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Session 1: Welcome


Session 1: Welcome 9.30: Intro to RWS100 and the lower division writing program TA Introductions; photo session (program of assimilation and mind control revealed) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Session 1: Welcome

Session 1 Welcome
  • 9.30 Intro to RWS100 and the lower division
    writing program
  • TA Introductions photo session(program of
    assimilation and mind control revealed)

Overview of RWS100
  • 10.15 Overview of RWS100
  • The program, RWS100, ICT, Spring students, the
    course theme, etc.

RWS 100 and the lower division writing program
  • See the orientation handout for contact info and
    resources for new TAs.
  • Argument is at the center of the program and 100.
  • We mostly focus on non fiction, argumentative

RWS 100 and the lower division writing program
  • We ask students to interpret, analyze, and
    produce written arguments, because this is
    central to academic literacy, critical thinking,
    and civic life -Lasch argument is the
    essence of education, and central to democratic
    culture - Universities are houses of
    argument. - Graff Argument literacy is key
    to higher education. - argument and
    interpretation big part of academic

  • We want students to be able to identify claims,
    evaluate evidence and reasons, locate
    assumptions, identify argumentative moves, pose
    critical questions, produce sophisticated
    arguments, etc.
  • We do this not just because we think its good
    for their souls, critical thinking, ability to
    reason, deliberate, be engaged citizens, etc. But
    also because its key to their professional
    futures every gateway requires it.

Why We Fight! (4 your right to write, argue
analyze well)
  • The ability to interpret arguments, locate claims
    and evidence, analyze moves and strategies, and
    evaluate arguments are crucial skills.
  • They are central to business, law, professional
    life, and to academic study (including graduate
  • Students tested for these skills in the WPA, the
    LSAT, GMAT, and GRE all the gateways to
    professional life.
  • Consider the GRE

Analytical Writing Tasks
  • Present Your Views on an Issue (45 minutes,
    choice of 2 topics)
  • Analyze an Argument (30 minutes)
  • Each essay is scored on a 0-6 scale using
    holistic scoring
  • Two scores for each essay
  • GRE Website presents directions, actual topics,
    scoring guide, and sample essays for both the
    Issue and Argument tasks (

Rhetorical self-consciousness understanding of
moves academic literacy
  • We aim to improve academic literacy equip
    students with transferable skills that will help
    them in the disciplinary communities they are
    part of help students become more rhetorically
    sophisticated and self reflective producers and
    consumers of texts, help students become
    critical, engaged writers.
  • We want to help students read and interpret texts
    rhetorically, to develop rhetorical self
    consciousness to look at as well as through
    language. So we also focus on moves, strategies
    and choices what the author is doing with
    words, how she is doing it, and why.
  • Revealing the rhetorical moves that writers make
    is an important part of achieving academic
    literacy, and of acculturation into disciplinary
    communities. When you recognize the moves, you
    not only understand the disciplinary conversation
    better, you are better equipped to join it.

You will (not) be assimilated
  • This is, of course, just one way to design a
    writing course many others are possible (genre,
    critical literacy, cultural studies, personal
    reflection, literary texts, etc.)
  • Writing programs often serve many masters, since
    general education programs are collaborative
    enterprises. Had we world enough and time (and
    money and control) I like the idea of a hybrid
    WID-based approach.
  • In any case, your experience in this program will
    be valuable as a) its an influential model, b)
    the trend seems to be toward aligning k-12 and
    higher ed. around argument, and c) SDSUs program
    is regionally influential.
  • In other words, in the future, you may go on to
    teach writing in an entirely different way and
    thats great. But it will be useful to have
    familiarity with a program like this, which is
    very large, multi-leveled, comprehensive and
    tightly designed. Many other TAs will work in
    programs where there is one semester of freshman
    comp, and thats it.

  • ITC an important part of your work. You are
    expected to attend. You get credit for it
  • More importantly, its part of collaboration,
    professional development, and networking. The
    dialogue matters.
  • Modest home work is assigned but its all to
    prepare for your class.
  • Your contribution is important and most welcome.
    We provide a lot of support, but you are welcome
    to adapt remix, or add your own materials. We
    encourage you to suggest new ideas/ways of
    teaching the course

Teaching in a time of crisis
  • The budget crisis, class size increases, the
    furloughs etc. have/continue to cause disruption,
    uncertainty and change
  • We can't provide quite as much support as usual
  • You may well have to teach RWS200 next semester,
    where learning curve is steeper.
  • So using ITC and your fellow TAs is especially
    important this semester.

Teaching in a time of crisis
  • Class sizes will be 32.
  • Most major academic organizations (including the
    WPA) have shown that university writing classes
    should have at most 20 students.
  • Our pedagogies arent really designed for classes
    this big. We may wish to share coping strategies.
  • In fact, we may want to jigsaw the work of
    preparing class plans, etc.

Meet your audience
  • Spring semester students are often
    developmental writers. Many will have just
    completed 92A and 92B.
  • Some may be quite sophisticated readers and
    writers, but youll be presenting them with a
    very different way of approaching texts, and they
    will find this challenging at first.
  • You may have some ESL/L1.5 students.

The R in RWS Rhetoric
  • Some students will assume they are in an English
    class, and will bring expectations from high
    school English. E.g. when you say claim or
    argument, they may think thesis and/or
  • You may need to remind them this is a Rhetoric
    and Writing class so they don't keep reaching for
    familiar strategies from high school English
    (usually less of an issue in spring, as theyve
    often experienced a semester or 2 or RWS.)

Spring 2010 Course theme
  • Arguments about language, literacy and the
    politics of education.
  • Well read 3 main texts1) Postmans Word
    Weavers2) Gladwells Outliers3) The PBS
    documentary From First to Worst.

Assignment Sequence
  • 1. produce an account and analysis of a single
    argument (Postman)2. gather sources, situate an
    argument within a field of other texts, map out
    and analyze relationships between them (extend,
    complicate, illustrate, etc.) (Gladwell)3.
    identify, analyze and evaluate rhetorical
    strategies (From First to Worst) 4. a lens
    assignment, group assignment, orflexible
    portfolio assignment

Managing the Final Paper
  • Section 4 Portfolio/Lens/Student Writing
  • For the final assignment, you can select from a
    number of options.
  • We recommend one of the following, although you
    are welcome to
  • suggest alternatives
  • 1. Lens paper if you would like to stick to
    traditional way in the 4th assignment has been
    taught, you can use the lens assignment (see
    past 100 syllabi, assignments, materials etc. for
    details. This paper involves taking one of the
    texts weve read and using it as a lens through
    which to analyze another text or a contemporary
    issue. The student can present an original
    argument, interpretation or analysis.
  • 2. Group projects/presentations where students
    get to make an argument that draws from one of
    the issues raised in the class, or which focuses
    on one of the texts covered. If you choose this
    option, we suggest you construct a group
    assignment with clearly defined roles for each
    student, so that individual grades can be
    assigned and you minimize free riding and

Managing the Final Paper
  • 3. Portfolio Students have done small writing
    assignments over the semester. You can assign
    further short writing assignments in the final
    part of the course, and give students an
    aggregate grade for the completed portfolio.
  • 4. Reflection essay have students write a paper
    that asks them to reflect on the writing work
    they have done, what they have learned, the way
    they approach writing, the things they still need
    to work on, etc.

The Readings
  • Custom reader
  • You should have Raimes and They Say/I Say (if
    not, can get a loaner from bookstore).
  • Raimes comes with Eduspace online resources for
    teaching writing (perhaps not that useful if
    dont have a lab)

Main Texts
  • Short texts, incl. Bleich and Rifkin, and any you
  • Postman, The Word Weavers
  • Gladwell, Outliers
  • From First to Worst PBS documentary
  • Various short texts for strategies and lens
    section (E.g. you may wish to consider Parrys
    The Art of Branding a Condition, Daily Show
    materials, or texts related to education/budget
  • BUT - in a sense the central text in the class
    the students texts. (Your
  • fabulous teaching performance vs. their written
  • You may want to be brilliant, and may be tempted
    to model your teaching on
  • the last class you took (a grad class). New
    teachers tend to prepare to teach
  • the classes theyve just been in, just as armies
    prepare to fight the last war.
  • Try to resist this.

Supplementary texts
  • For the 4th assignment, you can assign no text,
    select your own text, or let students choose a
    text(s), but youll need to work with them and
    provide guidance.

Overview of RWS100
  • Sample syllabi, schedules and assignment
    sequences are on the wiki (and will be on
    Blackboard very soon).
  • Well talk more about syllabi later today and

  • 11.00 The First Week(s)
  • Introducing rhetoric, the course,
  • and working with short texts

Common Class Activities Patterns See p. 3 of
  • Pre-reading and pre-discussion work
    (questionnaires to get at assumptions, surveys,
  • Jig saw work (students share researching key
    parts of text and share in class)
  • Class discussion, group work
  • Critical reading/rhetorical reading posing
    questions, interrogating assumptions, reading
    actively and critically (modeling qns to ask)
  • Charting what is the text doing what/how/why
    moves are made
  • PACES (project, argument, claims, evidence,
  • Pre-writing exercises
  • Templates, rhetorical precis, metadiscourse,
    transitions, mechanics
  • Drafting, peer review, student read alouds,
  • Assessment and response
  • Analysis (single argument, relationship between
    texts, strategies, lens work) and presentation
    of student argument
  • Reflection and reflective practice (applying
    concepts to students own writing e.g. charting,
    analyzing students moves and strategies, etc.)

Example pre-reading exercises
  • 1. In Class test
  • Careful, you might run out of planet SUVs and
    the exploitation of the
  • American myth, by David Goewey.
  • Questions
  • Is Goewey critical or complimentary of SUVs?
  • Does the author believe that there is time to
    make a change?
  • Does the author put more emphasis on car quality
    or social issues in assessing the value of SUVs?
  • Is the author likely to be a supporter of major
    oil companies?
  • Was this essay written in 1979, 1989, or 1999?
  • 2. Examining Titles Carefully Chua
  • - Chuas article A World on the edge became
    part of her book World on Fire How
  • Exporting Free Market Democracy Breeds Ethnic
    Hatred and Global Instability.
  • - Postmans article is part of a book called The
    End of Education Redefining the
  • Value of School
  • 3. Headings you can find out a lot by going
    through the section and chapter headings
  • in Gladwell and First to Worst. E.g. Gladwell
    book divided into 2 parts,
  • Opportunity, Legacies, and within each part,
    aspects of the these concepts are
  • explored

  • Survey/discussion questions before reading Pinker
  • Our moral sense is best described as coming from
    a) our upbringing, b) society, c) religious texts
    and teachings, d) other.
  • Moral laws are universalStrongly
    Disagree Moderately Disagree Moderately Agree
    Strongly Agree
  • What are the most important moral laws and
    where do they come from?
  • Morality is a product of our evolutionary
    pre-historyStrongly Disagree Moderately
    Disagree Moderately Agree Strongly Agree
  • To what extent is our moral sense shared by other

  • Survey/discussion questions before reading
  • How is the definition of a word arrived at?
  • In school you probably learned thousands of
    definitions did you ever study how definitions
    are constructed? How are definitions taught in
    high school?
  • Who makes definitions?
  • To what extent are definitions political,
    reflecting the values, interests and purposes of
    those who make them?
  • What are metaphors for? Are they important? Are
    they mostly decorative?
  • Do metaphors matter in fields like biology,
    physics, history, business, English, or the study
    of argument?
  • Do metaphors shape the way we see things?
  • How is technology talked about in our culture?
    Taught in school?
  • To what extent do technologies shape how we act,
    think, communicate, make sense of the world?

  • See page 3 of the handout for a detailed account
    of each of these major activities.
  • There are handouts, class exercises, and class
    plans based on each of these key activities (see
    wiki or Blackboard).

Some Roadmaps for RWS100
  • Overview of RWS100 Overview of RWS 100,
    Assignments, Classroom Activities, Coursework,
    and Detailed Description of First 3 Weeks
  • Gives you multiple views broad overview, to
    detailed description of 4 units, to
    class-by-class description of first three weeks.

Introducing rhetoric
  • We ask that you tell students that RWS 100 is a
    rhetoric class. Many will base their expectations
    on high school English classes literary texts
    and writing assignments, etc. Youll need to
    emphasize that the interpretation, analysis and
    production of argument is central, that they will
    be reading non-fiction texts, and producing a lot
    of analysis.
  • You may find Content is king - locate, remember
    and deliver content. You may encounter a
    textbook mentality in the reading practices of
    many of your students, and an information
    processor model of writing.
  • Textbooks are often anti-rhetorical -
    presenting knowledge in terms of a
    decontextualized, disembodied voice of authority,
    a view from nowhere, and of knowledge as
    settled, unified and authoritative
  • The contested, contingent, contextual,
    community-centered, argument-drivenin short, the
    RHETORICAL dimensions of knowledge of academic
    discourse, are largely absent.

Nudging students toward a rhetorical stance
  • We want to move students from a focus on what
    texts say (content) to what they do and how they
    do it (rhetoric). Rhetorical self consciousness
    achieving a kind of double vision of looking
    at as well as through language.
  • Rhetorical self consciousness understanding
    what texts do - is an important skill for
    students. Revealing the rhetorical moves that
    writers make, the strategies they draw on, is
    part of achieving academic literacy, and of
    acculturation into disciplinary communities. When
    you recognize the moves you not only understand
    the disciplinary conversation better, you are
    better equipped to join it.
  • In the first week of class wed like you to
    introduce key conceptsthrough the analysis of
    some short texts. There is a folder on Blackboard
    to help you with this.
  • Focusing on strategies and what texts do good
    ways of introducing rhetoric.

Basic Rhetorical Strategies
  • How do texts position readers?
  • What point of view do they adopt?
  • From what perspective do they invite us to view
    the world?Consider these chewing gum ads

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Rhetoric Is Everywhere an Everyday Thing
  • When a politician tries to get you to vote for
    them, they are using rhetoric.
  • When a lawyer tries to move a jury, they are
    using rhetoric.
  • When a government produces propaganda, they are
    using rhetoric.
  • When an advertisement tries to get you to buy
    something, it is using rhetoric.
  • When the president gives a speech, he is using
  • But rhetoric can be much subtler (and quite
    positive) as well
  • When someone writes an office memo, they are
    using rhetoric.
  • When a newspaper offers their depiction of what
    happened last night, they are using rhetoric.
  • When a scientist presents theories or results,
    they are using rhetoric.
  • When you write your mom or dad an email, you are
    using rhetoric.
  • Thought itself is rhetorical - when you think,
    you engage in inner argument, or inner
    persuasion in order to reach a decision or act.

  • Salon Magazine Court rules against pot for sick
  • New York Times High Court Allows Prosecution of
    Medical Marijuana Users
  • San Diego Union Tribune Court OKs Marijuana
  • L.A. Times Justices Give Feds Last Word on
    Medical Marijuana
  • Christian Science Monitor US Court Rules
    Against Pot For Sick People
  • Christian News Source Medical Marijuana Laws
    Don't Shield Users From Prosecution

Telemarketing Strategies Script
  • Pre-introduction (Ask to speak to the
    decision-maker) Introduction (Introduce
    yourself and the reason for your call) Attention
    Getter (Mention the key features of the offer
    and qualify them for eligibility) Probing
    Questions (Always ask for information that will
    be useful for rebuttals) Offer (Explain the
    product/service and terms of commitment) Close
    (ALWAYS ASK FOR THE SALE) Rebuttal (deal with
    objections)Sales Continuation (Agree, use
    rebuttals, sell benefits, CLOSE)
    Up/down/cross-sell (If there is another product
    of less-price this is the time to sell it.)
    Confirmation Close (Review the terms of the
    offer to reduce buyer remorse) Final Close (End
    on a positive note. Thank the customer and leave
    a dial free number for customer support)

  • Everyday words, names, definitions, categories
    how they are selected or constructed
  • Consider
  • War on terror, vs. war against Islamic
    extremists, vs. fight against Al Queda (scope,
    agents involved, action)
  • War on drugs Axis of Evil
  • Body bags vs. transfer tubes
  • Doctor assisted suicide vs. death with
  • Defense of marriage vs. marriage equality
  • French Fries/Freedom fries
  • Death Tax/Estate Tax
  • Habit forming vs. addictive
  • Erectile dysfunction vs. impotence
  • Halitosis vs. bad breath
  • Male pattern baldness vs. losing your hair
  • Viagra!

  • The controversial New Yorker cover, politics of

When ads used a lot of logos
Todays ads often use different appeals
  • By readingwe mean something more than simply
    lifting information out of books and articles. To
    read a text or event is to do something to it, to
    make sense out of its signals and cluesReading
    is thus not something we do to books alone. Or,
    to put it another way, books and other printed
    surfaces are not the only texts we read. Rather,
    a text is anything that can be interpreted,
    that we can make meaning out of or assign value
    to. In this sense, all culture is a text and all
    culture can be read. Joseph Harris and Jay

Strategies in Sculpture Maya Lins Vietnam War
Why these choices for a memorial what
strategies might they represent?
  • The Vietnam war memorial is black
  • It is made of reflective black granite. When a
    visitor looks at the wall, she will see the
    engraved names and her own reflection
  • The monument is built along a pathway that
    requires people to move along the small corridor
    of space
  • Unlike many monuments, it lists all the names of
    U.S. soldiers who died, and it does so in
    chronological rather than alphabetic order (Lin
    has she wanted the wall to read like an epic
    Greek poem and return the vets to the time
    frame of the war)
  • Information about rank, unit, and decorations are
    not given
  • The wall is V-shaped, with one side pointing to
    the Lincoln Memorial and the other to the
    Washington Monument. Lin's conception was to
    create an opening or a wound in the earth to
    symbolize the gravity of the loss of the soldiers

The rise of the bum-proof bench in Los Angeles
  • "One of the most common, but mind-numbing, of
    these deterrents is the L.A. Rapid Transit
    Districts new barrelshaped bus bench that offers
    a minimal surface for uncomfortable sitting,
    while making sleeping utterly impossible. Such
    bumproof benches are being widely introduced on
    the periphery of Skid Row. Another
    the aggressive deployment of outdoor sprinklers.
    Several years ago the city opened a Skid Row
    Park along lower Fifth Street, on a corner of
    Hell. To ensure that the park was not used for
    sleeping--that is, to guarantee that it was
    mainly utilized for drug dealing and
    prostitution--the city installed an elaborate
    overhead sprinkler system programmed to drench
    unsuspecting sleepers at random times during the
    night. The system was immediately copied by some
    local businessmen in order to drive the homeless
    away from adjacent public sidewalks.Mike Davis,
    City of Quartz Excavating the Future in Los
    Angeles, p. 233.

Why design seats this way? How does this
shape/constrain behavior, whose behavior is
Why design walls curbs this way?
2003 One of the greatest acts of political
Going far beyond the foundations in stagecraft
set by the Reagan White House, the Bush
administration is using the powers of
television and technology to promote a presidency
like never before. ELISABETH BUMILLER, NYT,
2003. For more on the history of political image
making see http//
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Political Imagery Rhetorical Strategy
  • George W. Bush's Top Gun landing on the deck
    of the carrier Abraham Lincoln will be remembered
    as one of the most audacious moments of
    presidential theater in American history. But it
    was only the latest example of how the Bush
    administration, going far beyond the foundations
    in stagecraft set by the Reagan White House, is
    using the powers of television and technology to
    promote a presidency like never before.
    (Keepers of Bush Image Lift Stagecraft to New
    Heights Elisabeth Bumiller, New York Times, May
    16, 2003)
  • The photos took place in San Diego Bay, and
    required a lot of maneuvering to get shots that
    did not include the San Diego skyline or city
    and thus appeared far out at sea.

Introducing rhetoric
  • You may wish to use short texts, visual texts,
    advertisements, op-eds and other texts that
    students are probably familiar with in order to
    introduce rhetoric.
  • Email communication is a good place to start
    students are familiar with the genre, and may
    find it easier to recognize strategies, acts of
    persuasion, positioning, performance, etc.
  • This YouTube animation is a good text to start a
    discussion about rhetoric about audience,
    purpose, persuasion, strategies, genre, ethos,
    rhetorical situation, etc.

Using a YouTube Animation to introduce rhetorical
  • SubText animation showing a guy composing an
    email to a girl he likes. The man thinks aloud
    as he writes, and we glimpse what goes on in his
    head as he composeshttp//
  • Examine how this trivial act is full of
    rhetorical issues. The character is asking, how
    does this language present me? What persona does
    it construct? What tactic will be most effective?
    What moves should I make, how will this make me
    seem? How should I think of my audience? What is
    my purpose? How do I avoid embarrassment?
  • Have students take the concepts of rhetorical
    situation, persuasion, construction of ethos,
    strategies, etc., and apply to this visual text.

  • 12.00 See Jo Serrano, Jamie Madden and Karen
    Keene in AH3138 for office info, keys, etc.

  • 1.00 p.m.
  • Rhetorical Reading of Postman Glen McClish

  • 2.00 Blackboard, the Wiki Finding things

3. Blackboard Tech Tools
  • The order of things (in a hierarchical,
    inflexible, old new media warehouse/content
    management system).
  • At first it will seem like a black hole. After a
    while its merely confusing. But its where
    everything is.
  • How to contribute (you have the power use it
    carefully!! Dont delete things)
  • How to copy things to your course
  • Making your Blackboard class visible to your
  • How to post on the discussion board in order to
    hand in homework
  • Exercise post a bio sketch to the TA discussion

Blackboard's SafeAssign
  • SafeAssign Tutorial in Blackboard - UNC
    demonstrates how an instructor creates a
    SafeAssign Assignment, interprets the SA report,
    and how students submit their papers to SA
  • http//
  • Blackboard SafeAssign Tutorial presentation on
    the use of Blackboard's new Safe Assign - drag
    the timeline bar to 30 minutes to start the
    section on SA.
  • http//
  • ITS has a page on SafeAssign and

Blackboard Technology Tools
  • If you feel ambitious, consider alternatives
    wikis, CSMs, hosted sites, etc. I suggest we use
    the wiki this semester for planning.

  • 3.00 Syllabus Workshop
  • Sample syllabi, schedules and assignment
    sequences are on the wiki (and will be on
    Blackboard very soon).

Learning Outcomes What they are, why they
matter, how to use them to your advantage.
  • Outcomes should be listed on your syllabus, and
    its useful to include them in your assignments
    (see p. 25 of handout).
  • They can be used as part of student reflections,
    and to help prime students for evaluations.
  • If things get ugly, the outcomes and syllabus
    provide you with backup. In disputes, they
  • Recent change our outcomes are now explicitly
    framed in terms of the general education program
    and its capacities and goals (meta-outcomes)
  • This new language adds a certain amount of
    institutional authority to our courses. You can
    point students to the section that states how
    important our courses and outcomes are to the
    educational mission of the university (then go
    back to berating them for sending text messages
    in class). If questioned, you can also say,
    look, the course goals arent my arbitrary whim
    designed to torture you, but the universitys
    carefully researched conclusion as to what
    constitutes essential undergraduate academic

  • Pre-reading
  • Discussion starters (freewriting, group work,
    bboard, etc.)

Discussion Participation
  • Prime with a questionnaire, survey or questions
  • Call by name
  • Put in groups and assign responsibility
  • Jig saw work
  • Pyramids (alone, in pairs, 4s, etc.)
  • Freewrite (give students time to assemble
    thoughts, so they feel more confidant
  • least 7 seconds. Try not to get stuck in
    the habit of answering your own questions.
  • Have students post responses and homework to
    Blackboard, so you can bring to class and use to
    get discussion going.

  • Author Interview, Panel or Role-PlayingOne
    student assumes the role of the writer and
    answers question from the audience about the
    articles main claim, choices regarding
    supporting evidence, and the writers view of
    his/her audience at the time of writing.
  • Students assigned to play role of author for
    10-15 minutes. You may choose to let that student
    greet the class in character, and provide a
    brief summary of the argument that he/she wrote,
    which everyone else in class has read. After
    that, the exercise consists of class members
    asking the writer questions about the argument
  • CAN ALSO be used with assignment 2 (sources) in
    which students are responsible to assume the role
    of different authors, and you can set up a debate
    with Chua.

Seth Taylor Seven Tips for Discussion (RWS 296)
  • 1) Beware of cold starts. Consider directed
    freewriting, journaling, or the Brain Dump at
    the start of class. Quick responses can both
    kickstart discussions, and eventually help
    students question where their responses come

Seth Taylor Seven Tips for Discussion (RWS 296)
  • 2) Be wary of asking the BIG questions first
  • So what do you think about the reading?
  • So whats the point of the chapter?

Active Learning Seven Tips for Discussion
  • 3) Let your first question be easy, possibly
    about their reading process
  • How long did it take to read this?
  • Where does it get interesting (or boring)?
  • Were there any passages you found difficult,
    interesting or unusual?
  • 4) Open-ended questions will require students to
    think. Yes/No questions require very little of
    them, and can often shut down discussion before
    it starts.

Active Learning Seven Tips for Discussion
  • 5) Encourage students to explain, support, their
    responses to a text. Almost every answer can be
    followed up with a Why? question from the

Active Learning Seven Tips for Discussion
  • 6) Encourage students to talk to each other,
    rather than simply fire answers back to you
  • Re-directing students to respond to each others
  • Group breakout exercises
  • Let students teach

Active Learning Seven Tips for Discussion
  • 7) At the end of class, try to re-cap or
    summarize the ground that was covered. You do
    not need the discussion to come to a grand
    conclusion, but some sort of review
  • will help increase retention.
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