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Sociology: Your Compass for a New World Robert J. Brym and John Lie Preface: Why a Compass for a New World? All maps allow us to find our place in the world and see ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Sociology:


1
Sociology
  • Your Compass
  • for a New World

Robert J. Brym and John Lie
2
Preface Why a Compass for a New World?
  • All maps allow us to find our place in the world
    and see ourselves in context of larger forces.
  • Sociological maps allow us to grasp the
    interplay of people and society, of biography
    and history (C. Wright Mills quoted in Brym
    Lie 2007,p.xxv)
  • This book shows you how to draw sociological maps
    so you can see your place in the world, figure
    out how to navigate through it, and perhaps
    discover how to improve it.

3
Why a Compass for a New World?
  • Sociological maps can help us make sense of our
    lives, however uncertain they may appear to be.
    (Brym Lie 2007, p.xxvi)
  • Sociological maps, by revealing the opportunities
    and constraints you face can help to teach you
    who you are and what you can become in this
    particular social and historical context. (Brym
    Lie 2007, p.xxvi)

4
Why a Compass for a New World?
  • Maps do not tell you where to go or what to do
    maps are tools to help you plan your own trip
  • Therefore, this textbook has five main goals
  • To help you draw the connections between ones
    self and ones social world
  • To teach you how to think versus what to think
  • To help you make connections between the
    objective science of sociology the subjective
    experiences of people
  • To help you broaden your horizons with
    discussions of diversity and global issues
  • To deal with sociology, not just as a historical
    discipline but as a current guide for life.

5
Chapter 1 A Sociological Compass
  • In this chapter you will learn
  • That sociologists believe that the causes of
    human behavior lie mostly in the patterns of
    social relations that surround and permeate us.
  • That sociologists examine the connection between
    social relations and personal troubles
  • About the origins and founders of Sociology
  • The role of Sociology in understanding the scope,
    direction, and significance of social change
  • The role of Sociology in your own life

6
Chapter 1 A Sociological Compass
  • In this chapter you will learn
  • That Sociology helps us see the operation of the
    social world more clearly
  • That Sociologists are often motivated to do
    research by the desire to improve peoples lives.
  • That sociologists adopt scientific methods to
    test their ideas.
  • That sociology can help you come to grips with
    your century, just as it helped the founders of
    society deal with theirs.
  • That sociology can help us create the best
    possible future for ourselves and our world and
    this is the principal justification for the
    discipline of sociology (Brym Lie 2007, p.xxvi)

7
What is Sociology?
  • Sociology is the systematic study of human
    behavior in social context

8
What is Sociology?
  • Sociology is the systematic study of human
    behavior in social context

For example.
9
Sociology and Suicide?
  • Traditional Viewpoint suicide is a result of
    psychological disorder in the individual

10
Sociology and Suicide?
  • Traditional Viewpoint suicide is a result of
    psychological disorder in the individual
  • Durkheims sociological perspective suicide
    rates strongly influenced by social forces
  • Social Solidarity vs. Psychological Disorder

11
From Personal Troubles to Social Structures
  • Society lives in you
  • Patterns of social relations affect your
    innermost thoughts and feelings, influence your
    actions, and thus help shape who you are.
  • Stable patterns of social relations are called
    Social Structures
  • Our own sociological awareness involves
    recognizing that three levels of social structure
    surround and permeate us.

12
From Personal Troubles to Social Structures
  • Microstructures
  • Macrostructures
  • Global structures


13
From Personal Troubles to Social Structures
  • Microstructures
  • Patterns of intimate social relations formed
    during face-to-face interaction
  • -families, friendships, work associations
  • Macrostructures
  • Global structures


14
From Personal Troubles to Social Structures
  • Microstructures
  • Macrostructures
  • Patterns of social relations that lie outside and
    above your circle of intimates and acquaintances
  • -classes, bureaucracies, and power systems such
    as patriarchy
  • Global structures


15
From Personal Troubles to Social Structures
  • Microstructures
  • Macrostructures
  • Global structures
  • patterns of social relations that lie outside and
    above the national level
  • - International organizations, patterns of
    worldwide travel and communication, economic
    relations between countries


16
The Sociological Imagination
  • The quality of mind that enables one to see the
    connection between personal troubles and social
    structures.
  • Lets read his entire statement together
  • C. Wright Mills (pp.7-8, Brym Lie)

17
The Sociological Imagination
  • Born during three modern revolutions that pushed
    people to think about society in an entirely new
    way
  • The Scientific Revolution
  • The Democratic Revolution
  • The Industrial Revolution

18
The Sociological Imagination
  • Born during three modern revolutions that pushed
    people to think about society in an entirely new
    way
  • The Scientific Revolution (1550)
  • Not just about Newtons apple
  • It encouraged the view that
    sound conclusions about the
    workings of society must be
    based on solid evidence, not just speculation
  • Descartes (France) and Hobbs (England) called for
    a science of society
  • The Democratic Revolution
  • The Industrial Revolution

19
The Sociological Imagination
  • Born during three modern revolutions that pushed
    people to think about society in an entirely new
    way
  • The Scientific Revolution
  • The Democratic Revolution (1750)
  • Radical Idea that people
    are responsible for society
    and therefore human
    intervention can solve social
    problems
  • Much of the justification for sociology as a
    science arose out of democratic revolutions
  • The Industrial Revolution

20
The Sociological Imagination
  • Born during three modern revolutions that pushed
    people to think about society in an entirely new
    way
  • The Scientific Revolution
  • The Democratic Revolution
  • The Industrial Revolution (1780)
  • Created host of new and serious
    social problems that attracted
    attention of social thinkers
  • Growth of industry moved people to cities
    overcrowding, long hours, dangerous working
    conditions, bureaucracy, filth, and poverty
  • Social thinkers responded by giving birth to the
    sociological imagination

21
The Sociological Imagination
  • Born during three modern revolutions that pushed
    people to think about society in an entirely new
    way
  • The Scientific Revolution
  • Suggested that a science of society is possible
  • The Democratic Revolution
  • Suggested that people can intervene to improve
    society
  • The Industrial Revolution
  • Presented social thinkers with a host of social
    problems crying out for a solution

22
The Sociological Imagination
  • Born during three modern revolutions that pushed
    people to think about society in an entirely new
    way
  • The Scientific Revolution
  • Suggested that a science of society is possible
  • The Democratic Revolution
  • Suggested that people can intervene to improve
    society
  • The Industrial Revolution
  • Presented social thinkers with a host of social
    problems crying out for a solution

23
The Sociological Imagination
  • Born during three modern revolutions that pushed
    people to think about society in an entirely new
    way
  • The Scientific Revolution
  • Suggested that a science of society is possible
  • The Democratic Revolution
  • Suggested that people can intervene to improve
    society
  • The Industrial Revolution
  • Presented social thinkers with a host of social
    problems crying out for a solution

24
The Birth of Theory, Research, and Values
  • Theory without practice cannot survive and dies
    as quickly as it lives. He who loves practice
    without theory is like the sailor who boards ship
    without a rudder and compass and never knows
    where he may be cast.
  • -Leonardo da Vinci
  • (quoted in Brym Lie, 2007)

25
The Birth of Theory, Research, and Values
  • Theory- a tentative explanation of some aspect of
    social life that states how and why certain facts
    are related
  • Research- the process of systematically observing
    reality to assess the validity of a theory
  • Values-ideas about what is right and wrong

26
The Birth of Theory, Research, and Values
  • Founders of Sociology
  • August Comte, French social thinker, coined the
    term sociology in 1838
  • Herbert Spencer, believed he had discovered
    scientific laws governing the operations of
    society

27
The Birth of Theory, Research, and Values
  • Giants of Sociology
  • Karl Marx
  • Emile Durkheim
  • Max Weber

28
Sociological Theory and Theorists
  • Functionalism
  • Conflict Theory
  • Symbolic Interactionism
  • Feminist Theory

29
Sociological Theory and Theorists
  • Functionalism 4 tenets
  • Human behavior is governed by stable patterns of
    social relations, or social structures
  • Social structures maintain or undermine social
    stability-how the parts (structures) fit together
    and how each part contributes to the stability of
    the whole (its function)

30
Sociological Theory and Theorists
  • Functionalism 4 tenets
  • Social structures are based mainly on shared
    values, a moral cement that binds people together
  • Reestablishing equilibrium can best solve most
    social problems a conservative response to
    social unrest

31
Sociological Theory and Theorists
  • Functionalism Major Theorists
  • Emile Durkheim
  • Robert Merton and Talcott Parsons

32
Sociological Theory and Theorists
  • Conflict Theory 4 tenets
  • Focuses on large, macro-level structures
  • Shows how major patterns of inequality in society
    produce social stability in some circumstances
    and social change in others

33
Sociological Theory and Theorists
  • Conflict Theory 4 tenets
  • Stresses how members of privileged groups try to
    maintain their advantages while subordinate
    groups struggle to increase theirs-an on-going
    power struggle.
  • Typically leads to the suggestion that
    eliminating privilege will lower the level of
    conflict and increase total human welfare.

34
Sociological Theory and Theorists
  • Conflict Theory Major Theorists

                     
Karl Marx
Max Weber
W.E.B. Du Bois
C. Wright Mills
35
Sociological Theory and Theorists
  • Symbolic Interactionism 4 tenets
  • Focus on interpersonal communication in
    micro-level social settings
  • Emphasis on social life as possible only because
    people attach meanings to things-understanding
    subjective meanings people associate with social
    circumstances

36
Sociological Theory and Theorists
  • Symbolic Interactionism
  • People help to create their social circumstances
    and do not merely react to them (all the worlds
    a stage)
  • Validation of unpopular and nonofficial
    viewpoints by focusing on the subjective meanings
    people create in small social settings
    increases our understanding of people who may be
    different from us.

37
Sociological Theory and Theorists
  • Symbolic Interactionism Major Theorists

Max Weber
Erving Goffman
George Herbert Mead
38
Sociological Theory and Theorists
  • Symbolic Interactionism variant
  • Social constructionism
  • Apparently natural or innate features of life are
    often sustained by social processes that vary
    historically and culturally

39
Sociological Theory and Theorists
  • Feminist Theory 4 tenets
  • Focuses on various aspects of patriarchy system
    of male domination in society
  • Male domination and female subordination are
    determined not by biological necessity but by
    structures of power and social convention

40
Sociological Theory and Theorists
  • Feminist Theory
  • Examines the operation of patriarchy in both
    micro- and macro-level settings
  • Contends that existing patterns of gender
    inequality can and should be changed for the
    benefit of all members of society

41
Sociological Theory and Theorists
  • Feminist Theory- Major Theorists
  • Jane Addams

Harriet Martineau
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