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The Future of Food Supply Veterinary Medicine: Demand, Supply, Opportunities and Challenges

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Title: The Future of Food Supply Veterinary Medicine: Demand, Supply, Opportunities and Challenges


1
The Future of Food Supply Veterinary
MedicineDemand, Supply, Opportunities and
Challenges
  • Presentation by
  • Dr. Lyle Vogel
  • Chair of the Project Management Committee,
  • Food Supply Veterinary Medicine Coalition

2
Estimating FSVM Demand and Maintaining the
Availability of Veterinarians for Careers in FSVM
  • David Andrus PhD
  • Kevin Gwinner PhD
  • Bruce Prince PhD

3
  • AVMA
  • Veterinary
  • Attitudes
  • Study
  • 2005

4
FSVMC Members
  • Academy of Veterinary Consultants
  • American Association of Avian Pathologists
  • American Association of Bovine Practitioners
  • American Association of Food Hygiene
    Veterinarians
  • American Association of Small Ruminant
    Practitioners
  • American Association of Swine Veterinarians
  • American Veterinary Medical Association
  • Association of American Veterinary Medical
    Colleges
  • USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service

5
Mission of FSVMC
  • To maintain abundant, safe and wholesome food by
    ensuring that veterinarians are appropriately
    involved throughout the food supply system.
  • The premise is that foods produced are enhanced,
    both in safety and wholesomeness, when
    veterinarians are involved in all steps of
    production and processing.

6
Why This Research Program?
  • A shortage of FSVM professionals may have
    critical implications for the profession,
    employers, societal well-being, and prosperity.

7
Two Research Programs(Funded by Coalition
members and Bayer Animal Health)
  • A series of U.S. Canadian studies organized
    around two research programs
  • Career attraction and career retention research
    program
  • Attracting students
  • Retaining students and graduates
  • Labor market demand research program

8
Objectives of Career Attraction and Career
Retention Research Program
  • Identify and evaluate existing and emerging
    factors (societal and economic) affecting
    students attracted to FSVM in the United States
    and Canada.
  • Determine how to recruit students, and develop
    and/or maintain students interest in FSVM while
    in US and Canadian veterinary schools.
  • Determine factors that affect selection of
    employment by FSVM graduates in the United States
    and Canada.
  • Determine how to retain recent graduates for 5
    years in FSVM in the United States and Canada.

9
Sample Design
Recruiters
Students
Attraction, Selection, Retention
Deans
Alumni
Food Animal Faculty
10
Student Attraction
  • Factors that determine students selecting a
    particular career focus in veterinary medicine
  • Student expectations for FSVM careers
  • Factors that determine making a lifelong
    commitment to FSVM

11
Student Attraction Findings Focus Groups
  • Life Experiences
  • Educational Debt and Salary
  • Important and Interesting Work
  • Family Considerations
  • Job Availability
  • Physical Demands of the Job
  • Lifestyle Issues Geography and Time
  • Animal Care Mentality
  • Experiences in Veterinary School

12
Student Attraction Findings Surveys
  • Students with FSVM Interest
  • Career is intellectually challenging
  • Vital that job is personally meaningful
  • Rural lifestyle
  • Herd or flock care mentality
  • FSVM allows full utilization of medical knowledge
  • Strong mentorship valued in first job
  • Believe services are valued by producers

13
Student Attraction Findings Surveys
  • Potential strategies to attract students
  • Student debt repayment
  • Paid summer externships
  • Assistance to purchase practice equipment
  • Mentoring-shadowing program for high school
    students
  • Job placement services
  • Assigned faculty mentor

14
Student Attraction Findings Surveys
  • Top reasons students indicated an interest in
    FSVM
  • Rural lifestyle
  • Desire to contribute to public health or food
    safety
  • Career would provide a variety of interesting
    tasks
  • Opportunity to work with nice, interesting people

15
AVMA Veterinary Attitudes Study 2005
  • Question In your opinion, when choosing a work
    environment how important is the factor
    Geographic Location?
  • Extremely Important or Very Important
  • Companion animal 65 (n452)
  • Equine 63 (n74)
  • Food animal 84 (n36)
  • Mixed animal 66 (n88)
  • Significantly different than companion animal,
    equine and mixed animal

16
AVMA Veterinary Attitudes Study 2005 Question
In your opinion, when choosing a work environment
how important is the factor Geographic Location?
17
  • Importance Performance Analysis of Decision
    Factors Related to Lifetime Career Commitment
  • (How well does a factor contribute to a
    commitment as well as how important that factor
    is to the respondent)
  • Survey of 2nd and 4th year students

18
Importance Performance Analysis
Importance-Performance analysis is a framework
used in consumer research to examine attribute
importance and performance. The key idea is
that knowing both the importance of the factor
and its current level of performance are needed
for informed resource allocation decisions.
The researchers applied this technique to
attributes of a veterinary career in the context
of a student making a lifetime commitment to a
particular career focus.
19
Respondent Instructions
  • Please rate the importance of the following
    career goals that are critically important to you
    in your decision to make a lifetime commitment to
    your chosen occupational area.
  • Rated on a four point scale of Very Unimportant
    to Very Important
  • Next, please rate how likely your chosen
    occupational area will allow you to attain each
    career goal listed.
  • Rated on a four point scale of Very Unlikely to
    Very Likely
  • 28 different career goals were assessed using
    this procedure.

20
Importance Performance Grid
High Performance
Possible Overkill
Keep Up The Good Work
Low Importance
High Importance
Low Priority
Concentrate Here
Low Performance
21
Importance Performance Grid for Food Animal
Students Encouraging a Lifetime Commitment
High Performance
Low Importance
High Importance
Areas to concentrate
Low Performance
22
Areas to Concentrate on in Encouraging A Lifetime
Commitment Among Food Animal Students
  • Having a lot of free time to spend with my
    family.
  • Family leave time for childbirth or illness.
  • Excellent health care benefits.
  • Excellent retirement benefits.
  • Very flexible work hours.
  • Becoming a leading authority in my occupational
    area.
  • Extensive contact with other veterinarians at
    work.

23
Importance Performance Grid for Non-Food Animal
Students Encouraging a Lifetime Commitment
High Performance
Low Importance
High Importance
Areas to concentrate
Low Performance
24
Areas to Concentrate on in Encouraging A Lifetime
Commitment Among Non-Food Animal Students
  • Having a lot of free time to spend with my
    family.
  • Family leave time for childbirth or illness.
  • Excellent health care benefits.
  • Excellent retirement benefits.
  • Flexible career path that lets me move in many
    different career directions.

25
Importance Performance Analysis Summary
  • Many items in the keep up the good work
    quadrant, and not many career factors in the
    concentrate here quadrant.
  • Those areas to concentrate on for students
    revolve around
  • Personal issues (e.g., flexible work hours, time
    with family)
  • Benefits (e.g., retirement and health care)
  • Professional issues (e.g., becoming an authority
    in occupational area, flexible career path)
  • There is much similarity among the factors that
    food animal students and non-food animal students
    rated as important, but low performing.
  • Differences
  • Food Animal Leading authority, contact with
    other veterinarians
  • Non-Food Animal Flexible career path

26
AVMA Veterinary Attitudes Study 2005
  • Personal issues
  • Question In your opinion, when choosing a work
    environment how important is the factor Time off
    for vacation?
  • Extremely Important or Very important
  • Companion animal 70 (n482)
  • Equine 61 (n70)
  • Food animal 56 (n24)
  • Mixed animal 60 (n79)
  • Significantly different than equine, food animal
    and mixed animal

27
AVMA Veterinary Attitudes Study 2005 Personal
IssuesQuestion In your opinion, when choosing
a work environment how important is the factor
Time Off for Vacation?
28
AVMA Veterinary Attitudes Study 2005
  • Personal issues
  • Question In your opinion, when choosing a work
    environment how important is the factor Total
    number of hours I am required to work?
  • Extremely Important or Very important
  • Companion animal 70 (n485)
  • Equine 53 (n63)
  • Food animal 57 (n24)
  • Mixed animal 44 (n58)
  • Significantly different than equine and mixed
    animal

29
AVMA Veterinary Attitudes Study 2005 Personal
IssuesQuestion In your opinion, when choosing
a work environment how important is the factor
Total Number of Hours I am Required to Work?
30
AVMA Veterinary Attitudes Study 2005
  • Personal issues
  • Question In your opinion, when choosing a work
    environment how important is the factor Flexible
    hours?
  • Extremely Important or Very important
  • Companion animal 52 (n355)
  • Equine 55 (n63)
  • Food animal 54 (n23)
  • Mixed animal 47 (n62)

31
AVMA Veterinary Attitudes Study 2005 Personal
IssuesQuestion In your opinion, when choosing
a work environment how important is the factor
Flexible Hours?
32
AVMA Veterinary Attitudes Study 2005
  • Benefits
  • Question In your opinion, when choosing a work
    environment how important is the factor Salary?
  • Extremely Important or Very important
  • Companion animal 75 (n521)
  • Equine 73 (n88)
  • Food animal 80 (n36)
  • Mixed animal 65 (n87)
  • Significantly different than mixed animal

33
AVMA Veterinary Attitudes Study 2005
BenefitsQuestion In your opinion, when
choosing a work environment how important is the
factor Salary?
34
AVMA Veterinary Attitudes Study 2005
  • Benefits
  • Question In your opinion, when choosing a work
    environment how important is the factor
    Benefits?
  • Extremely Important or Very important
  • Companion animal 65 (n452)
  • Equine 63 (n76)
  • Food animal 74 (n31)
  • Mixed animal 59 (n78)

35
AVMA Veterinary Attitudes Study 2005
BenefitsQuestion In your opinion, when
choosing a work environment how important is the
factor Benefits?
36
AVMA Veterinary Attitudes Study 2005
  • Professional issues
  • Question In your opinion, when choosing a work
    environment how important is the factor Ability
    to use surgical knowledge and skills?
  • Extremely Important or Very important
  • Companion animal 66 (n456)
  • Equine 60 (n60)
  • Food animal 51 (n21)
  • Mixed animal 64 (n86)
  • Significantly different than equine

37
AVMA Veterinary Attitudes Study 2005
Professional IssuesQuestion In your opinion,
when choosing a work environment how important is
the factor Ability to Use Surgical Knowledge and
Skills?
38
AVMA Veterinary Attitudes Study 2005
  • Professional issues
  • Question In your opinion, when choosing a work
    environment how important is the factor
    Relationship with Colleagues?
  • Extremely Important or Very important
  • Companion animal 73 (n510)
  • Equine 61 (n73)
  • Food animal 50 (n21)
  • Mixed animal 62 (n83)
  • Significantly different than equine, food animal
    and mixed animal

39
AVMA Veterinary Attitudes Study 2005
Professional IssuesQuestion In your opinion,
when choosing a work environment how important is
the factor Relationship with Colleagues?
40
AVMA Veterinary Attitudes Study 2005
  • Question Please rank the most important factor
    to you when you choose a work environment.
  • Food Animal Veterinarians
  • Salary 39
  • Geographic location 24
  • Contact with animals 12
  • Time off for parental/
  • family responsibilities 12
  • Ability to use surgical knowledge
  • and skills 7
  • Relationship with colleagues 5
  • Significantly different than companion animal
    and mixed animal

41
RetentionSurveys
  • To understand
  • How frequently veterinary students, recent
    graduates, and longer-term veterinarians switched
    occupational focus
  • What factors motivated them to switch

42
Retention Findings from Student Surveys(759
Respondents)
  • Most veterinary students enter veterinary school
    knowing what specialty they want
  • Most students do not change
  • Overall, 21 percent changed

43
Retention Findings from Student Surveys (2nd
4th Year)
  • Types of switches in order of switching
  • From academic career (25) (7/28)
  • From mixed animal (23) (35/150)
  • From equine (22) (16/74)
  • From food animal (18) (12/65)
  • From companion animal (16) (51/316)

44
FromTo Student Switching Analysis
45
Retention Findings from Recent Food Supply
Graduates Surveys (133 Respondents)
  • 93 were proud to be in FSVM area and liked being
    a food supply veterinarian
  • 75 had many desirable career options
  • 80 had attractive job alternatives outside of
    FSVM
  • However, 71 did not consider leaving FSVM
  • 90 had not applied for a position outside FSVM
    in the past year
  • 83 indicated that they were satisfied with their
    current occupation

46
Retention Findings from Recent Graduates Surveys
  • Regression Analysis Predicting Career Switching
  • Those who are most likely to switch from a food
    animal veterinary medicine career
  • Desire a more balanced lifestyle between work and
    family
  • Want more cultural and recreational activities
    near work
  • Are less satisfied with their current occupation
    in food animal medicine
  • Are less likely to be enthusiastic about their
    veterinary work and have less pride in their job
  • Have many attractive career alternatives within
    veterinary medicine

47
Retention Findings from Recent Graduates Surveys
  • When comparing FSVM to other areas of the
    veterinary profession, veterinarians involved in
    FSVM reported a higher degree of satisfaction.

48
Retention Findings from Longer-Term Veterinarian
Surveys Both Food and Non-Food Supply (2,482
Respondents)
  • 17 (423) had changed their occupational area
    during the past 5 years
  • 10 (44) of these were food animal veterinarians
  • Of the food animal veterinarians who changed
  • 27 (12) changed to companion animal
  • 25 (11) changed to government
  • The main reason that the long-term veterinarians
    left their former jobs was because they received
    a more attractive offer

49
Career Switching Analysis Longer-Term
Veterinarians
50
Retention Findings from Long-Term Veterinarian
Surveys
  • The high praise for the life of a food animal
    veterinarian as reported by those who actually
    perform this occupation explained much about the
    low amount of employee turnover in the food
    animal veterinary profession

51
Retention Findings from Long-Term Veterinarian
Surveys
  • Companion animal veterinarians report having
    fewer attractive career opportunities and fewer
    desirable options to pursue when compared to food
    animal veterinarians.
  • Companion animal veterinarians are more likely
    than food animal veterinarians to think their
    current income level is too low and worry more
    about job benefits.
  • There are no differences between food and
    companion animal veterinarians thinking about
    future salary potential or having too small of a
    client base to make a good income.

52
Retention Findings from Long-Term Veterinarian
Surveys
  • In terms of job stress, companion animal
    veterinarians were more likely to feel
    burned-out, exhausted, and too fatigued after
    work when compared to food animal veterinarians.
  • There were few major differences between groups
    on exposure to recreational and cultural
    activities, affordable housing, and career
    opportunities for spouses.
  • Food animal and companion animal veterinarians
    experienced no differences between balancing work
    and family, or getting time off for vacations.

53
Retention Findings from Long-Term Veterinarian
Surveys
  • Regression Analysis Predicting Career Switching
  • Those who are most likely to switch from a food
    animal veterinary medicine career
  • Desire a more balanced lifestyle between work and
    family
  • Are less satisfied with their current occupation
    in food animal medicine
  • Are less likely to be enthusiastic about their
    veterinary work and have less pride in their job
  • Have many attractive career alternatives within
    veterinary medicine
  • Experience more stress and burnout in their
    current job
  • Desire more income and want to charge higher
    prices

54
AVMA Veterinary Attitudes Study 2005
  • Question In the future, would you consider
    changing your focus of employment in veterinary
    medicine?
  • Yes
  • Companion animal 32 (n232)
  • Equine 31 (n39)
  • Food animal 56 (n26)
  • Mixed animal 49 (n71)
  • Significantly different from companion animal
    and equine

55
AVMA Veterinary Attitudes Study 2005
  • Question Which type(s) of employment might you
    consider switching to in the future?
  • 26 Food Animal Veterinarians
  • Industry/Commercial 62 (n16)
  • Government 58 (n15)
  • Academia 38 (n10)

56
AVMA Veterinary Attitudes Study 2005
  • Question Which type(s) of employment might you
    consider switching to in the future?
  • 70 Mixed Animal Veterinarians
  • Industry/Commercial 49 (n34)
  • Government 47 (n33)
  • Academia 43 (n30)
  • Companion animal 30 (n21)

57
AVMA Veterinary Attitudes Study 2005
  • Question How satisfied are you with your
    current veterinary personal income?
  • Extremely Satisfied or Very Satisfied
  • Companion animal 40 (n292)
  • Equine 36 (n45)
  • Food animal 41 (n19)
  • Mixed animal 24 (n35)
  • Significantly different from companion animal,
    equine, and food animal

58
AVMA Veterinary Attitudes Study 2005Question
How satisfied are you with your current
veterinary personal income?
59
AVMA Veterinary Attitudes Study 2005
  • Question If you were to break down a typical
    day, out of 24 hours, how many hours a day would
    you spend on the activity Family (time with
    spouse/significant other, child care, elderly
    care)?
  • Mean
  • Companion animal 3.24
  • Equine 3.02
  • Food animal 3.30
  • Mixed animal 3.18

60
AVMA Veterinary Attitudes Study 2005Question
If you were to break down a typical day, out of
24 hours, how many hours a day would you spend on
the activity Family (time with
spouse/significant other, child care, elderly
care)?
61
AVMA Veterinary Attitudes Study 2005
  • Question If you were to break down a typical
    day, out of 24 hours, how many hours a day would
    you spend on the activity Work (time at work,
    commuting)
  • Mean
  • Companion animal 9.83
  • Equine 10.73
  • Food animal 10.04
  • Mixed animal 10.10
  • Significantly different than companion animal,
    food animal and mixed animal

62
AVMA Veterinary Attitudes Study 2005Question
If you were to break down a typical day, out of
24 hours, how many hours a day would you spend on
the activity Work (time at work, commuting)?
63
AVMA Veterinary Attitudes Study 2005
  • Question Please indicate your level of
    agreement or disagreement with the statement I
    am satisfied with my work/life balance.
  • Agree Strongly or Agree Somewhat
  • Companion animal 63 (n446)
  • Equine 52 (n65)
  • Food animal 64 (n29)
  • Mixed animal 46 (n63)
  • Significantly different from equine and mixed
    animal
  • Significantly different from mixed animal

64
AVMA Veterinary Attitudes Study 2005Question
Please indicate your level of agreement or
disagreement with the statement I am satisfied
with my work/life balance.
65
AVMA Veterinary Attitudes Study 2005
  • Question Please indicate your level of
    agreement or disagreement with the statement I
    have enough money to live comfortably at this
    time.
  • Agree Strongly or Agree Somewhat
  • Companion animal 75 (n536)
  • Equine 74 (n92)
  • Food animal 60 (n27)
  • Mixed animal 66 (n91)
  • Significantly different from food animal and
    mixed animal

66
AVMA Veterinary Attitudes Study 2005Question
Please indicate your level of agreement or
disagreement with the statement I have enough
money to live comfortably at this time.
67
AVMA Veterinary Attitudes Study 2005
  • Question Please indicate your level of
    agreement or disagreement with the statement I
    feel my compensation for my position is
    adequate.
  • Agree Strongly or Agree Somewhat
  • Companion animal 58 (n411)
  • Equine 56 (n70)
  • Food animal 58 (n26)
  • Mixed animal 46 (n64)
  • Significantly different from mixed animal

68
AVMA Veterinary Attitudes Study 2005Question
Please indicate your level of agreement or
disagreement with the statement I feel my
compensation for my position is adequate.
69
AVMA Veterinary Attitudes Study 2005
  • Question Please indicate your level of
    agreement or disagreement with the statement I
    am concerned about having enough money for
    retirement.
  • Agree Strongly or Agree Somewhat
  • Companion animal 88 (n620)
  • Equine 86 (n106)
  • Food animal 77 (n33)
  • Mixed animal 83 (n114)

70
AVMA Veterinary Attitudes Study 2005Question
Please indicate your level of agreement or
disagreement with the statement I am concerned
about having enough money for retirement.
71
Labor Market Demand Research Goals
  • Identification of the key economic, demographic,
    technological, and societal factors influencing
    the future demand for FSVM professionals.
  • Forecast percentage change of FSVM professionals
    needed for short, medium, and long range time
    horizons.
  • Identify variables affecting the supply for
    different FSVM careers.

72
Demand Study
  • 13 Delphi forecasting panels - each focused
    on different FSVM sector
  • Academic
  • Industrial (pharmaceutical)
  • Government
  • State and Provincial
  • Federal
  • Public Health
  • Animal Health
  • Food Safety Security
  • Canadian Federal
  • Private Practice areas
  • Dairy, Swine, Poultry, Beef, Mixed-Food Animal in
    rural areas, Small Ruminants

73
A Changing Larger Context
  • Food supply veterinarians live in a changing
    professional context
  • The emerging context requires a judgmental or
    expert-driven forecasting method
  • The Delphi Forecasting process
  • Panels of experts focus on different FSVM sectors
    (e.g., beef, academe, government, etc.)
  • Panels have 15-25 nominated experts

74
Delphi Method Assumptions
  • The future emerges from both
  • Fixed, continuing trends we must adapt to - BUT
    also
  • Changeable trends that can be managed changed
  • Effective solutions requires knowing the why as
    well as the numbers
  • Why provides leverage points to be managed
  • Expert-driven - but there are no perfect
    experts
  • The Delphi process is a learning process

75
Delphi Process (continued)
  • Panel members learn get smarter by
  • Hearing the what why of others views
  • Re-thinking changing views without groupthink
  • Three-round forecasting process
  • 1st survey Demand supply trends, demand
    shortage/surplus forecasts
  • 2nd survey feedback report Averages mid-50
    why some forecasted higher vs. lower numbers
  • Re-consider revise ratings as merited
  • Final survey feedback report on 2nd survey

76
Key Questions
  • What issues trends are driving the future
    demand in the FSVM profession?
  • What is the future demand for food supply DVMs?
  • What trends issues are driving the future
    supply of DVMs in food supply careers?
  • Will there be a future shortage or surplus?

77
The Top Five Issues Increasing Future Demand
  • Public concerns over food safety
  • Zoonotic disease-related human health concerns
  • Growing need to track animals entering the food
    chain
  • Public concerns over bio-terrorism threats
  • Increasing concerns for animal welfare

78
Top Five Issues/Trends Decreasing Future Demand
  • Curtailment of government support of veterinary
    services
  • Lack of veterinarians practice management
    business skill
  • Federal and state or provincial budgetary
    constraints
  • Client concerns about veterinary service costs
  • Slow adoption of new technologies by
    veterinarians
  • The Move to larger sized producer operations
    trend produced high disagreement within panels.
  • Is demand increasing or decreasing in each
    sector?

79
Non-Govt Areas Future DemandFall 2004 to Fall
2016
  • Means and SD ()
  • Poultry 4.1 (SD4.3)
  • Small Ruminants 7.5 (SD5.0)
  • Beef 7.7 (SD12.0)
  • Dairy 8.3 (SD13.8)
  • Swine 10.0 (SD12.9)
  • Mixed 10.7 (SD17.2)
  • Academia 12.6 (SD10.4)
  • Industrial 12.8 (SD8.5)

80
Government Area Future DemandFall 2004 to Fall
2016
  • Federal, Canadian 15.4 (SD6.0)
  • Federal-Animal Health 16.3 (SD8.6)
  • Federal-Public Health 16.8 (SD14.5)
  • Federal-Food Safety
  • Security 17.5 (SD12.8)
  • State or Provincial
  • Government 20.8 (SD15.6)
  • All panels combined 12.5 (SD13.0)

81
Top Five Issues Limiting DVM Supply
  • Less emphasis on food animal practice in
    veterinary colleges
  • Little exposure to food supply career options in
    college
  • Poor income opportunities in food supply careers
  • Lack of spousal career options in rural areas
  • Lack of positive role models
  • Given supply demand Will there be
    shortages?

82
Non-Govt Areas Future ShortagesFall 2004 to
Fall 2016
  • Means and SD ()
  • Poultry -0.06 (SD1.0)
  • Small Ruminants -2.2 (SD1.4)
  • Industrial -3.3 (SD3.8)
  • Dairy -3.8 (SD3.2)
  • Swine -4.4 (SD2.7)
  • Beef -5.4 (SD5.5)
  • Academia -5.5 (SD4.0)
  • Mixed-Food Animal -6.6 (SD5.0)

83
Government Area Future ShortagesFall 2004 to
Fall 2016
  • State or Provincial
  • Government -4.9 (SD4.8)
  • Federal-Public Health -5.2 (SD3.8)
  • Federal, Canadian -5.5 (SD3.6)
  • Federal-Food Safety
  • Security -6.6 (SD6.0)
  • Federal-Animal
  • Health -6.9 (SD5.2)
  • All panels combined -4.6 (SD4.4)

84
Planning Matrix - Demand(Available for each
sector http//www.avma.org/public_health/fsvmc/fsv
mc_toc.asp)
Opportunities (Actionable)
Sustain, Complement Enhance
Eliminate Counter
Demand Enhancing Factors
Demand Constraining Factors
Appreciate
Manage Around
Fixed Constraints (Not Actionable)
85
Planning Matrix - DemandBeef Sector
Opportunities (Actionable)
Large Producer Practice Opportunities Regulatory
Cattle Industry Trends
Business Skills Use of Technology Business
Economic Trends
Demand Enhancing Factors
Demand Constraining Factors
Larger Societal Concerns
Government Budgetary Constraints
Fixed Constraints (Not Actionable)
86
Planning Matrix - DemandDairy Sector
Opportunities (Actionable)
Serving Large Producer Needs Filling Regulatory
Mandates
Business Skills Use of Technology Dairy
Industry Economic Trends
Demand Enhancing Factors
Demand Constraining Factors
Government Budgets Business Economic Trends
Societal Concerns
Fixed Constraints (Not Actionable)
87
Planning Matrix - DemandMixed Food Animal Sector
Opportunities (Actionable)
Certifications Monitoring Roles Specialized
Technical Expertise Broad Expertise Serving
Part-Time Farmers
Business Skill Use of Technology Business
Economic Trends
Demand Enhancing Factors
Demand Constraining Factors
Drug Regulations Food Export Opportunities Larg
er Societal Concerns
Government Budgetary Constraints
Fixed Constraints (Not Actionable)
88
Planning Matrix - DemandSwine Sector
Opportunities (Actionable)
Certifications Auditing Needs Specialized
Technical Expertise Regulatory Requirements
New DVMs Training for Large Producer
Operations Business Skill Use of Technology
Demand Enhancing Factors
Demand Constraining Factors
Food Export Requirements Larger Societal
Concerns
Swine Industry Consolidation Cost
Pressure Government Budgetary Constraints
Fixed Constraints (Not Actionable)
89
Planning Matrix - DemandPoultry Sector
Opportunities (Actionable)
Business Skills Use of Technology
Auditing Certification Opportunities
Demand Enhancing Factors
Demand Constraining Factors
Regulatory Requirements Export Market Access
Regulations Larger Societal Concerns
Larger Business Economic Trends Fewer Drug
Oversight Restrictions Government Budgetary
Constraints
Fixed Constraints (Not Actionable)
90
Planning Matrix - DemandSmall Ruminants Sector
Opportunities (Actionable)
Niche Marketing Opportunities Specialized
Technical Expertise Auditing Certification
Needs
Business Skills Use of Technology
Demand Enhancing Factors
Demand Constraining Factors
Regulatory Requirements Larger Societal
Concerns
Cost Pressure Market Volatility Government
Budgetary Constraints Urbanization Loss of
Farm Land
Fixed Constraints (Not Actionable)
91
Planning Matrix - DemandState/Provincial
Government Sector
Opportunities (Actionable)
Certifications Monitoring Roles Food
Regulations Integration Team Solutions
Weak Business Skill Cost Pressure Labor
Substitution Trends
Demand Enhancing Factors
Demand Constraining Factors
Government Jurisdictional Changes Government
Budgetary Constraints
Agro-Security Bio-Terrorism Threats Larger
Societal Concerns
Fixed Constraints (Not Actionable)
92
Planning Matrix - DemandFederal Government Sector
Opportunities (Actionable)
Specialized Technical Services
Certifications Regulatory Global Food System
Weak Business Skill Use of Technology Cost
Pressure Labor Substitution Trends
Demand Enhancing Factors
Demand Constraining Factors
Government Budgetary Constraints
Animal-Human Health Concerns Food Safety
Concerns Bio-Security/Agro-Terrorism
Concerns Animal Welfare Concerns
Fixed Constraints (Not Actionable)
93
Planning Matrix - Supply(Available for each
sector http//www.avma.org/public_health/fsvmc/fsv
mc_toc.asp)
Opportunities (Actionable)
Sustain, Complement Enhance
Eliminate Counter
Supply Enhancing Factors
Supply Constraining Factors
Appreciate
Manage Around
Fixed Constraints (Not Actionable)
94
Planning Matrix - SupplyBeef Sector
Opportunities (Actionable)
Non-FSVM Focus in CVM Negative Views of FSVM
Careers Negative Role Models Student Debt Work
Requirements
Centers of Excellence Mentoring Recruitment
Initiatives
Supply Enhancing Factors
Supply Constraining Factors
Gender Dynamics Rural Economic/Social
Constraints Government Budgetary Constraints
Fixed Constraints (Not Actionable)
95
Planning Matrix - SupplyDairy Sector
Opportunities (Actionable)
Non-FSVM Focus in CVM Poor Role Models Emergency
Call Work Student Debt
Targeted Recruitment Initiatives
Supply Enhancing Factors
Supply Constraining Factors
Gender Dynamics Rural Economic/Social
Constraints
Improving Salaries
Fixed Constraints (Not Actionable)
96
Planning Matrix - SupplyMixed Food Animal Sector
Opportunities (Actionable)
Government Public Service Initiatives Marketing
Initiatives Student Selection Initiatives Serving
Small Animal Clients Income Opportunities
Non-FSVM Focus Student Selection in
CVM Ineffective Role Models Work
Requirements Student Debt
Supply Enhancing Factors
Supply Constraining Factors
Debt Assistance
Gender Dynamics Expected Retirements Rural
Economic/Social Constraints
Fixed Constraints (Not Actionable)
97
Planning Matrix - SupplySwine Sector
Opportunities (Actionable)
Veterinary College Student Selection Non-FSVM
Focus Ineffective Role Models Practice
Modes Student Debt
Government Public Service Initiatives Marketing
Initiatives Student Selection Initiatives Serving
Small Animal Clients Income Opportunities
Supply Enhancing Factors
Supply Constraining Factors
Post-DVM Education Requirements Gender
Dynamics Physical Demands Rural Economic/Social
Constraints Governmental Budgetary Constraints
Debt Assistance
Fixed Constraints (Not Actionable)
98
Planning Matrix - SupplyPoultry Sector
Opportunities (Actionable)
CVM Student Selection Non-FSVM
Focus Negative Role Models Practice
Modes Student Debt
FSVM Externship Mentoring Initiatives Good
Income Opportunities
Supply Enhancing Factors
Supply Constraining Factors
Gender Dynamics Rural Economic/Social
Constraints Governmental Budgetary Constraints
Fixed Constraints (Not Actionable)
99
Planning Matrix - SupplySmall Ruminants Sector
Opportunities (Actionable)
Veterinary College Student Selection Non-FSVM
Focus Ineffective Role Models Practice
Modes Student Debt
FSVM Externship Mentoring Initiatives Good
Income Opportunities
Supply Enhancing Factors
Supply Constraining Factors
Post-DVM Education Requirements Physical
Demands Near-Term Retirements Rural
Economic/Social Constraints
Gender Dynamics Lighter Physical Demands
Fixed Constraints (Not Actionable)
100
Planning Matrix - SupplyState/Provincial
Government Sector
Opportunities (Actionable)
CVM Student Selection Non-FSVM
Focus Ineffective Role Models Student Debt
Perceive Low Incomes
Targeted Recruitment Initiatives Work/Life
Balance
Supply Enhancing Factors
Supply Constraining Factors
Limited CVM Capacity Rural Economic/Social
Constraints Government Budgetary Constraints
Gender Dynamics
Fixed Constraints (Not Actionable)
101
Planning Matrix - SupplyFederal Government Sector
Opportunities (Actionable)
CVM Non-FSVM Focus Ineffective Role
Models Student Debt
Structure of Career Opportunity Debt Forgiveness
Initiatives
Supply Enhancing Factors
Supply Constraining Factors
Limited CVM Capacity Government Budgetary
Constraints Rural Economic/Social Constraints
Expected Near-Term Retirement Income
Opportunities
Fixed Constraints (Not Actionable)
102
Delphi Panels Rating of Possible Solutions
(7-point scale)
  • Student debt repayment and scholarship
    programs (Mean 5.3, SD1.6)
  • Involving food supply practitioners in training
    veterinary students (4.8, SD1.4)
  • Mentoring for students and new FSVM
    veterinarians (4.6, SD1.5)
  • Appoint more FSVM faculty (4.6, SD1.6)

103
Delphi Panels Rating of Possible Solutions
(7-point scale)
  • Expanded postgraduate fellowships in FSVM (Mean
    4.6, SD1.7)
  • Paid externship requirement in FSVM during the
    summer (4.4, SD1.6)
  • Expand the concept of Centers of Excellence (4.4,
    SD1.6)
  • Marketing campaigns to increase awareness of FSVM
    career and lifestyle (4.4, SD1.6)

104
Delphi Panels Rating of Possible Solutions
(7-point scale)
  • Expanded paid work-study programs during the
    final year of veterinary school
    (Mean 4.4, SD1.6)
  • Expanded job placement services in FSVM
    areas (4.4, SD1.6)
  • Focused recruitment of high school and college
    students with FSVM interests (4.3, SD1.6)
  • Reserve veterinary school slots for academically
    qualified students with FSVM interests
    (4.3, SD1.7)

105
Delphi Panels Rating of Possible Solutions
(7-point scale)
  • Increased focus of FSVM coverage early during the
    veterinary curriculum (Mean 4.2,
    SD1.6)
  • Development of a government-supported reserve
    corps of food supply veterinarians (3.8, SD1.8)
  • Expanded business and practice management in
    veterinary curriculum (3.7, SD1.8)

106
Delphi Panels Rating of Possible Solutions
(7-point scale)
  • Focused recruitment of women students into
    FSVM (Mean 3.4, SD1.5)
  • Providing guidance on best business practices
    guidance for FSVM enterprises (3.4, SD1.6)
  • Subsidized consulting in business and practice
    management for FSVM (3.2, SD1.6)

107
Authors Summary Statements
  • The food supply veterinarian is not an endangered
    species! There will be an increasing demand for
    food supply veterinarians.
  • For several Delphi panels, such as those focused
    on the mixed food animal, beef cattle, and dairy
    sectors, there is sharp disagreement among
    experts on what future demand will look like.
  • Analysis of the competing rationales underscored
    that the actual demand changes are very much a
    function of the strategic actions pursued by the
    FSVM profession in the near term.

108
Authors Summary Statements
  • The forecasts are conservative in nature because
    the panels assumed a continuation of emerging
    trends with no intervening catastrophic events.
  • Colleges of veterinary medicine need to be a
    central focus, but not the only focus, in any
    resulting strategic action.
  • Selection of students likely to be attracted to
    FSVM
  • Education and positive signals given to students
  • Adequate numbers of academic food supply
    veterinarians
  • Coordination and consolidation of effort across
    schools/better economies of scale

109
Authors Summary Statements
  • Need external resources including both industry
    and government sponsorship
  • Need mentoring initiatives for students and new
    graduates starting their careers
  • Many of the trends and issues shaping the future
    of the food supply veterinary profession are
    created by choices within the profession. These
    can be thoughtfully reviewed and revised.

110
Authors Recommendations to Increase the Supply
of Food Animal Students
  • R1. Colleges of veterinary medicine should target
    students from rural areas that have had a
    significant food production experience.
  • R2. Colleges of veterinary medicine should target
    students that major in the biological sciences
    and agricultural areas during their undergraduate
    career.

111
Authors Recommendations to Increase the Supply
of Food Animal Students
  • R3. Students that concentrate in food animal
    medicine should participate in a paid summer
    externship in practice, industry, or the
    government sector.
  • R4. Professional veterinary medical associations
    should enact formal mentoring programs among
    their membership aimed at high school students.

112
Authors Recommendations to Increase the Supply
of Food Animal Students
  • R5. Students that display an interest in food
    animal medicine need to be told about the
    positive aspects of the career and lifestyle of
    food animal medicine in a variety of promotional
    materials.
  • R6. The career satisfaction results of the study
    should be broadly publicized to ensure that
    faculty, students, and other constituents that
    may influence a students career choice are
    informed of actual job perceptions.

113
Authors Recommendations to Increase the Supply
of Food Animal Students
  • R7. Students that specialize in food animal
    medicine should receive financial assistance in
    the form of tuition relief for each year that
    they work in this occupational area in an
    underserved area of their state as well as low
    interest loans or grants to cover the costs of
    start-up equipment.

114
Authors Recommendations to Increase the Supply
of Food Animal Students
  • R8. Veterinary students should receive greater
    exposure to the benefits of careers in food
    animal veterinary medicine. This exposure should
    include paid summer externship opportunities,
    increased numbers of food animal faculty,
    treatment of food animals in the first semester
    of veterinary college, increased numbers of food
    animal courses, orientation sessions focused on
    food animal careers, and further study into
    creating regional centers of excellence.

115
Authors Recommendations to Increase the Supply
of Food Animal Students
  • R9. Veterinary students in food animal medicine
    should receive career selection assistance
    through assigned, enthusiastic faculty role
    models and dedicated job placement services.
  • R10. Professional veterinary associations should
    actively promote the benefits of a food animal
    veterinary career to all constituencies with an
    emphasis on how careers in this area provide
    meaningful work of importance to the nation and
    society, allow one to fully utilize their medical
    training, and provide opportunities to lead a
    life that adequately balances the demands of work
    and family.

116
Authors Recommendations to Increase the Supply
of Food Animal Students
  • R11. Colleges of veterinary medicine should
    consider early admissions programs for students
    interested in food animal medicine, reserved
    admission slots for those planning to enter food
    animal medicine careers, and explore the benefits
    of increased specialization provided by placing
    students into substantive curriculum tracks.
  • R12. Professional veterinary medical associations
    should establish formal programs that get their
    members involved with high school students,
    either in group presentations or one-on-one
    mentoring, in order to provide early food animal
    career exposure to potential students prior to
    college.

117
Authors Recommendations to Increase the Supply
of Food Animal Students
  • R13. We recommend that positive food animal
    practitioners serve as guest lecturers and
    visiting adjunct faculty to inform students and
    faculty about careers in food animal medicine.
  • R14. Continuing education certificates in
    business management and pharmacology should be
    awarded to those who complete a series of short
    courses on these topics at colleges of veterinary
    medicine.

118
Authors Recommendations to Increase the Supply
of Food Animal Students
  • R15. Enthusiastic food animal faculty should be
    recruited and rewarded to serve as role models
    and mentors for students interested in food
    animal careers.
  • R16. Debt relief legislation, similar to the
    national legislation, for food animal
    veterinarians should be pursued at the state
    level, where it is not at present.

119
Authors Recommendations to Increase the Supply
of Food Animal Students
  • R17. The number and dollar amounts of
    scholarships targeted toward food animal students
    should be increased.
  • R18. Colleges of veterinary medicine should
    consider adding admissions criteria that are
    favorable toward students interested in food
    animal veterinary medicine careers.

120
Authors Summary thoughts
  • Continuing shortages have the potential to
    lead to catastrophic economic and human health
    problems for the US and Canada. There are too
    many historical examples to reach any other
    conclusions.

  • Drs. Andrus, Prince Gwinner

  • AVMA Journal, July 1, 2006

121
Conclusions
  • Once a FSVM career is chosen it is and continues
    to be a very rewarding and fulfilling life long
    career.
  • The sectors of FSVM that are different than
    private practice are demanding greater numbers of
    veterinary professionals and colleges and schools
    of veterinary medicine must redesign their
    curricula to adapt to this change

122
Conclusions
  • This study is the strongest indication to date
    that proactive change by all sectors of the
    veterinary profession can manage the evolving
    demands of emerging FSVM careers.
  • More role models, especially in our colleges and
    schools of veterinary medicine, are necessary to
    drive proper enthusiasm for these exciting and
    rewarding FSVM careers.

123
Next Steps
  • Discussion
  • Debate
  • Consensus
  • Action

124
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125
Numbers of Veterinarians AVMA Membership
Directory
126
Numbers of Veterinary Graduates Entering Private
Practice
127
Numbers of Food Animals
128
Professional IncomePrivate Practice Mean Trends
All 78.6 95-05
2007 Economic Report-Preliminary
129
Starting SalaryPrivate Practice Mean
1996-2006 Graduates Survey
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