecture
  • The IBM System/370 family share the same basic
    architecture
  • This gives code compatibility
  • At least backwards
  • Organization differs between different versions

15
Structure Function
  • Structure is the way in which components relate
    to each other
  • Function is the operation of individual
    components as part of the structure

16
Function
  • All computer functions are
  • Data processing
  • Data storage
  • Data movement
  • Control

17
Functional View
18
Operations Data movement
19
Operations Storage
20
Operation Processing from/to storage
21
Operation Processing from storage to I/O
22
Introduction
  • What do the insides of a computer look like and
    why do we care?
  • As users, we do not have to know the answer to
    this question, any more than we have to
    understand the workings of a car engine in order
    to drive the car.

23
Introduction
  • We can run standard software packages without
    understanding exactly how they work.
  • We can program a computer in a high-level
    language without understanding how the machine
    executes the individual instructions.
  • We can create Web pages without understanding how
    the Web browser gets its pages from a Web server
    or how the Web server creates those pages.
  • We can purchase a computer system from a
    salesperson without understanding the
    specifications of the system.
  • Etc

24
Introduction
  • And yet, there is something missing.
  • Perhaps the package doesnt do exactly what we
    want, and we dont understand the machine well
    enough to risk fooling around with the packages
    options.
  • Perhaps if we understood the system we might have
    written the program to be faster and more
    efficient.
  • Perhaps we could create Web pages that load
    faster and work better.
  • Perhaps the salesperson did not sell us the
    optimum system for our job.
  • Etc

25
Introduction
  • The jargon of computers has become a part of the
    English language.
  • You can open any daily newspaper and find
    references to 1GB DDRAM or XGA TFT display or
    512K level 2 cache or 56K V.90 modem in
    articles and advertisements. (In a way, its
    scary!).

26
Figure 1.1 A typical computer ad
27
Introduction
  • But how good a system is this?
  • Are these features important to the user?
  • Is this the right combination of features that
    you need in your computer to have the computer
    perform the work that you wish to get done?
  • Is a 2.7 GHz Pentium 4 the best choice of a CPU?
  • Perhaps we are paying too much for the
    performance that we need.
  • Or maybe we need more.
  • What does the presence of a Firewire port imply
    in the context of a long-term investment of
    computers for your organisation?
  • Is DVD-RAM the most useful format for your work?
  • Etc

28
Introduction
  • Understanding the computer systems operations
    has an immediate benefit it will allow you to
    use the machine more effectively.
  • As a user, you will
  • be aware of the capabilities, strengths, and
    limitations of the computer system.
  • have a better understanding of the commands that
    you use.
  • understand what is taking place during the
    operation of the programs that you use.
  • understand more clearly what an operating system
    is, and how to use it effectively and to your
    advantage.
  • know when it is preferable to do a job manually,
    and when the computer should be used.

29
Introduction
  • As a programmer, it will allow you to
  • write better programs.
  • use the characteristics of the machine to make
    your programs operate more effectively.
  • For example, choosing the appropriate data type
    for a variable can result in significantly faster
    performance.
  • Soon you will know why this is so, and how to
    make the appropriate choices.

30
Introduction
  • As a system analyst, you
  • will be expected to specify computer systems for
    purchase, for yourself and for your organization.
  • would like to purchase the computer that best
    meets the needs of the application.
  • must be able to read and understand the technical
    specifications in order to compare different
    alternatives and to match the system to the
    users needs.
  • should be able to assist management in making
    intelligent decisions about system strategy.
  • should able to differentiate between simple
    technological obsolescence that does not affect
    your work significantly and major advances that
    suggest a real need to replace older equipment.

31
Introduction
  • As a system administrator or manager, your job is
    to maximize the availability and efficiency of
    your systems. You
  • will need to understand the reports generated by
    your systems and be able to use the information
    in those reports to make changes in the systems
    that will optimize system performance.
  • will need to know when additional resources are
    required, and be able to specify appropriate
    choices.
  • will need to specify and configure operating
    system parameters, set up file systems, manage
    system and user PC upgrades in a fast-changing
    environment, provide and assure the robustness of
    system security, and perform many other system
    management tasks.

32
Introduction
  • A deep understanding of the basic concepts is
    fundamental to long-term survival and growth in
    the field of information technology and IT
    management.
  • This type of understanding is at the very
    foundation of being a competent and successful
    system analyst, system administrator, or
    programmer.

33
The Users Point of View
  • The purpose of the computer, obviously, is to
    perform some useful work, whether that work be
  • word processing
  • retrieval and manipulation of data
  • simple bookkeeping
  • solving a difficult mathematical problem
  • Web browsing
  • or the graphical display and internal calculation
    associated with a video game or desktop
    presentation program.

34
The Users Point of View
  • For example, a simple online credit card
    purchasing system
  • When a customer makes a purchase
  • the clerk keys or scans the transaction into a
    terminal that is used as input to the department
    store computer.
  • The computer communicates with a bank computer
    that checks the customers credit and okays the
    transaction.
  • The computer prints a receipt at the terminal for
    the customer to sign and records the transaction
    in the customers account.

35
Figure 1.2 A simplified credit card transaction
36
The Users Point of View
  • For this example,
  • The primary processing operations that take place
    include searching for data, merging of data, and
    simple calculation.
  • On this system, input is provided via terminal
    keyboard. Output occurs on the screen and on a
    printer. Hard disks provide long-term storage.

37
The Users Point of View
  • A seemingly very different operation occurs when
    you sit at your personal computer working with a
    word processor.
  • But is it really that different?
  • The text file is probably stored on either a
    removable disk or a hard disk.
  • The word processor program itself is also stored
    on disk.
  • The text file being processed is initially loaded
    into the main memory of the computer as data,
    just as the customers credit file was in the
    previous example.
  • Word processors also perform comparisons and make
    decisions, just as the credit card program does.

38
The Input-Process-Output Model
  • The critical idea here is that regardless of the
    type of work to be performed, the work of a
    computer can be characterized by an
    input-process-output model (IPO) that is a
    program
  • receives input from a disk file, mouse, keyboard,
    or some other input device
  • performs some processing on the input
  • and produces output to a disk file, a printer, a
    video screen, or some other output device.

39
Figure 1.3 A computer process
40
Internet Resources- Web site for book
  • Student Companion Site (Englander)
  • http//bcs.wiley.com/he-bcs/Books?actionindexit
    emId0471073253bcsId1432

41
Internet Resources- Web site for book
  • http//WilliamStallings.com/COA/COA7e.html
  • links to sites of interest
  • links to sites for courses that use the book
  • errata list for book
  • information on other books by W. Stallings
  • http//WilliamStallings.com/StudentSupport.html
  • Math
  • How-to
  • Research resources
  • Misc

42
Internet Resources- Web sites to look for
  • WWW Computer Architecture Home Page
  • CPU Info Center
  • Processor Emporium
  • ACM Special Interest Group on Computer
    Architecture
  • IEEE Technical Committee on Computer Architecture
  • Intel Technology Journal
  • Manufacturers sites
  • Intel, IBM, etc.

43
Internet Resources - Usenet News Groups
  • comp.arch
  • comp.arch.arithmetic
  • comp.arch.storage
  • comp.parallel

44
Thank youQA
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