AMERICAN ROMANTICISM (1820-1865) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Title: AMERICAN ROMANTICISM: INTRODUCTION Author: checkout Last modified by: Jane Stafford Created Date: 6/4/2007 5:37:29 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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(No Transcript)
Early 1800s
  • We have declared our independence!
  • We have had a successful revolt of English rule!
  • We are feeling euphoric!
  • Look at this vast expanse of wilderness that is
    now ours!
  • We have freedom!
  • There are no limits to our greatness!

What else is going on
  • Rapid expansion of US population
  • Agricultural advancement
  • Industrial advancement
  • Frontier
  • Technological advancements

Romanticism (traits of)
  1. The JOURNEY
  3. Preserving FOLKLORE
  4. Grandeur of NATURE and LANDSCAPE
  5. Distrust of civilization
  6. Interest in the SUPERNATURAL
  7. Interest in Spiritual Awakenings
  8. Significance of ones IMAGINATION Power of
    emotion to create INSPIRATION

1. The Journey
  • Mans journey for spiritual awakening
  • Countrys journey towards independence
  • Journey into the countryside to appreciate the
    beauty of nature
  • Journey westward expansion

2. The Common Man
  • Concern for the common man came from both the
    democratic changes of the age of Revolution, as
    well as an interest in folk culture
  • Ordinary man can be an American literary hero
    doesnt have to be a knight or king!

3. Folk Tradition
  • Desire to preserve the stories, songs, legends,
    and verse of the common people
  • Searching for a distinct American voice

4. Nature
  • Shuns the artificiality of civilization and seeks
    unspoiled nature (city bad country good)
  • Contemplates natures beauty as a path to
    spiritual and moral development
  • The belief that the expansion of the United
    States throughout the American continents was
    both justified and inevitable

Manifest Destiny
5. Supernatural
  • This where GOTHIC ideals begin!
  • The idea that there are things we cannot explain
    through Science
  • The willingness to suspend beliefs

6. Imagination, Passion, Emotion!
  • Imagination was emphasized over reason. Reason
    was associated with the era of founding fathers
    and neoclassicism.
  • Imagination was considered necessary for creating
    all art, literature and music.
  • Emotions were prized over science or rational

6. Individuality
  • Romantics celebrated the individual.
  • During this time period, Womens Rights and
    Abolitionism were taking root as major movements
    we will see more of them later.

  • Defining a distinct vision for American art
  • Began with the grand views of the Hudson Valley
    and surrounding Catskill Mountains in NY
  • Celebrated the vast resources and magnificent
    landscapes of the new nation
  • Sought to depict a wilderness in which man is
    small in comparison
  • As Thomas Cole maintained, if nature were
    untouched by the hand of man--as was much of the
    primeval American landscape in the early 19th
    century--then man could become more easily
    acquainted with the hand of God

Thomas Cole, The Oxbow (View from Mount Holyoke,
Northampton, Massachusetts, after a Thunderstorm,
Asher Durand, Kindred Spirits (1848)
Frederic Edwin Church, The Natural Bridge
Alfred Bierstadt, Emigrants Crossing the Plains
Alfred Bierstadt, Looking Up the Yosemite Valley
Washington Irving
  • Father of American Literature!
  • First author noted to be of the caliber of
    English authors
  • Did go to Europe for 17 years and returned to
    America to find it changed

Rip Van Winkle
  • Considered 1st American short story!

How is Rip Van Winkle a story of the Romantic
period? How is it an allegory?
(No Transcript)
Young Goodman Brown Pre-reading Journal Write
(pick one)
  • Respond to one or both -- of these quotes.
  • Respond to the prompt.
  • All things truly wicked start from innocence. 
  • Ernest Hemingway
  • Every act of rebellion expresses a nostalgia
    for innocence and an appeal to the essence of
  • Albert Camus, from The Rebel An Essay on Man
    in Revolt
  • How would you define innocence? In your
    lifetime, have you experienced or witnessed a
    loss of innocence? How would you describe it?
  • You might consider the practical, emotional,
    social, or spiritual impacts.

Working n your groups of three, you will
illustrate the journey of YGB
  • Using either ShowMe (app for iPad), or a pen and
    paper, illustrate at least seven different scenes
    from Young Goodman Brown.
  • Each scene will contain and label the following
  • the people in the scene
  • at least one potential symbol from the scene
  • the scenes surroundings (imagery)
  • a quote from that scene it may be recorded or
    written -- with the page number.

A theme is
  • a common thread or repeated idea that is
    incorporated throughout a literary work.
  • A theme is a thought or idea the author presents
    to the reader that may be deep, difficult to
    understand, or even moralistic. Generally, a
    theme has to be extracted as the reader explores
    the passages of a work. The author utilizes the
    characters, plot, and other literary devices to
    assist the reader in this endeavor. (University
    North Carolina)

Themes in YGB
Themes in YGB
  • Mans loss of faith
  • Inevitable movement/growth of man
  • Growing up/maturing
  • Loss of innocence
  • Inevitability of maturation
  • Duality of man
  • Hypocrisy in religion
  • Corruption of man/devil in all of us

A symbol is
  • Symbol a symbol is a word or object that stands
    for another word or object. The object or word
    can be seen with the eye or not visible. For
    example a dove stands for Peace. The dove can be
    seen and peace cannot.
  • Symbol in general terms, anything that stands
    for something else. Obvious examples are flags,
    which symbolize a nation the cross is a symbol
    for Christianity Uncle Sam a symbol for the
    United States. In literature, a symbol is
    expected to have significance.

Symbols in YGB
An allegory is
  • An allegory is a narrative that serves as an
    extended metaphor. The main purpose of an
    allegory is to tell a story that has characters,
    a setting, as well as other types of symbols,
    that have both literal and figurative meanings (A
    Handbook to Literature, 2011)

Why is YGB an allegory?
Imagery is
  • Vivid, descriptive language that appeals to one
    or more of the senses.
  • The use of pictures, descriptions or figures of
    speech (such as similes, metaphors) to visualize
    a mood or character.
  • Think of mental pictures but it can go to all

Imagery in Young Goodman Brown
Thesis Statements are
  • The single, specific claim that your essay
  • a short statement, usually one sentence, that
    summarizes the main point or claim of an essay,
    research paper, etc., and is developed,
    supported, and explained in the text by means of
    examples and evidence.
  • The statement serving as the organizing principle
    of the text and usually appears in the
    introductory paragraph, often at the end.
  • A controlling idea for an entire paper or a book

Indications/Elements of a Strong Thesis Statement
  • take on a subject upon which reasonable people
    could disagree
  • deal with a subject that can be adequately
    treated given the nature of the assignment
  • express one main idea
  • assert your conclusions about a subject

Your Goals for Today
  • Decide on the theme you will explore
  • In your group, develop a thesis statement (this
    may be a work in progress)
  • In your group, decide who will be in charge of
    what piece(s) of imagery and symbol(s).
  • Individually, construct your paragraph. You may
    want to consult with your group members about
    your evidence, interpretation and/or details.

  • Introduce the topic with some indication of its
    inherent interest or importance, and a clear
    definition of the boundaries of the subject area
  • Indicate the structure and/or methodology of the
    essay, often with the major sections of the essay
    or its structural principle clearly stated
  • State the thesis of the essay, preferably in a
    single, arguable statement with a clear main

  • Answer So What?
  • Come full-circle. Return to the theme from the
    introduction with parallel concepts and/or
  • Synthesize, dont simply summarize.
  • Propose a course of action, a solution to an
    issue, or questions for further study.
  • Point to broader implications.

Goals for Wednesday
  • 1. Complete your individual paragraphs and share
    them with each other. Ask each other these
  • Does my evidence actually support the thesis?
  • Do I explain how my evidence supports the thesis?
  • 2. Brainstorm about your conclusion (I know, I
    knowyou havent written your introduction yet).
    But do you know where youre going?
  • 3. Write an introduction

Goals for Thursday
  • Create one MLA document (remember works cited
    not needed).
  • Read the paper in its entirety
  • Write your conclusion.
  • Modify your introduction, thesis, and conclusion
    as needed.
  • Finish final draft by tomorrow.

Final Draft will look like this
  • ONE paper that identifies the author of each body
    paragraph by using brackets beforehand
  • Example
  • Whitley Topic Sentence Extraordinaire. Quote
    that cant be beat (parentheses). Words that
    make sense of that quote. Words that relate that
    sense to the imagery in the story. Words that
    connect that imagery and its sense to the thesis.
  • Three rubrics attached (rubric not necessary if
    electronically submitted)

Conceptualizing introductions conclusions
  • Introduction
  • Conclusion
  • Invitation
  • A bridge into the paper
  • A layout of your papers world
  • Answers, So tell me about
  • Parting Gift
  • A bridge into the world
  • A real-world reason to read your essay
  • Answers, So what?/So why did you tell me about

Common Pitfalls to Conclusions
  • Thats my story and Im sticking to it.
  • (indicators words like in conclusion, in
    summary, or in closing.)
  • The Sherlock-Holmes syndrome
  • (indicator thesis is stated for first time in
    the conclusion.)
  • The thesis, twice
  • (indicator a rephrased thesis statement but with
    no substantive changes.)

Common Pitfalls continued
  • Desperate emotional appeal
  • (indicator a sudden sentimental attempt that is
    out of character with an analytical paper)
  • Im still going!
  • (indicator evidence (quotations, statistics,
    etc.) that should be in the body of the paper.

  • 1. The place holder introduction. When you dont
    have much to say on a given topic, it is easy to
    create this kind of introduction. Essentially,
    this kind of weaker introduction contains several
    sentences that are vague and dont really say
    much. They exist just to take up the
    introduction space in your paper. If you had
    something more effective to say, you would
    probably say it, but in the meantime this
    paragraph is just a place holder.
  • Example Slavery was one of the greatest
    tragedies in American history. There were many
    different aspects of slavery. Each created
    different kinds of problems for enslaved people.
  • 2. The restated question introduction. Restating
    the question can sometimes be an effective
    strategy, but it can be easy to stop at JUST
    restating the question instead of offering a more
    specific, interesting introduction to your paper.
    The professor or teaching assistant wrote your
    questions and will be reading ten to seventy
    essays in response to themhe or she does not
    need to read a whole paragraph that simply
    restates the question. Try to do something more
  • Example Indeed, education has long been
    considered a major force for American social
    change, righting the wrongs of our society.
    The Narrative of the Life of Frederick
    Douglass discusses the relationship between
    education and slavery in 19th century America,
    showing how white control of education reinforced
    slavery and how Douglass and other enslaved
    African Americans viewed education while they
    endured. Moreover, the book discusses the role
    that education played in the acquisition of
    freedom. Education was a major force for social
    change with regard to slavery.
  • 3. The Websters Dictionary introduction. This
    introduction begins by giving the dictionary
    definition of one or more of the words in the
    assigned question. This introduction strategy is
    on the right trackif you write one of these, you
    may be trying to establish the important terms of
    the discussion, and this move builds a bridge to
    the reader by offering a common, agreed-upon
    definition for a key idea. You may also be
    looking for an authority that will lend
    credibility to your paper. However, anyone can
    look a word up in the dictionary and copy down
    what Webster saysit may be far more interesting
    for you (and your reader) if you develop your own
    definition of the term in the specific context of
    your class and assignment, or if you use a
    defintion from one of the sources youve been
    reading for class. Also recognize that the
    dictionary is also not a particularly
    authoritative workit doesnt take into account
    the context of your course and doesnt offer
    particularly detailed information. If you feel
    that you must seek out an authority, try to find
    one that is very relevant and specific. Perhaps a
    quotation from a source reading might prove
    better? Dictionary introductions are also
    ineffective simply because they are so overused.
    Many graders will see twenty or more papers that
    begin in this way, greatly decreasing the
    dramatic impact that any one of those papers will
  • Example Websters dictionary defines slavery as
    the state of being a slave, as the practice of
    owning slaves, and as a condition of hard work
    and subjection.
  • 4. The dawn of man introduction. This kind of
    introduction generally makes broad, sweeping
    statements about the relevance of this topic
    since the beginning of time. It is usually very
    general (similar to the place holder
    introduction) and fails to connect to the thesis.
    You may write this kind of introduction when you
    dont have much to saywhich is precisely why it
    is ineffective.
  • Example Since the dawn of man, slavery has been
    a problem in human history.
  • 5. The book report introduction. This
    introduction is what you had to do for your
    elementary school book reports. It gives the name
    and author of the book you are writing about,
    tells what the book is about, and offers other
    basic facts about the book. You might resort to
    this sort of introduction when you are trying to
    fill space because its a familiar, comfortable
    format. It is ineffective because it offers
    details that your reader already knows and that
    are irrelevant to the thesis.
  • Example Frederick Douglass wrote his
    autobiography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick
    Douglass, An American Slave, in the 1840s. It was
    published in 1986 by Penguin Books. In it, he
    tells the story of his life.