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Computer, Internet, and Network Basics

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Title: Computer, Internet, and Network Basics


1
Computer, Internet, and Network Basics
Section A
Computer Basics
CHAPTER 1
PARSONS/OJA
Page 2
2
Computer, Internet, and Network Basics
Chapter 1
Chapter PREVIEW
  • After this chapter, you should be able to
  • Describe the functions of a computer system
  • Identify the components of a personal computer
    system
  • Describe operating systems
  • Describe Internet communications and basic
    features
  • Explain how an e-mail system works

Page 3
3
Computer Basics
Section A
Chapter 1
What are the functions of a computer system?
  • (1) accepts data as input, (2) processes data,
    (3) stores data, 4) produces output

Page 4
4
Computer Basics
Section A
Chapter 1
Input
  • Input provides data for the computing system
  • Words in a document
  • Numbers for a calculation
  • Pictures
  • Automation
  • Scanners
  • EDI
  • Reduce errors
  • Fast

Page 4
5
Computer Basics
Section A
Chapter 1
Input
  • Voice Recognition
  • Problems
  • Training software
  • Clear and precise enunciation
  • Background noise

Page 4
6
Computer Basics
Section A
Chapter 1
Processing
  • Processing is the way that a computer manipulates
    data
  • performing calculations
  • sorting lists and numbers
  • drawing graphs
  • A computer processes data in a device called the
    central processing unit (CPU)

Page 4
7
Computer Basics
Section A
Chapter 1
Data, Information, and Files
  • Data is defined as the symbols, raw facts or
    figures that represent people, events, things and
    ideas
  • Information is data that is presented in a format
    people can understand and use
  • Computers store data in digital format as a
    series of 1s and 0s.
  • Each 1 or 0 is called a bit
  • Eight bits is called a byte

Page 11
8
Computer Basics
Section A
Chapter 1
Output
  • Computer output is the results produced by the
    computer
  • reports
  • documents
  • music
  • graphs
  • pictures
  • An output device displays, prints or transmits
    the results of processing

Page 4
9
Computer Basics
Section A
Chapter 1
Storage
  • A computer stores data so that it will be
    available for processing
  • Memory is an area of a computer that holds data
    that is waiting to be processed and for later use
  • Temporary
  • Storage is the area where data can be left on a
    permanent basis

Page 5
10
Computer Basics
Section A
Chapter 1
Whats so significant about a computers
ability to store instructions?
  • A stored program means that a series of
    instructions for a computing task can be loaded
    into a computers memory
  • This concept allows you to use your computer for
    multiple tasks over and over again

Page 5
11
Computer Basics
Section A
Chapter 1
A computer stores data in files, right?
  • A file is a named collection of data that exists
    on a storage medium
  • A data file contains data such as the text for a
    document
  • Generally what you create
  • An executable file contains the programs or
    instructions that tell a computer how to perform
    a specific task
  • A filename extension describes a files contents
  • EXE
  • GIF
  • Back-up of computer files

Page 11
12
Computer Basics
Section A
Chapter 1
What is a personal computer system?
  • A personal computer system consists of the
    following
  • Computer system unit
  • Display device
  • Keyboard
  • Mouse
  • Floppy disk drive
  • Hard disk drive

Page 9
13
Computer Basics
Section A
Chapter 1
What is a personal computer system?
Section A
  • CD-ROM or DVD drive / CD-writer
  • Sound card and speakers
  • Modem
  • Printer

Page 10
14
Computer Basics
Section A
Chapter 1
What is a personal computer system?
Page 10
15
Computer Basics
Section A
Chapter 1
What is a peripheral device?
  • A peripheral device designates equipment that
    might be added to a computer to enhance its
    functionality
  • Printer
  • Digital camera
  • Scanner
  • Joystick

Page 11
16
Computer Basics
Section A
Chapter 1
Application Software and Operating Systems
Basics
Page 12
17
Computer Basics
Section A
Chapter 1
What is application software?
  • Application software is a set of computer
    programs that helps a person carry out a task
  • Create, edit, and print documents
  • Manage money accounts
  • Create and edit home movies

Page 12
18
Computer Basics
Section A
Chapter 1
Is an operating system some type of application
software?
  • An operating system is essentially the master
    controller for all activities that take place
    within a computer
  • Acts as a go between for application software
    and hardware
  • Why you know the name Bill Gates
  • Does this give Microsoft an advantage in
    developing application software???

Page 12
19
Computer Basics
Section A
Chapter 1
What are the most popular operating systems?
  • Microsoft Windows
  • Microsoft Antitrust case
  • Microsoft required computer makers to install
    Internet Explorer if they wanted to use Windows
    95
  • Designed to eliminate Netscape Navigator??
  • Federal judge ruled Microsoft was a monopoly and
    was abusing this power
  • Thankfully (for Microsoft) Bush was elected
    President and settlement was negotiated

Page 12
20
Computer Basics
Section A
Chapter 1
What are the most popular operating systems?
  • Mac OS
  • Why you cant run application software designed
    for Windows on a Mac
  • Linux
  • Free operating system
  • Stable
  • Uses hardware efficiently
  • Threat to Microsofts stranglehold on operating
    systems?
  • Unix

Page 12
21
Computer Basics
Section A
Chapter 1
How does an operating system affect
compatibility?
  • Two of the most important factors that influence
    compatibility and define a computers platform
    are the microprocessor and the operating system
  • Wintel
  • Intel is the dominant force in microprocessors
  • Windows is the primary operating system
  • As a result, Microsoft and Intel have an
    extraordinary amount of clout in the computer
    industry

Page 13
22
Internet Basics
Section B
Chapter 1
How does the Internet work?
  • The Internet is an international computer network
    linked together to exchange data and distribute
    processing tasks
  • Developed from a military project to harden
    data communications infrastructure
  • Discussed further in Chapter 5

Page 15
23
Internet Basics
Section B
Chapter 1
Where is all of the Internet data stored?
  • It is estimated that the Internet provides access
    to more data than is stored in all the academic
    research libraries in the U. S.
  • Most of the information is stored on servers
    which are owned and maintained by government
    agencies, corporations, small businesses,
    schools, organizations, and even individuals

Page 15
24
Web Basics
Section C
Chapter 1
What is the Web?
  • URL (Uniform Resource Locator) - the Internet
    address of a document on a computer
  • begin with http//
  • HTTP protocol that allows Web browsers to
    communicate with Web servers

Page 27
25
Web Basics
Section C
Chapter 1
What is a browser?
  • Web browsers software for accessing many types
    of servers
  • Internet Explorer
  • Netscape
  • Application software or system software?
  • A browser retrieves and displays web pages
  • HTML commands controlling the display of the web
    pages

Page 28
26
Web Basics
Section C
Chapter 1
Exactly what does a browser do?
Page 29
27
Internet Basics
Section B
Chapter 1
Internet Service Providers Whats an ISP?
  • An ISP provides Internet access to businesses,
    organizations, and individuals
  • Local ISP Consolidated Communications
  • National ISP AOL, MSN

Page 20
28
Internet Basics
Section B
Chapter 1
User IDs and Passwords
  • A user ID characters that becomes a persons
    unique identifier
  • A password is a different series of characters
    that verifies your identity

Page 22
29
Passwords
  • What not to use
  • any form of any name
  • any or part of your user id
  • phone number, birthday or anniversary
  • license plate, social security or any number
  • any word
  • less than six characters
  • software to crack passwords

30
Passwords
  • What to use
  • easy to remember
  • at least six characters
  • can be typed quickly
  • combination of letters, numbers, symbols
  • 3nu7

31
Passwords
  • Creating easy and secure passwords
  • an acronym, e.g. IlBUS1950!
  • the first letters and numbers of a sentence.
  • ImtTi1978.
  • I moved to Texas in 1978.
  • choose two short words and combine them with a
    punctuation character
  • eiucold

32
Passwords
  • Dont
  • write it down
  • check Remember my password
  • use simple reminders
  • Do
  • Change your password every two months
  • Create different passwords for different types of
    accounts
  • Low security WebCT
  • High security Online banking

33
Internet Basics
Section B
Chapter 1
What sort of resources does the Internet
provide?
  • Web Sites
  • Search engines
  • E-commerce Chapter 6
  • E-mail
  • Chat groups and instant messaging
  • Internet telephony
  • Broadcasting

Page 15
34
Internet Basics
Section B
Chapter 1
What sort of resources does the Internet
provide?
  • Web Sites corporations, stores, magazines, and
    more
  • Domain names www.ford.com
  • Not incredibly expensive
  • First come, first served www.isu.edu
  • mcgradyproperties.com
  • Cybersquatting
  • McDonalds.com
  • Lawsuits
  • Reynolds.com

Page 15
35
Search engines
36
Web Basics
Section C
Chapter 1
Search Engines
Page 31
37
Search engines
Some web page owners pay to have their pages
shown when you search for commercial topics
38
Web Basics
Section C
Chapter 1
How do I use a form to find information?
Page 33
39
Search engines
Only 60 overlap in search engine content
When should you use Yahoo instead of a search
engine??
40
Internet Basics
Section B
Chapter 1
What sort of resources does the Internet
provide?
  • Chat groups and instant messaging interaction
    between users in real time
  • Internet telephony telephone-style
    conversations
  • Broadcasting multicasting technology

Page 16
41
E-mail Basics
Section D
Chapter 1
How do POP and SMTP work?
  • POP server stores your incoming messages until
    they can be transferred to your computer
  • Using POP mail requires e-mail client software
    such as Microsoft Outlook
  • Outgoing mail is routed by an SMTP server

Page 41
42
E-Mail
Use bcc to quickly send messages to multiple
significant others???
43
E-Mail
If you reply to a message from the class listserv
(the class e-mail list), who will receive your
reply???
44
E-MAIL
Should you keep 472 messages in your In Box???
45
E-MAIL
Should you respond to junk mail messages to
unsubscribe from mailing lists???
46
E-MAIL
Should employers monitor e-mail messages of their
employees???
Arcola
Donnelleys
Microsoft
Merrill Lynch
Bank of America
47
E-mail Basics
Section D
Chapter 1
Whats an e-mail attachment?
  • An e-mail attachment is a file that travels with
    a message to the recipient
  • Easy way to send a virus

Page 37
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