Supply and demand of agricultural graduates in the agriculture sector - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Supply and demand of agricultural graduates in the agriculture sector

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Title: Supply and demand of agricultural graduates in the agriculture sector


1
Supply and demand of agricultural graduates in
the agriculture sector
Education, Science and Skills Development
2
This presentation
  • Overview - output of agricultural education and
    training institutions
  • Examination of the size of intermediate to high
    skills labour force
  • Supply demand and absorbtion
  • Key factors and themes affecting supply and
    demand
  • Recommendations

3
1. Institutional output
  • Approximate total of 2550 graduates for one year
    2003

4
2. Employment in Agriculture
5
Employment by industry
  • Salary of gtR2500 per month is proxy for
    intermediate to higher level skills
  • Approximately 67 000 workers
  • But subtract workers with non-agricultural skills

6
Employment by occupation
7
Employment by occupation
9.0
9.0
9.0
  • Salary of gtR2500 per month is proxy for
    intermediate to higher level skills
  • Approximately 29 000 workers
  • But does not include other agriculture
    occupations eg professionals, scientists etc.

8
Employment by field of study
  • Salary of gtR2500 per month is proxy for
    intermediate to higher level skills
  • Between 33 000 to 42 000 workers
  • But some of these may not be working in the
    agricultural sector

9
3. Contribution of output to cover demand
  • LFS 2004 suggests that out of 308 000 Skilled
    agricultural and fishery workers there are 42
    000 with degrees diplomas and certificates
  • We have 2550 FET to HET graduates entering the
    labour market
  • The replacement rate that can be sustained for
    intermediate to high skills work in agriculture
    is
  • Between 2 550/42 000 6.1

10
Changing labour market conditions
  • Long term decline in employment but share for
    agriculture rises from 12 to 13 (1995 to 2002)
    - this gives a 24.7 increase in real terms
    (Bhorat,2005)
  • Rising skills composition of the agricultural
    labour force

11
Labour market absorbtion
12
Absorbtion of graduates
  • 1.5 of agricultural graduates experienced of a
    period of unemployment but in proportion with
    total share of graduates in 2000 of 1.47
    (Moleke,2005)
  • Agricultural graduates finding work
  • 93 successful after 6 months
  • 80 successful among Humanities, Arts and Law
    graduates
  • Note Data for higher education only - not
    Colleges

13
Key findings Demand signals
  • Demand for skills rising with vertical and
    horizontal integration of product value chains
  • Formalisation of industry organisations is
    evident with positive impact
  • Professional (egSoil Science Society of SA)
  • Producers (eg SA Avocado Growers Assoc)
  • Service (eg Field Guides Association)
  • Consumer bodies (eg SA Red Meat Industry
    Company)

14
Key findings demand patterns
  • Main demand for agriculture skills is in primary
    agriculture
  • Skills required outside of the range of
    agricultural fields eg
  • Management and financial
  • Chemical engineering
  • Chemistry
  • Food Technology

15
Key findings demand patterns
  • Occupational categories of skills upgrading
    needs
  • Growing interest among employers in RD
    activities
  • Sales positions have rising requirements
  • Farmers and Farm managers
  • Specific skills sets (Sectoral) eg
  • Animal feeds Feed Formulator
  • Seed manufacture Seed Scientists
  • Public Sector - veterinarians (inter alia)

16
Key findings general issues
  • Cross-cutting skills life-skills,
    communication, teamwork, IT etc.
  • Perceptions of employers about graduates
  • Concerns regarding image of agriculture

17
Key findings supply-demand
  • Factors creating localised demand
  • Wage differentials (Public Private)
  • Rural urban differentials in supply
  • Intra-sectoral labour market demand imbalances
  • Time-based nature of demand
  • Geo-climatic influences

18
Key findings supply-demand
  • How demand is being met
  • Substitution masks real demand
  • Demand is partially met by short courses with
    focused high skills inputs
  • Poor labour market information limits positive
    matches but see role of associations
  • Demand is being met by adaptation (BAgric) in
    career paths
  • Demand can be met by conversions (BSc)

19
Recommendations
  • Improve dissemination and use of information in
    private and public sector labour markets
  • Dept of Agriculture website
  • Annual HR/Training/HRD event
  • Sustain quality and focus of agricultural study
    programmes
  • Race and gender differentials
  • Workplace skills in curriculum
  • Agriculture as business
  • Support for rural based institutions

20
Recommendations
  • Support stronger cooperation between training
    providers and employers
  • Support for industry associations
  • Facilitate higher-education industry interaction
    re niche training needs
  • Foster intergovernmental collaboration
  • The mission of Agricultural Colleges
  • The curriculum focus of Agricultural High Schools

21
Recommendations
  • Strategically target scarce skills
  • Target key occupations/programmes
  • Consider RD skills
  • Support courses of shorter duration than
    programmes
  • AGRISETA
  • FET Colleges
  • Upskilling and in-service training as NB as
    pre-service education
  • Research
  • Needs analysis of targeted sectors to encourage
    employers to train

22
  • Thank You

23
Equity parameters
24
Challenges for understanding demand and supply
  • Measuring Labour force growth (and decline)
  • Monitoring education outputs

25
Growth in education system
26
Areas of specialisation
27
Shift to formal work
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