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A. Computer Basics

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A. Computer Basics 1.00 Examine the role of hardware and software. EQ: Why is the BINARY Code the key to computer Processing? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: A. Computer Basics


1
A. Computer Basics
1.00 Examine the role of hardware and software.
EQ Why is the BINARY Code the key to computer
Processing?
2
Part 1. What Is A Computer?
  • An electronic device that receives data,
    processes data, stores data, and produces a
    result (output).
  • A collection of electronic circuits, which can be
    on or off (open or closed).
  • These two states of the circuit are represented
    by two digits, 0 and 1.
  • Called the binary system
  • Combining bits (0 and 1), you can represent any
    character or number.

EQ Why is the BINARY Code the key to computer
Processing?
3
Binary Code
EQ Why is the BINARY Code the key to computer
Processing?
4
History of Computers Time Line
EQ What is the TIME LINE for the HISTORY of
computers?
When did it happen?
8.1B
Beginning of time!
1900s
1950s
1970s
1990s
2000s
1930s
1960s
1980s
Apple
IBM
Microprocessor
5
History of Computers Time Line
EQ What is the TIME LINE for the HISTORY of
computers?
  • Team Project
  • Create a Storyboard displaying the Time Line
    for the History of Computers
  • Resource - Pages 3-5
  • Create Time Line on 1 PPT Slide
  • Save As History Time Line (Station Numbers) in
    Computer Basics Folder.

6
History of Computers Time Line
EQ What is the TIME LINE for the HISTORY of
computers?
The Future?
Abacus
09/09
7
Benefits of Using Computers
  • Error-free calculations
  • Speed
  • Flexibility
  • Storage
  • Consistency and repetition

8
What Is AComputer System?
  • Software the intangible set of instructions
    that tells the computer what to do know as
    programs or software programs.
  • Two types application and system software
    programs
  • Data information entered into the computer to
    be processed, which consists of the following
  • Text, numbers, sounds, and images
  • People the users of the computers who enter the
    data and use the output.
  • Hardware the tangible, physical equipment that
    can be seen and touched such as
  • Computer Case
  • Monitor
  • Keyboard and Mouse
  • Disk Drive
  • Speakers

9
The Space Shuttle Columbia Supercomputer
Supercomputers most powerful Used to do things
like predict hurricanes and navigate satellites
FileColumbia Supercomputer - NASA Advanced
Supercomputing Facility.jpg, Retrieved on
September 23, 2011, from Wikipedia.org
10
Mainframes and minicomputers used by business,
government and school systems to process large
amounts of information.
11
Personal Computers
  • Desktop computer designed to be used on a
    desktop.
  • Notebook/Tablet computer designed to be used on
    a desktop but still small enough to be portable.
  • Laptop computer designed to be small enough and
    light enough to be used on your lap.

12
Additional Typesof Computers
  • PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants) a handheld
    device that is often used in conjunction with a
    desktop or other PC.
  • May have a special keyboard, some use
  • a pen or stylus for entering data
  • - Data can be transferred to a desktop or laptop
    computer
  • Web TV provides easy access to the Internet
    without having to have a traditional computer.
  • Enables you to connect to the Internet and
    usually includes a keyboard or other device for
    entering and selecting data.

13
Part 2. Data Communications
EQ How do Computers Communicate?
  • The technology that enables computers to
    communicate
  • The transmission of text, numeric, voice or video
    data from one machine to another.
  • Popular examples
  • Internet, electronic messages (e-mail), faxes,
    and electronic or online banking
  • Four components
  • Sender the computer that is sending the
    message.
  • Receiver the computer receiving the message.
  • Channel the media that carries or transports
    the message. (telephone wire, coaxial cable,
    microwave signal, or fiber optic)
  • Protocol the rules that govern the orderly
    transfer of the data sent.

14
LAN Local Area NetworkComputers connected close
location-same building/same department
EQ How do Computers Communicate?
Channel
Sender
INTEL The Journey Inside The Internet Lessons
1 3 - 4 5
Receiver
Receiver
Channel
WAN Wide Area Networklocal area networks (LAN)
are expanded to include several local area
networks within a city, state, region, territory,
country, continent, or the world.
Sender
INTEL The Journey Inside Look at Lesson
4Activity 1 Packing a Message
Sender-sends message Channel-path message
travel Receiver-receives message Protocol-An
agreed-upon format for transmitting data between
two devices. Example Text . Images . Sound
15
Data Communications
EQ How do Computers Communicate?
  • Network when computers are connected to other
    computers
  • They can share information and sometimes hardware
    (printers)
  • Local Area Networks (LAN) computers connected
    together in a relatively close location such as
    in the same building or department.
  • The data and software for these computers are
    stored on a central computer called the file
    server.
  • Wide Area Networks (WAN) when local area
    networks are expanded to include several local
    area networks within a city, state, region,
    territory, country, continent, or the world.

16
LAN Local Area NetworkComputers connected close
location-same building/same department
EQ How do Computers Communicate?
Network When computer are connected to other
computers that can share information and
sometimes hardware (printers)
INTEL The Journey Inside The Internet First
Page Video
WAN Wide Area Networklocal area networks (LAN)
are expanded to include several local area
networks within a city, state, region, territory,
country, continent, or the world.
17
System Components
EQ What System Components are needed to make a
computer operate correctly?
  • Central Processing Unit (CPU) the
    microprocessor, the brains of the computer.
  • Housed on a tiny silicon chip
  • Chip contains millions of switches and pathways
    that help your computer make important decisions.
  • CPU knows which switches to turn on and which to
    turn off because it receives its instructions
    from computer programs (software).
  • CPU has two primary sections
  • Arithmetic/logic unit
  • Control unit
  • Arithmetic/logic unit (ALU) performs arithmetic
    computations and logical operations by combining
    these two operations the ALU can execute complex
    tasks.
  • Arithmetic operations include addition,
    subtractions, multiplication, and division.
  • Logical operations involve comparisons.
  • Control Unit is the boss and coordinates all
    of the CPUs activities.
  • Uses programming instructions, it controls the
    flow of information through the processor by
    controlling what happens inside the processor.
  • We communicate with the computer through
    programming languages.
  • COBOL, C, or VisualBasic.net, HTML, Java Script
    for example.

18
System Components
EQ What System Components are needed to make a
computer operate correctly?
  • Memory found on the motherboard short term and
    long term.
  • Random Access Memory (RAM) memory on the
    motherboard that is short term where data,
    information, and program instructions are stored
    temporarily on a RAM chip or a set of RAM chips.
  • When the computer is turned off or if there is
    loss of power, what ever is stored in RAM
    disappears.
  • This memory know as the main memory and is
    considered volatile.
  • The computer can read from and write to RAM.
  • Read-Only Memory (ROM) memory on the
    motherboard that is long term where the specific
    instructions that are needed for the computer to
    operate are stored.
  • This memory is nonvolatile and your computer can
    only read from a ROM chip.
  • The instructions remain on the chip regardless if
    the power is turned on or off.
  • Most common is the BIOS ROM where the computer
    uses instructions contained on this chip to boot
    or start the system when you turn on your
    computer.

INTEL Introduction to Computers Lesson 4 How
Computers Store Information
19
System Components
EQ What System Components are needed to make a
computer operate correctly?
  • Basic Controllers on the motherboard, a device
    that controls the transfer of data from the
    computer to a peripheral device and vice versa.
  • Examples keyboards, mouse, monitors, and
    printers.
  • Generally stored on one single chip.
  • Serial and Parallel Ports used to connect our
    peripheral devices to the computer usually one
    serial and one parallel port on a computer.
  • Serial devices transmit data one bit at a time.
  • A modem may be connected to this port.
  • Parallel devices transfer several bits at a time.
  • A printer may be connected to this port.

20
EQ What System Components are needed to make a
computer operate correctly?
PORTS . . . Connect Peripheral Devices to the
Computer!
Serial and Parallel Ports
USBsUniversal Serial Bus
Phone/Ethernet
21
System Components
EQ What System Components are needed to make a
computer operate correctly?
  • Universal Serial Bus (USB) a new standard that
    supports data transfer rates of up to 12 million
    bits per second.
  • A single USB port can be used to connect up to
    127 peripheral devices
  • Expected to replace serial and parallel ports in
    the near future.
  • Expansion Slots an opening on the motherboard
    where a circuit board or expansion board can be
    inserted.
  • Examples Additional Memory, video cards, modem
    cards, and sound cards.

22
System Components
EQ What System Components are needed to make a
computer operate correctly?
  • PC system case the metal and plastic case that
    houses the main system components of the
    computer.
  • Central to all of this is the motherboard or
    system board that mounts into the case.
  • Motherboard is a circuit board (a thin plate or
    board that contains electronic components) that
    contains many integral components.

23
Data Representation
EQ What System Components are needed to make a
computer operate correctly?
  • ASCII (American Standard Code for Information
    Interchange) the most popular and widely used
    standardized coding system
  • Byte eight bits or combinations of ones and
    zeros represent a character.
  • MB-Megabyte or roughly 1 million bytes
  • GB-Gigabyte or roughly one billion bytes

24
Order of the Day
  • Computer Literacy Question
  • Data Communications Test (11 multiple choice)

25
Part 3.Input, Output, Storage Devices
EQ What Peripheral Devices
Make Up the IPOS Cycle?
  • Input device hardware that allows you to
    communicate with your computer.
  • Output device hardware that allows your
    computer to communicate with the user
  • Storage device allows you to store or retrieve
    information

26
Computer Input Devices
EQ What Peripheral INPUT Devices
Make Up the IPOS Cycle?
  • Keyboard
  • Mouse/Trackball
  • Joystick
  • Light pen
  • Pointing Stick
  • Touchpad
  • Touch screen
  • Bar code reader
  • Scanner
  • Microphone
  • Graphics Tablet
  • Digital Cameras

27
Computer Output Devices
EQ What Peripheral OUTPUT Devices
Make Up the IPOS Cycle?
Monitor screen that display information such as
text, numbers, and pictures. -softcopy
Printer gives you information from the computer
in printed form. -hardcopy
28
Three Types of Printers
EQ What Peripheral OUTPUT Devices
Make Up the IPOS Cycle?
  • Dot Matrix
  • Gives a printed image in a pattern (matrix) of
    tiny ink dots.
  • Less expensive and not as clear
  • Inkjet Printer
  • Better quality of printed document
  • Machine uses an ink cartridge and a printing
    element to print a finer image on the paper.
  • Laser
  • Best quality of printed documents
  • Laser beam and an ink toner cartridge are used to
    produce the images.
  • More expensive
  • Quick

29
Computer Output Devices
EQ What Peripheral OUTPUT Devices
Make Up the IPOS Cycle?
  • Speakers allow you to hear voice, music, and
    other sounds from your computer.
  • Fax allows you to send a copy (facsimile) of an
    original document
  • Multifunctional Peripherals provides a
    combination of various output options such
    printing, scanning, copying and faxing.
  • Data Projector projects the computer image onto
    a screen.

30
Computer Output Devices
  • Modem allows you to use your computer to
    communicate with other computers.

Receiver
Channel
Sender
EQ What Peripheral OUTPUT Devices Make Up
the IPOS Cycle?
31
Storage Devices
EQ What Peripheral Storage
Devices Make Up the IPOS Cycle?
  • Magnetic storage devices use oxide-coated plastic
    storage media called mylar.
  • As the disk rotates in the computer, an
    electromagnetic read/write head stores or
    retrieves data in circles called tracks.
  • Tracks are numbered from the outside to the
    inside and as data is stored on the disk it is
    stored on one of these numbered track.
  • Each track is labeled and the location is stored
    in a log on the disk known as a file allocation
    table (FAT).

32
Types of Storage DevicesTextbook Pgs 101 -104
EQ What Peripheral Storage
Devices Make Up the IPOS Cycle?
  • Hard Disk Drive used to store data inside of
    the computer.
  • Magnetic platter that holds a large amount of
    information in a form the computer can
    understand.
  • Accessing data is faster
  • Amount of data that can be stored is much more
    than what can be stored on a floppy disk.
  • Size of Hard drive is measured in megabytes or
    gigabytes.

33
Types of Storage Devices
EQ What Peripheral Storage
Devices Make Up the IPOS Cycle?
  • Floppy Disk flat circles of iron oxide-coated
    plastic enclosed in a hard plastic case.
  • Most are 3 ½ inches and have a capacity to hold
    1.44 MB or more of data. (obsolete today)
  • Zip Disk capable of storing tremendous amounts
    of information
  • - They are only the size of a 3 inch disk but can
    hold as much as 1 gigabyte of data (obsolete
    today)

34
Types of Storage Devices
EQ What Peripheral Storage
Devices Make Up the IPOS Cycle?
  • Optical discs use laser technology to read and
    write data on silver platters.
  • CD-ROM (Compact Disk Read-Only Memory) can store
    up to 800MB of information/data.
  • You can only read data from a CD - UNLESS. . .
  • You can store data on a CD only if you have a CD
    Burner and writable CDs (CD-R or recordable
    CD-RW)
  • DVD (Digital Versatile Disk) is the size of a
    regular CD and can be played in a regular CD or
    in a DVD movie player.
  • Magnetic Tape Drives used for making backup
    copies of large volumes of data.
  • Very slow
  • Can be used to replace data that may have been
    lost on the hard drive
  • look similar to audio tapes.
  • Holds more than Floppy(obsolete today)

35
Types of Storage Devices
EQ What Peripheral Storage
Devices Make Up the IPOS Cycle?
  • Solid-State Storage Media nonvolatile,
    removable media which uses integrated circuits.
    Everything is processed electronically and it
    contains no mechanical parts.
  • Miniature mobile storage media

USB Flash DriveOther names keydrivethumb
drivejump driveUSB flash memory drive USB stick
SERVER
36
EQ What Peripheral Storage
Devices Make Up the IPOS Cycle?
Types of Storage Devices
SERVER
A computer that provides workstations with access
to files and printers as shared resources to a
computer network
37
EQ What is the Processing
component of the IPOS Cycle?
Types of Processing
  • Part I. Systems SoftwareA group of programs
    that coordinate and control the resources and
    operations of a computer system.
  • Enables all components of the computer system to
    communicate.
  • Part II. Applications Software Programs that
    work with the OS software to help you use your
    computer to do specific types of work.

38
Systems Software
EQWhat is the purpose of Systems Software in
the IPOS Cycle?
  • A group of programs that coordinate and control
    the resources and operations of a computer
    system.

PC-Compatibles MACS
WindowsWin 95 Win 98 Win 2000 Win XP Win 7 OS Mac System 6 System 7 OS X Snow Leopard
  • Operating System (OS) provide an interface
    between the user or application program and the
    computer hardware.

PC- Intel ProcessorMac-Motorola Processor
39
EQWhat is the purpose of Systems Software in
the IPOS Cycle?
Systems Software
  • Utility programs help you perform housekeeping
    chores complete specialized tasks related to
    managing the computers resources, file
    management, and so on.
  • Copy a file from hard drive to a USB drive
  • Backup hard drive
  • Change files from one format to another
  • File Recovery
  • Uninstall

Language Translators Convert English-like
software programs into machine language that the
computer can understand.
40
EQ What is the purpose of Systems Software in
the IPOS Cycle?
Systems Software
GUI (graphical user interface) graphical
symbols (icons) represent files, disks, programs,
and other objects.
Windows
Windows
MAC
MAC
OS can run Parallel on MACs
41
(No Transcript)
42
Application Software
EQ What is the purpose of Applications Software
in the IPOS Cycle?
  • Software designed for specific tasks.
  • Categories
  • Business
  • Communications
  • Graphics and Multimedia
  • Education and Reference
  • Entertainment and Leisure
  • Integrated Programs

43
Business Software
  • Database (Access)
  • Lets you set up an electronic filing systems
  • Enter text and numbers
  • Find, search, and printer info in different ways
  • Address book, Card Catalog
  • Word Processing (WORD)
  • program that allows you to create, edit, and
    print text documents
  • Report, flyer, memo
  • Spreadsheet (EXCEL)
  • Numbered Rows and Lettered Columns
  • Intersection of them cell
  • Grade book, financial info

EQ What is the purpose of Applications Software
in the IPOS Cycle?
44
Software
EQ What is the purpose of Applications Software
in the IPOS Cycle?
  • Graphics Software- uses pictures or images to
    help communicate messages.
  • Multimedia
  • - combines text, graphics, animation, video,
    and audio.
  • Clip art - graphical images to be added to
    documents
  • Desktop Publishing- uses both pictures and
    words to give you the ability to create documents
  • Newsletters and brochures
  • Communications
  • Works with your modems or network hardware and
    allows your computer to communicate with other
    computers.
  • Exchange computer files and email . Internet

45
Software
  • Entertainment Leisure
  • Fun
  • Games and simulations
  • Tests your skills
  • Interactive
  • Education Reference
  • Available on many topics
  • Help
  • Easier
  • Quicker
  • Examples AR, Encyclopedia, etc.

EQ What is the purpose of Applications Software
in the IPOS Cycle?
46
Integrated Software
  • Combine several software applications into one
    program- Bundle.
  • Include
  • Business (WP . DB . SS)
  • Communications
  • Graphics and Multimedia
  • Education and Reference
  • Entertainment and Leisure
  • Examples
  • MS OFFICE
  • Lotus SmartSuite

EQ What is the purpose of Applications Software
in the IPOS Cycle?
47
EQ Why is it important to practice proper disk
and computer care procedures?
48
Part 4. Proper Computer Care
  • Keep food and drinks away from the computer and
    keyboard.
  • Avoid dusty locations.
  • Use a surge protector.
  • Keep magnets Away.
  • Do not block vents on the CPU.
  • Avoid bright sunny locations.
  • Do not move the computer while it is in use.
  • Always exit programs properly.
  • Use a virus check program on a regular basis.

EQ Why is it important to practice proper disk
and computer care procedures?
49
Part 4. Proper Computer Care
  • EQ Why is it important to practice proper disk
    and computer care procedures?

50
Proper Disk or Flash Drive Care
  • Do not remove from drives while drive in running
    or light is on.
  • Avoid contact with magnets and electromagnetic
    fields.
  • Keep disks stored in a clean, cool and dry place
    with a protective cover.
  • Keep protective metal slider in place.
  • Use a virus check program on a regular basis.
  • Avoid hot and cold locations.
  • Make a back-up copy of your programs and files.

EQ Why is it important to practice proper disk
and computer care procedures?
51
Proper CD ROM Care
  • Keep CDs stored in a clean, cool and dry place
    with a protective cover.
  • Avoid touching the back side of the CD to avoid
    scratches.
  • Avoid hot and cold locations.
  • Make a back-up copy of your programs and files.
  • Insert into CD ROM Drive properly label facing
    up.
  • Only write on CDs with a CD Marking Pen on a
    label or the correct side of the CD.

EQ Why is it important to practice proper disk
and computer care procedures?
52
Proper Care of Printers
  • Avoid cold, hot, and dusty locations.
  • Always use the correct ink or toner replacement.
  • Always have the proper printer cable connected to
    your computer.
  • Never pull paper out of a printer in motion.
  • Do not turn off the printer while printing.
  • Read the instruction manual before operating a
    printer.
  • Always use the proper type of paper in your
    printer.

EQ Why is it important to practice proper disk
and computer care procedures?
53
How to Maintain your Computer System
  • Start a notebook of information on your system.
  • Serial numbers
  • Vendor support telephone numbers
  • User IDs
  • Date and vendor for each equipment and software
    purchase.
  • Trouble log
  • Periodically review disk directories and delete
    unneeded files.
  • Make sure all plug-ins are secure at all times.
  • Turn off the power and disconnect the equipment
    form the power source before you open the inside
    of you computer.
  • Keep surrounding area dirt and dust free.
  • Back up files and data regularly.
  • Periodically defragment your hard disk.
  • Protect your system from computer viruses
  • Learn to use system diagnostic programs

EQ Why is it important to practice proper disk
and computer care procedures?
54
Ergonomics
  • The science of designing equipment for a
    comfortable and safe working environment.
  • Proper Computer Ergonomics
  • Sit up straight and lean forward slightly from
    the waist.
  • Keep your feet flat on the floor.
  • Your body should be about a hands length from
    the front of the keyboard and centered with the
    keyboard.
  • Keep your fingers on the home row keys and
    curved.
  • Keep your wrists up, not touching the keyboard or
    desk.
  • Focus your eyes on the book, copy or screen.
  • Place all materials you will type on the right
    side of the computer and supplies on the left
    side.
  • Keep any items you are not using off your desk.
  • Occasionally rest your eyes and take short
    breaks.
  • Avoid lights that cause glare on the monitor.

EQ Why is it important to practice proper disk
and computer care procedures?
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