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Turf Production Without Pesticides


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Title: Turf Production Without Pesticides

Turf Production Without Pesticides
  • Glen Sampson

A Change in Attitude
  • Prevention is the key
  • Treating the cause rather than the symptoms
  • pesticides are no longer the only way to go
  • We cannot only be concerned about the specific
    site we are dealing with but adjacent areas as
  • Total site management not just pest management
  • We must be more knowledgeable about what is going
    on in a turf

Growing Turf Without Pesticides
  • The philosophy of growing turf (or anything else)
    without pesticides is simply that a healthy soil
    grows healthy plants
  • When you feed the beneficial life in the soil,
    those growing populations of microorganisms begin
    to accomplish many jobs that now consume great
    amounts of your time, money, and energy.

Key Definitions
  • Plant Health Care (PHC) A comprehensive system
    for managing the appearance, structure, and
    vitality of ornamental landscapes and sports turf
    within client expectations
  • Site evaluation and preparation
  • Plant selection, establishment, and cultivation
  • Pest management
  • Plant removal and utilization
  • Integrated Pest Mgt. (IPM) A method for
    managing pests that combines cultural,
    biological, and chemical control tactics into a
    single management strategy
  • IPM is an essential component of the PHC
    management system!

Key Definitions
  • Pest any organism that
  • threatens the health, structure, appearance, or
    value of desirable plants
  • Competes with desirable plants for resources
  • Diminishes personal enjoyment, comfort, or safety
    in the landscape
  • Most organisms in the landscape are not pests
  • Many organisms make positive contributions to the
  • A pest is not always a pest
  • Not all pests require control

Categorizing the site
  • Class A
  • High level of service fine ornamental lawns,
    golf and lawn bowling greens, irrigated sports
  • Class B
  • Moderate level of service general park areas,
    residential and commercial lawns, boulevards,
    recreational fields, golf fairways.
  • Class C
  • Low level of service meadows, picnic areas,
    rough grass, undeveloped and naturalized areas.

IPM is
  • A pest management philosophy that utilizes all
    suitable pest management techniques and methods
    to keep pest populations below economically
    injurious levels or below what causes damage that
    is aesthetically unacceptable.
  • Prevention is the key
  • Each pest management technique must be
    environmentally sound and compatible with
    turf/landscape managers objectives.

A changing perspective on IPM and its
  • an increasingly competitive market
  • higher expectations
  • continued societal concerns over pesticides
  • increasing regulations in many areas
  • newer, less-toxic products
  • Treating problems rather than symptoms

Societal and industry concerns
  • Environmental concerns
  • Pesticide contamination of urban creeks,
    estuaries, and other waterways is an increasing
  • Health concerns
  • Chronic health concerns, environmental
  • Pesticide resistance
  • Pest resurgence
  • Pest replacement

Glyphosate Resistant Buckthorn Plantain
Rates L/ha 0 2 4 6 8 10
Glyphosate resistant Susceptible
Sustainable Landscape Practices
  • Best Management Practices
  • Emphasize plant health and longevity
  • creating outdoor spaces that utilize fewer inputs
  • are environmentally friendly
  • are self-perpetuating over a period of time.
  • Improve the environment by conserving resources,
    reducing chemical inputs and reduce labour inputs

Manage pests
  • Most problems in lawns are not caused by pests,
    such as weeds, insects or disease-causing
  • Damage is more likely the result of poor
    turfgrass selection or improper maintenance
  • Providing proper care and using an appropriate
    turfgrass species can prevent the majority of
    lawn problems.

Does IPM work?
  • If our team invested time monitoring the turf
    conditions and paid attention to what were the
    stressors on a specific area such as a sports
    field, we knew we could keep the area very
    healthy with good plant cultural practices,
    -Karen Richter, Organizational Leader of Parks
    Maintenance at the City of Waterloo.
  • With the consistent application of sound
    horticultural practices, Waterloo decreased its
    use of pesticides at a steady pace throughout the
    1980s. By the mid-1980s, the city had eliminated
    blanket spraying. By 1990, Waterloo spot sprayed
    less than 10 per cent of its green space.

Basic Principles of IPM
  • A dense, vigorously growing, healthy plant
    population will resist invasion by pests
  • Pests must be kept below levels that are
    incompatible with the purpose of the desirable

A Good Pest Management Strategy
  • A good pest management strategy incorporates some
    or all methods available to manage a given pest.
  • The goal
  • to reduce pest populations and damage to
    economically and aesthetically tolerable levels.
    Complete eradication may not be possible,
    practical, or desirable.

A Good Pest Management Strategy
  • Prevention
  • Prevention the introduction and/or spread of a
  • Into or away from a site
  • Exclusion One of the safest and most effective
    ways to manage pests in the home environment is
    to deny them access - pest-proofing
  • Exclusion by Regulation
  • Mechanical Exclusion

What does a Turf IPM program look like
Tom Voigt and Tom Fermanian - University of
Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Establishing new turf
  • Rapid establishment of turf is desirable
  • Reduces erosion
  • Suppresses weed seed germination and weed growth
  • Optimum seeding rates (1.5-2.5 kg 100m2)
  • Healthy turf to enter winter

Pre-plant weed control
  • Cultivation
  • Irrigate to allow germination of weeds in
    planting bed.
  • Follow up with a shallow (less than 1 inch)
    cultivation after weeds have emerged but before
    they get too big (usually before they have 4
  • Repeat the irrigation and cultivation cycle two
    or three times for best results.
  • Summer cultivation for perennials
  • For perennial weeds, it is ideal to repeatedly
    cultivate soil in summer, keeping it completely
    dry for extended periods to dehydrate propagules
    (stems, rhizomes, or tubers).
  • Herbicide application
  • Irrigate to allow germination of weed seeds in
    planting bed.
  • Apply non-selective herbicide, such as
  • Repeat the irrigation and herbicide cycle if
  • Solarization
  • Solarization is very effective during the hottest
    part of the year. Six weeks are required for best

Role of soil microorganisms
  • Fertilize by fixing nitrogen from the air,
    mineralizing soil organic nutrient, generating
    carbon dioxide, and dissolving mineral nutrient
    from rock
  • De-thatch by composing thatch and other organic
    matter into valuable nutrients and humus, which
    in turn increase the water and nutrient holding
    capacity of the soil
  • Aerate the soil
  • Control many insect and disease problems by
    competition and predation

Soil amendments and fertilizers
  • Fertilizers vs. soil amendments
  • Fertilizers improve the supply of nutrients in
    the soil, directly affecting plant growth. Soil
    amendments improve a soil's physical condition
    (e.g. soil structure, water infiltration),
    indirectly affecting plant growth.
  • Topsoil
  • Topsoil may be added to raise the soil level to a
    minimum depth of 6 to 8 inches.
  • The topsoil should be mixed into the existing
  • Soil pH
  • The ideal soil pH ranges from 6.0 - 7.0.
  • Grass loses it comprtitive ability at lower pH

Soil amendments
  • Organic (material) amendments
  • Organic material improves soil structure.
  • Organic material can be added to sandy soils to
    increase nutrient and moisture retention.
  • Clay soils can also be amended with organic
    material to help loosen the soil and provide
    better aeration and drainage.
  • Compost is the easiest organic material to use.
  • A rotary tiller works best to incorporate the
    organic material to your soil.
  • A layer of 1 - 2 inches spread over your site
    should be tilled to a depth of 3 - 6 inches.

Choose and identify your turf species
  • Successful selection of a turf grass requires
    knowing how the turf will be used, where it will
    be grown and what level of quality is desired
  • Failure to properly identify a turf grass species
    can lead to mistakes in maintenance.
  • not all turf grass species tolerate the same
    mowing height or frequency.
  • Irrigation frequency and the amount of water
    needed vary among species as do the frequency and
    amount of fertilizer.
  • Turf grasses also differ in how they adapt to
    sun, shade, and temperature.
  • Most lawns are mixtures of various turf grass

Endophytic grasses
  • Endophyte is a naturally occurring fungus that
    grows symbiotically in the grass plant.
  • It produces compounds that prevent insects from
    feeding on the leaves and stems of the plant.
  • Improved performance under low maintenance
    situations makes some of the endophytic forms
    good candidates for low maintenance uses such as
    on roadside right of ways and in parks.
  • The presence of the fungus improves plant vigour
    and helps with resistance to some environmental
  • Avanex - endophyte tall fescue for airports
    research has shown that it reduces bird
    populations by 87

Concerns with endophytic grasses
  • Animal toxicity alkaloids -Ergovaline
  • Reduced biodiversity
  • Invasive species
  • Storage issues that affect the viability of the
    endophytes therefore, variety may not perform
    as expected

Lawn care for established lawns
  • No two lawns are exactly alike. Lawns may differ
    by turf species, soil type, climate, location,
    how they are used, and how they are maintained.
    Tailor a program with the specifics of your
    situation in mind.
  • A good maintenance program includes
  • Mowing
  • Irrigating
  • Fertilizing
  • Dethatching
  • Aerating
  • A well-planned and executed maintenance program
    will produce good-looking, green turf grass that
    will quickly recover from wear, pest damage, or
    mechanical injury

Lawn renovation
  • Some causes of lawns deterioration
  • from poor maintenance,
  • inadequate drainage
  • heavy traffic
  • pest problems,
  • weed invasions,
  • simply because the wrong grass species was

Lawn Renovation
  • Neglected lawns
  • Take better care of your lawn and bring it back
    to life with regular maintenance.
  • Localized problems - Partially renovate your lawn
    by patching.
  • Problem areas spread throughout the lawn
  • Overseed your lawn.
  • Severe problems encompassing more than 40 of the
  • Completely renovate your lawn by killing it and
    starting over from scratch.
  • Don't repeat mistakes! Find the cause of your
    problems before you renovate

Weeds as stress indicators in turf
Species Condition Annual bluegrass low
fertility, compact soil, mowing too short,
excessive moisture Buttercup Excessive
moisture Chickweed thin grass, excessive
moisture Clover low nitrogen, drought,
compaction Crabgrass thin grass, low fertility,
compaction Dandelion thin grass, low fertility,
mowing too short Hawkweed low pH
Weeds as stress indicators in turf
Species Condition Sheep sorrel low
pH Moss heavy shade, low fertility, low
pH Plantain low fertility, mowing too
short Dock excessive moisture Creeping
charlie excessive shade
Overseeding a lawn
  • When should you overseed?
  • Your lawn appears to be in good condition, but
    just a little thin
  • Thinning lawn following winter
  • High traffic areas
  • Always determine and solve the cause of your
    current problem before beginning repairs, and
    plan to seed at a time of year appropriate to the
    planted turf species.
  • What should you overseed with?
  • If your lawn is in relatively good condition in
    most areas, choose the seed mix you used in the
    past or turf recommended for overseeding

  • Overseeding your lawn
  • Closely mow the turf and rake up the debris
  • Dethatch and aerate
  • Seed, fertilize, and irrigate
  • Maintenance
  • Patching the lawn with seed, sod, sprigs, plugs,
  • Dig out the affected area
  • Work the soil
  • Replant with seed, sod, stolons, sprigs, plugs
  • Complete renovation
  • Kill the existing turf and weeds
  • Remove the remaining turf
  • Rethink your irrigation system
  • Prepare the soil

Thinning lawn
What are the abiotic stress factors
  • Compaction

Examples of poor design that can lead to problems
Abiotic factors
  • Dog Urine

Abiotic factors
  • Fertilizer burn

Abiotic factors
  • Nitrogen deficiency

Abiotic factors
  • Uneven fertilizer application

Abiotic factors
  • Overwatering

Abiotic factors
  • Glyphosate (Roundup damage)

Abiotic factors
  • Items left on lawn

Abiotic factors
  • Scalping

Abiotic factors
  • Shade

Abiotic factors
  • Dull mower blades

Components of a Sustainable Urban Landscape/Golf
Course Program
  • Fertility management
  • Mowing practices
  • Water management
  • Traffic management
  • Weed management
  • Disease and insect management

Integrated pest (turf) management

A pest management philosophy
  • Recognizes there is no cure-all in pest
  • Dependence on any one pest management method will
    have undesirable effects.
  • Determine and correct the cause of the pest
  • Understanding Pest biology and ecology is
  • Manipulate the environment to the crops
    advantage and to the detriment of the pest.
  • Recognizes that eradication of a pest is seldom
    necessary or even desirable, and generally not
  • Some damage is unavoidable and acceptable

  • Effective pest management plans
  • are comprehensive in scope
  • integrate agronomic and biological principles
  • integrates cultural, biological and chemical pest
    control practices.
  • They provide proven, science-driven and reliable
    methods for resolving the sometimes conflicting
    goals that golf course superintendents face
  • producing consistently high quality, high
    playability turf
  • at the same time reducing environmental impacts
    and keeping within budget constraints.

Toolbox of management tactics
Biological Controls Cultural Controls Mechanical
Controls Chemical Controls
Decision-making aids
Proper Pest Identification Pest Monitoring
Methods Environmental Monitoring
Use of Degree Days Models economic injury Action
Knowledge of pest/host/ecosystem biology
Life Cycle
Seasonal Cycle
Population dynamics
Schematic of IPM Concept
Approaches for Turf Protection using IPM
  • Regulation using certified seed, sod, sprigs
  • Genetic selection of the best adapted
    species/cultivars for the location
  • Cultural a healthy grass means fewer problems
  • Physical isolating areas where pests are a
  • Biological favouring natural competition
  • Chemical

  • The ability to identify, understand the biology
    and stay abreast of control strategies for golf
    course pests including weeds, diseases, insects
    and other arthropods and nematodes is essential
    for development and implementation of IPM plans.

Each Pest Control Technique Must be
Environmentally SoundRisk vs. Benefits
AndCompatible with With Producers Objectives
Pest Identification
  • What are the key pests to be managed in the
    system, what are their life cycles, how do they
    reproduce and how do they disperse.
  • Text books
  • Fact sheets
  • Specialists
  • Expert pest id systems

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Monitoring - Whats Needed
  • Site Descriptions
  • Past history, soil factors, fertility level,
    drainage, management
  • Develop a descriptive and predictive models
  • What pests are most likely to occur, ways in
    which they can be introduced and seriousness of
    the problem
  • Identify and fill in knowledge gaps
  • Life cycles, reproductive strategy
  • Biology, ecology

  • Based on visual inspections (rough estimations)
    and on pest counts, presence
  • It is important to keep written records of all
    counts, as well as notes from visual inspections
    for future reference.
  • Photographs are useful as a record.

Diagnosing your problem
  • Lawn problems are difficult to diagnose, and the
    diagnosis process can be quite complex.
  • Remember that most turf grass problems are caused
    by improper management practices, not by insects
    or diseases.
  • Before you begin the diagnostic process, take a
    look at how you manage your lawn. You may be able
    to solve your problem by simply changing your
    cultural practices.

Diagnostic tips
  • Know the history of your lawn
  • Know your predominant turf species
  • Identify the problem when you first see symptoms
  • Check for symptoms in the early morning
  • Collect entire grass plant samples
  • Perform a drench test
  • Get help

Drench test
Winter dessication
Pink Snow Mold
  • Michrodochium nivale

Gray Snow mold
  • Typhula spp.

  • Colletotrichum graminicola

Colletotrichum graminicola
Dollar spot
  • Sclerotinia homoeocarpa

Fairy ring
Crane flies
White grubs
Japanese Beetle
European Chafer
Chafer Damage
June Bug
Black Turfgrass Ataenius
Black Turfgrass Ataenius damage
White Grubs
Japanese Beetle
European Chafer
June Beetle
Chinch bug
Action Threshold
  • Pest Population at which a grower must take
    action to prevent a pest populations from
    reaching the economic injury level
  • Economic threshold is slightly below the economic
    injury level
  • Pest populations must be increasing

Economic Injury Level (Aesthetic)
Action Threshold
Pest Density
Pest Population
Action thresholds
  • In turf, it is difficult to put a dollar value
  • Therefore it is dictated by the individuals
    tolerance for pest damage -aesthetic
  • Aesthetic threshold similar to economic
    threshold except based on what is visually
  • Most lawns can withstand some loss of foliage
    without quality and growth being affected
  • May need to adjust aesthetic sensitivities to
    allow for a little more damage

To Keep Pests Below the Economic Injury Level
  • Economic Injury Level
  • Cost of control amount of damage caused by
    the pest
  • Includes amount of pest damage
  • Cost of each control practice
  • Are determined through extensive research
  • Economic Injury Level is the information that is
    necessary to develop an Economic Threshold, which
    is used by crop advisors

Action thresholds of some common pests
Pest Number per sq. ft. Monitoring method
Army worms 3-4 Visual, soap flush
Chinch bugs 20 adults Flotation, soap flush
Cutworms 1 Visual, soap flush
White grubs 3-4 Visual
Action thresholds for cranefly
Average larvae per sq. ft Decision
0- 25 Do nothing fertilize appropriately. May need to treat if turf is young, not well established and with poor root structure
25 - 50 If your lawn is vigorous and healthy, do nothing. Decisions are based on the health of the turf, your personal tolerance, location and use of the turf
50-80 Treat crane fly problem. Look towards long-term solutions, such as replacing problem areas with a turf alternative species.
Insect traps for monitoring
  • Visual cues color traps
  • omnidirectional shape
  • smooth poly surface
  • scientifically tapered cone
  • attractive, permanent yellow color

Growing degree days
  • Daily high daily low/2 base development
    temperature of the insectdaily degree days
  • Below the base development temperature the insect
    will not develop. Insects vary in their base
    development temperature. The base development
    temperature of European corn borer is 7oC

  • Can use a max-min thermometer
  • Max 25oC
  • Min 10oC
  • Average 17.5oC
  • Subtract base temperature 7oC
  • Total degree days 10.5
  • Cumulative total

Chinch bug and damage
Hairy Chinch Bug
  • Blissus leucopterus hirtus
  • Immature nymphs - bright red in colour when they
    first hatch, and begin to darken from brick red
    to grey/brown when they are nearly mature
  • Characteristic white band across their abdomen
    which is eventually covered by the enlarging
    wings as the insects become larger and mature.

Control - monitoring
  • obtain a large can which has a circular area of
    approximately 200 centimetres
  • cut out the bottom and the top to form a cylinder
    and force this into the turf
  • fill the cylinder with water, the chinch bugs
    will soon float to the surface where they can be

Growing degree days Chinch bug
  • max temperature min temperature base
  • 2
  • 427 and 877 degree-days (7ºC base, air
  • numbers of second and third instar nymphs peak
    between mid-July and mid-August.
  • Threshold -100 nymphs per sq ft.
  • Based on growing degree-days for
  • normal years - monitor for chinch
  • bugs from July 1 to mid-August.

Annual bluegrass
  • a winter annual, cool-season grass.
  • The leaf tips are boat-shaped like the bow of a
  • Poa has a prominent membranous ligule and a
    shallow, fibrous root system.
  • The plant oftentimes is lighter green than
    perennial ryegrass, Kentucky bluegrass and
    creeping bentgrass.

Annual Bluegrass
Annual Bluegrass
  • Annual Bluegrass is a lighter green colour than
    Kentucky Bluegrass or Fine Fescue and therefore
    causes discoloration throughout the lawn
  • It has a tendency to thin out and die during
    summer drought conditions. This can cause areas
    of patching which weeds and insects will take
    advantage of.
  • its seed head production is higher than Kentucky
    Bluegrass or Fine Fescue, which causes the lawn
    to appear overrun and not well maintained and
    gives it an unsightly look.

Control of Annual Bluegrass
  • Use certified seed and cut out and re-seed bare
    areas or overseed later in season
  • Aerating your lawn once a year
  • Water deeply and infrequently to encourage good
    root development in your Fescue and Bluegrass
  • Mow at 2 1/2 to 3 inches to discourage
    development of seed heads.U
  • Unless a soil test recommends otherwise, cut back
    on applying high phosphorus fertilizers
  • Slow release N fertilizers and spread over the

  • Insecticides
  • cultural and mowing practices that minimize
    thatch accumulation
  • WATCH FOR Chinch bugs when weather turns hot and
  • Weekly deep waterings

Should Pesticides be used in an IPM Program?
  • Pesticides used only as a last resort and in a
    manner that is legal.
  • Pesticides are to be used when there is no risk
    of environmental damage or when benefits outweigh
    the risks. Use pesticides only when other control
    practices arent available, economical or
  • Must monitor pest populations in the field.
  • Identify the pest
  • Compare pest population and the economic
  • Life stage susceptible to pesticide?
  • Crop stage and preventable loss.

What is Cultural Control
  • Agronomic practices that are designed to
  • Optimize growing conditions for the desirable
    plants. Anything that increases a plants
    competitive edge will result in increased
    tolerance to pests often resulting in reduced
    pesticide use.
  • Create unfavorable conditions for the pest
  • E.g. fertility management, irrigation scheduling,
    mowing heights

What is Mechanical Control?
  • Uses machinery and/or other tools to control
  • Mowing
  • Physical barriers
  • Mulches
  • Floating mulch
  • Greens covers

What is Sanitary Control?
  • Methods to avoid introducing a pest into a site
  • Cleaning equipment mowers, golf carts,
    fertilizer applicators
  • Planting certified seed
  • Quarantines

What is Natural Control?
  • Enhancement of naturally occurring pest
    management methods
  • Beneficial insects
  • Beneficial diseases

What is Biological Control?
  • Manipulation of biological organism to control
  • Release of predators/parasites/disease of an
    insect or weed
  • Can be time consuming, expensive and difficult
  • E.g. cinnabar moth,

Registered Bioherbicides
  • 1992 - Biomal for roundleaf mallow control
  • 2003 Chontrol for woody shrubs along rights
    of way
  • 2007 Sarritor limited use of Sclerotinia
    minor on dandelion

Dandelion control
Biological Pesticides
Herbicides Fungicides Insecticides
Sarritor Biomal Chontrol Nivalis Mycostop Rootshield Serenade (Bacillus Subtilis) Rhapsody BTK Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) Beauveria bassiana
Constraints for use of biological pesticides
  • Environmental
  • Specific temperature and moisture requirements
  • Formulation
  • Shelf life
  • Specificity

Natural Products
Herbicides Fungicides Insecticides
Acetic acid (vinegar) Citric Acid Organosol (Lactic acid/citric acid) Fiesta (FeHDTA) Elemental Sulphur Garlic powder Borax Garlic oil
What is Host Plant Resistance?
  • Manipulating the plant to withstand or tolerate
  • Natural breeding method
  • Genetically modified plants
  • Not a permanent method of control
  • Examples resistant varieties, endophyte grasses

Barriers to adaptation of IPM
  • There is a large gap between the general IPM
    principles found in textbooks and the development
    of site-specific strategies that address issues
    of climate and weather, turf varieties, soil and
    water quality, specific pest complexes,
    client/golfer expectations and varying budgets.
  • There are currently few tools available to
    landscapers/superintendents that bridge this gap,
    and as a result, IPM programs are rarely realized
    to their full potential.

Barriers to adaptation of IPM
  • Once IPM plans are developed, they cannot remain
  • Shifts in pest populations
  • Changes in client/golf course expectations and
  • The introduction of new products, technologies
    and scientific information
  • Require methods of evaluating new advances as
    well as procedures for periodic updating of IPM

Barriers to adaptation of IPM
  • Monitoring (for pests, weather, equipment
    operation/calibration and for the quality of
    water, soil and turf) and record keeping are the
    backbone of any successful IPM program
  • Information on monitoring and record keeping
    tools and procedures needs to be centralized and
    presented in a form that is easily accessible to
    landscapers/golf course superintendents.

Barriers to adaptation of IPM
  • Objective evaluation of the success (or failure)
    of newly introduced practices in meeting turf
    maintenance goals.
  • Without tools for assessing the effectiveness of
    new techniques, the landscapers/superintendents
    ability to justify and promote their management
    decisions can be compromised.

Barriers to adaptation of IPM
  • Superintendents vary widely in their technical
    backgrounds, computer literacy access to
  • And golf courses vary widely in their interest in
    IPM principles and the budgets available to
    implement them.
  • Yet the ability to incorporate IPM into turf
    management programs should be feasible for all
    interested superintendents and golf courses
  • Rather than assuming a one size fits all
    approach to IPM, successful plans need to be
    flexible enough to take these differences into
    account and to make it possible for
    superintendents at levels to participate.

  • IPM golfpro is a web based software specifically
    designed for golf course Superintendents to track
    and manage their Spray and Scout activities.
  • IPM golfpro offers the following
  • Easy to use and understand
  • Plan, execute, track and document your pest
    management strategies
  • Generate reports required by the IPM regulatory
  • Track your Fertilizer and Pesticide usage
  • Calibrate your Sprayers
  • Track your staff Training history

  • Subscription
  • Annual subscription to IPM golfpro software
    includes initial course setup, technical support,
    maintenance and updates
  • PRICING Annual Subscription in CAD (plus
    applicable taxes)
  • Number of Holes
  • 9 349
  • 18 698
  • 27 1047
  • 36 1396
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