TR Practice: Art, Science, or Magic? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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TR Practice: Art, Science, or Magic?


TR Practice: Art, Science, or Magic? Chapter 13 HPR 453 TR: Roots and Now Early Civilization Play and recreation were healing to ill and injured Florence ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: TR Practice: Art, Science, or Magic?

TR PracticeArt, Science, or Magic?
  • Chapter 13
  • HPR 453

TR Roots and Now
  • Early Civilization Play and recreation were
    healing to ill and injured
  • Florence Nightingale arts, music, humor, pets,
    writing, conversation in recovery of ill,
    injured, and dying soldiers
  • Recreation contributes to health and QoL
  • Art, Science or Magic????

TR Practice as Art
  • All Recreation is Therapeutic
  • CTRS seeks to supplement, alter, or counteract
    effects of illness or injury
  • Introduces media to supplement bodys healing and
    health capacity
  • Encourages individual to be autonomous and seek
    meaningful experiences
  • Results in improvement in health or condition

  • Based on aesthetics of environment and value of
    self-expression and creativity to cause one to
    feel good (or at least better)
  • Arrange interventions in a way to effect sense of
    quality or goodness
  • The participant interprets the value
  • Art for arts sake or as recreation as a means
    unto itself

TR Practice as Science
  • TR as the Means to Outcomes or Ends
  • More recent phenomenon due to internal and
    external forces
  • Definition of science The observation,
    identification, description, experimental
    investigation, and theoretical explanation of
    phenomena American Heritage Dictionary (1994)
  • Through research phenomena and theories are
    tested and explained

  • Scientific investigation of TR Practice and
    formal training programs began in 1950s
  • Which interventions were effective?
  • What skills do practitioners need to be
  • Development of cause and effect and perspective
    on importance of constancy of purpose and
    consistency of approach

Important Developments
  • Internally
  • Body of knowledge
  • professional organizations
  • education and training programs
  • definition of TR
  • observation and investigation of the practice of
  • accreditation process

Practice as a Science Milestones
  • Autonomous credentialing program NCTRC
  • Based on scientific analysis of TR job functions
    and knowledge needed to perform the functions
  • Born of efforts to provide prof self-regulation
  • Educational prerequisites, internship under
    qualified professional (CTRS), job knowledge test
  • 1st real measure of consistency of professional

  • 1991 National Consensus Conference on Benefits of
    TR in Rehabilitation
  • Temple University and National Institute of
    Disability Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR)
  • Studied efficacy in TR in rehabilitation
  • Consistent, uniform Tx outcomes of TR with
    specific populations

External Developments
  • Standardization and accreditation of healthcare
    JC, CARF
  • Regulatory accountability Healthcare Financing
    Administration (HCFA) now CMS
  • Concerns centered on quality delivered
  • Costs skyrocketing -gt Insurance industry imposed
    restrictions on access to healthcare
  • Evolution of technology/Consumers access to

  • People living longer, surviving catastrophic
    injuries and illnesses and better informed on
    options for healthcare
  • TR exists in scientific arena due to these

More recent developments
  • Development of evidence-based protocols or
    practice guidelines
  • 2003 ATRA Dementia Practice Guidelines for
    Recreational Therapy
  • Theoretical framework and scientific evidence to
    support efficacy of treatment approaches
  • Pending Guidelines
  • Pain, Obesity, Stroke or other neurological events

  • Important to monitor trends in healthcare for
    direction of research and scientific inquiry
  • Worldwide health initiatives such as WHO ICF
  • Move away from disease to health and
    health-related domains, how the individual is
    impacted by internal body functions and
    structures, activity participation, performance,
    and functioning in relation to social perspective
    and environments impact on functioning Health
    and Health Promotion and role of TR

TR as Magic
  • Holistic or Spiritual Perspective of TR
  • Magic defined Possessing distinctive qualities
    that produce unaccountable or baffling effects
    American Heritage Dictionary (1994)
  • Some practitioners practice more by doing what
    they know works results through power of
    charisma, charm, persuasiveness of personality
  • Mysterious qualities connected to healing

  • Mind-Body Connection such as acupuncture,
    chiropractic, naturopathic medicine, energy-based
    modalities such as yoga, Reiki or guided imagery,
  • Used for centuries yet lack scientific evidence
    so they are magical
  • Enter Mind and Behavior If you believe you
    can, can you?
  • Have we as practitioners affected the person by
    design, or was it really magic that caused the
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