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Assessment of/for Learning Through Differentiation

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Title: Assessment of/for Learning Through Differentiation


1
Assessment of/for Learning Through
Differentiation
  • First District RESA
  • July 2008

2
Our Legacy Assessment for Student Motivation
  • To get students to learn, you demand it
  • Play on student anxiety
  • Use assessments as intimidation
  • Manipulate assessments as rewards and punishments
  • Provide a rank order of students
  • Promote competition

3
  • Results
  • Confidence
  • Learn
  • Responsibility
  • Character
  • Lifelong
  • Success
  • Grows
  • How to succeed
  • Internal
  • Compliant
  • Learner

4
Losers
  • Result
  • Confidence
  • Learn
  • Responsibility
  • Character
  • Lifelong
  • Failure
  • Wanes
  • No hope
  • External
  • Rebellious
  • Search for success

5
New Mission Build Competency
  • Honor reality that students learn at different
    rates
  • Establish clear targets, worth achieving, and
    within reach
  • Driving force of collaboration and success
  • Number of students who can succeed is unlimited

6
Winners
  • Credible success
  • Confidence grows
  • I can succeed
  • Within me
  • I am responsible
  • Confident learner
  • Results
  • Confidence
  • Learn
  • Responsibility
  • Character
  • Lifelong

7
Assessment for Motivation
  • Clear, student friendly targets
  • Accurate assessments
  • Effective communication

8
Three Types of Needed Assessments
  • Pre-assessments Design this after summative
    assessment
  • Formative Identify these last
  • Summative Design this first

9
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10
  • Choose a theme or context to focus a unit

11
Africa Its Land and Its People
  • What must students learn? (Knows )
  • How will students demonstrate they can use
    what they learned in a meaningful way? (Dos)

12
Be Selective!
  • Choose standards that have the greatest impact
    on proficiency and growth at any given level
  • Unwrap or Unpack those standards to build the
    unit plan and final assessment
  • Which of the elements are being introduced?
  • Which of the elements are recurring and may need
    to be assessed to a proficient level?

13
Grade 7 Social Studies Standards
  • SS7H1 The student will identify important
    African empires.
  • Describe the development of African empires
    including Ghana, Mali, Songhai, and Ethiopia.
  • Explain the importance of cities such as Timbuktu
    as a center of learning, Djenne as one of the
    oldest cities in Africa, and Zanzibar as a center
    of commerce
  • Describe the significance of Sundiata, Mansa
    Musa, and Zara Yakob.
  • SS7G1 The student will be able to describe and
    locate the important physical and human
    characteristics of Africa.
  • Describe and locate major physical features
    include Sahara, Savannah, Sahel, Topic Rain
    Forest, Congo River, Nile River, Zambezi River,
    Niger River, East African Mountains (Ethiopian
    Highlands), Drakensberg Mountains, Atlas
    Mountains, Kalahari Desert, Lake Tanganyika, and
    Lake Victoria.
  • Describe and locate the nations of South Africa,
    Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Rwanda, Mozambique,
    Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Mali,
    Mauritania, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Egypt, Ethiopia,
    Libya, Kenya, and Chad.

14
  • SS7G3 The student will explain the impact of
    location, climate, physical characteristics,
    natural resources, and population size on African
    countries.
  • Describe the impact location has on countries
    such as Chad, Egypt, and South Africa, with
    regard to trade, migration, agriculture, and
    industry.
  • Explain the impact of physical features such as
    deserts, mountains, rivers, and proximity to the
    ocean have on countries such as Ethiopia, Sudan,
    and Morocco.
  • Explain the distribution of natural resources in
    Africa and how that has affected the development
    of countries such as Chad, Sudan, and South
    Africa.
  • Describe the effect the Sahara, Sahel, Savannah,
    and tropical rain forest have on where people
    live, the type of work they do, and
    transportation.
  • SS7G4 The student will describe the cultural
    characteristics of different people who live in
    Africa.
  • Describe the religions, customs, and traditions
    of the Arab, Ashanti, Bedouin, Khoikhoi and the
    San, Ibo, and Swahili ethnic groups.
  • Explain the major artistic and music forms of
    people in the region.

15
  • Mark or star concepts on your overall list that
    must be reflected in the final assessment for the
    unit
  • Remember that not all concepts are created equal

16
Grade 7 Social Studies Standards
  • SS7H1 The student will identify important
    African empires.
  • Describe the development of African empires
    including Ghana, Mali, Songhai, and Ethiopia.
  • Explain the importance of cities such as Timbuktu
    as a center of learning, Djenne as one of the
    oldest cities in Africa, and Zanzibar as a center
    of commerce
  • Describe the significance of Sundiata, Mansa
    Musa, and Zara Yakob.
  • SS7G1 The student will be able to describe and
    locate the important physical and human
    characteristics of Africa.
  • Describe and locate major physical features
    include Sahara, Savannah, Sahel, Topic Rain
    Forest, Congo River, Nile River, Zambezi River,
    Niger River, East African Mountains (Ethiopian
    Highlands), Drakensberg Mountains, Atlas
    Mountains, Kalahari Desert, Lake Tanganyika, and
    Lake Victoria.
  • Describe and locate the nations of South Africa,
    Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Rwanda, Mozambique,
    Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Mali,
    Mauritania, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Egypt, Ethiopia,
    Libya, Kenya, and Chad.

17
  • SS7G3 The student will explain the impact of
    location, climate, physical characteristics,
    natural resources, and population size on African
    countries.
  • Describe the impact location has on countries
    such as Chad, Egypt, and South Africa, with
    regard to trade, migration, agriculture, and
    industry.
  • Explain the impact of physical features such as
    deserts, mountains, rivers, and proximity to the
    ocean have on countries such as Ethiopia, Sudan,
    and Morocco.
  • Explain the distribution of natural resources in
    Africa and how that has affected the development
    of countries such as Chad, Sudan, and South
    Africa.
  • Describe the effect the Sahara, Sahel, Savannah,
    and tropical rain forest have on where people
    live, the type of work they do, and
    transportation.
  • SS7G4 The student will describe the cultural
    characteristics of different people who live in
    Africa.
  • Describe the religions, customs, and traditions
    of the Arab, Ashanti, Bedouin, Khoikhoi and the
    San, Ibo, and Swahili ethnic groups.
  • Explain the major artistic and music forms of
    people in the region.

18
  • Circle/ underline the verbs in the chosen
    standards and elements
  • Students must demonstrate the elements at this
    level on the quizzes, chapter tests, performance
    tasks, academic prompts, and other assessments
    for this unit
  • Students must demonstrate the standards at this
    level on the summative assessment

19
Grade 7 Social Studies Standards
  • SS7H1 The student will identify important
    African empires.
  • Describe the development of African empires
    including Ghana, Mali, Songhai, and Ethiopia.
  • Explain the importance of cities such as Timbuktu
    as a center of learning, Djenne as one of the
    oldest cities in Africa, and Zanzibar as a center
    of commerce
  • Describe the significance of Sundiata, Mansa
    Musa, and Zara Yakob.
  • SS7G1 The student will be able to describe and
    locate the important physical and human
    characteristics of Africa.
  • Describe and locate major physical features
    include Sahara, Savannah, Sahel, Topic Rain
    Forest, Congo River, Nile River, Zambezi River,
    Niger River, East African Mountains (Ethiopian
    Highlands), Drakensberg Mountains, Atlas
    Mountains, Kalahari Desert, Lake Tanganyika, and
    Lake Victoria.
  • Describe and locate the nations of South Africa,
    Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Rwanda, Mozambique,
    Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Mali,
    Mauritania, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Egypt, Ethiopia,
    Libya, Kenya, and Chad.

20
  • SS7G3 The student will explain the impact of
    location, climate, physical characteristics,
    natural resources, and population size on African
    countries.
  • Describe the impact location has on countries
    such as Chad, Egypt, and South Africa, with
    regard to trade, migration, agriculture, and
    industry.
  • Explain the impact of physical features such as
    deserts, mountains, rivers, and proximity to the
    ocean have on countries such as Ethiopia, Sudan,
    and Morocco.
  • Explain the distribution of natural resources in
    Africa and how that has affected the development
    of countries such as Chad, Sudan, and South
    Africa.
  • Describe the effect the Sahara, Sahel, Savannah,
    and tropical rain forest have on where people
    live, the type of work they do, and
    transportation.
  • SS7G4 The student will describe the cultural
    characteristics of different people who live in
    Africa.
  • Describe the religions, customs, and traditions
    of the Arab, Ashanti, Bedouin, Khoikhoi and the
    San, Ibo, and Swahili ethnic groups.
  • Explain the major artistic and music forms of
    people in the region.

21
Cautions
  • Scope-and-sequence approaches will not maximize
    student growth in a standards-based and data
    driven world
  • Published materials are resources to use in a
    unit, but are not the unit
  • A teacher who lists 15 elements/standards or a
    series of numbers/letters will not get the same
    results as those who are selective and focused

22
Chunking
Segment the learning into key concepts and
combinations of concepts that need to be taught
by dividing a topic of study into logical
portions of learning
23
Chunk learning by critical thinking level and
skill load.
  • Historical development of African Empires
  • Importance/significance of their major cities
  • Major physical features of Africa
  • Description and location of nations in Africa
  • Impact of location, climate, physical
    characteristics, natural resources, and
    population size on African countries
  • Religions, customs, traditions, and major
    artistic and music forms of people in the region

24
Determine the optimal sequence of these concepts
and layering of learning.
  • Major physical features of Africa
  • Historical development of African Empires
  • Importance/significance of their major cities
  • Description and location of nations in Africa
  • Impact of location, climate, physical
    characteristics, natural resources, and
    population size on African countries
  • Religions, customs, traditions, and major
    artistic and music forms of people in the region

25
  • Performance and thinking can be verified through
    ongoing formative assessment.
  • formative assessment that tells us whether the
    student has reached the desired level of critical
    thinking and use of the concept
  • during and at the end of each chunk of learning
    in a unit
  • Learning that may need to be differentiated does
    not occur quite as conveniently as daily lesson
    planning would lead us to believe.
  • Some chunks will take only one day
  • Most chunks of a unit will take multiple days or
    even longer

26
  • Unit Skills How will students demonstrate they
    can use what they learned in a meaningful way?
  • Skills are the demonstrations of student learning
    necessary to provide the rehearsal and learning
    for the final assessment.
  • All of these skills will be needed for the final
    assessment in some form and to some degree.

27
What is Mastery?
28
Mastery is
  • more than knowing information, but manipulating
    and applying that information successfully in
    other situations.
  • defined by the Center for Media Literacy in New
    Mexico, If we are literate in our subject, we
    can access (understand and find meaning in),
    analyze, evaluate, and create the subject or
    medium.

29
Three Types of Needed Assessments
  • Pre-assessments Design this after summative
    assessment
  • Formative Identify these last
  • Summative Design this first

30
Pulling it together to design summative
  • It is imperative that teachers think in terms of
    the unit plan before developing any lessons or
    activities.
  • The challenging and thought-provoking concepts
    help us create the final assessment at the
    standard level.
  • Simpler concepts may help build understanding
    throughout the chunks of learning within a unit
    (the element level).
  • More difficult concepts may provide the framework
    and categories for the simpler concepts. Key
    Concepts What must students remember and be able
    to use, even after this unit?

31
When we are thinking of the summative assessment,
we should be considering the transfer and
personal meaning-making of the information.
32
Summative only assesses transfer if
  • Student is drawing from a repertoire for a
    complex task
  • Teacher gives minimal cues, prompts, graphic
    organizers
  • Learner is mindful of a particular context the
    setting, audience, purpose, etc.

33
Effective Summative Assessments
  • The tests must involve situations new to the
    studentIdeally we are seeking a problem which
    will test the extent to which the individual has
    learned to apply an abstraction in a practical
    way.
  • Bruner, Process of Education

34
ELEMENTS
Measuring Skills
Scientific Method
STANDARD/BIG IDEA
How do plants thrive? Develop a brochure for the
local nursery
Plant parts
35
Learning and Cognition
  • Students develop flexible understanding of when,
    where, why, and how to use their knowledge to
    solve new problems if they learn how to extract
    underlying principles and themes from their
    learning exercises.
  • Bransford

36
Unit Assessments Authentic performance-based
assessments are the best types for unit-level
summative assessments.
  • A well-written prompt and set of directions
  • A rubric form and scoring
  • Models or templates to assist the student in
    proficient performance

37
Warning
  • It is not acceptable to modify and differentiate
    the standards unless the student has a special
    education or English as second language plan that
    legally allows us to differentiate and
    accommodate the standards for an individual
    learner.
  • The rest of the class must be held accountable
    for the same standard, concepts, and
    demonstrations of final learning.
  • How we get there, with what resources, at what
    rate, and with what guidance and tools is another
    matter.

38
Summative Assessments Culminating Projects
  • Complex challenges that mirror the issues and
    problems faced by adults
  • Range in length from short-term tasks to
    long-term, multistaged projects
  • Yield one or more tangible products
  • Yield one or more performances
  • The evaluative criteria and performance standards
    are known in advance and guide student work

39
Critical Features of Culminating Projects
  • At key junctures in a course or grade level
  • Demonstrate independent understanding through
    explanation, application, interpretation, and
    self-knowledge
  • Simulate real-world, adult tasks
  • Typically require extended time to complete
  • Require product and, usually presentation
  • Typically provide choice of products or formats
  • May be individual or group effort

40
GRASPS
  • Goals from the real world
  • Roles that are authentic and based in reality
  • Audiences to whom students will present final
    products and performances
  • Situations involving a real-world conflict to be
    resolved, decision to be made, investigation to
    be completed, invention to be created, etc.
  • Products and Performances which culminate from
    the study and provide appropriate evidence of
    understanding
  • Standards for evaluating project-based products
    and performances

41
Culminating Project 7th Grade Social Studies
  • Imagine that you are visiting Africa during the
    rise of such nations as South Africa, Zimbabwe,
    Tanzania, Rwanda, Mozambique, Democratic Republic
    of the Congo, Ghana, Mali, Mauritania, Sierra
    Leone, Sudan, Egypt, Ethiopia, Libya, Kenya, and
    Chad. You like it so much that you decide to
    start a business an agency to help nomadic
    tribes settle in an ideal area for the
    development of a promising nation. Since you
    brought your expert knowledge on Africas land
    and people with you, you feel that you can help
    your first clients, Nellie and Norman Nomad (and
    their very extended family), become a part of one
    of the newly established nations. You must
    convince them, in a proposal, why they will
    benefit from becoming a part of a prosperous
    nation as opposed to remaining nomadic.
  • Your Proposal (include the following things in
    your proposal)
  • Name of the nation you select for them
  • Characteristics (physical, economical, and
    cultural) that make this nation great
  • Historical development of the nation, stemming
    from the roots of African empires
  • Impact that physical features, location, and
    distribution of natural resources of the nation
    may have on their daily lives in this area
  • How they will be contributing, as a part of that
    nation, to later African history
  • Other nearby important cities that would be
    attractive vacationing spots, explaining their
    significance to Africa
  • Write your proposal and also include some
    pictures or drawings that will help convince the
    Nomads to settle in your chosen nation (and
    therefore pay you!). You will give a 2 minute
    presentation to the Nomads (aka teacher) in
    class.

42
Goal The goal is to relate enough information
about the physical features, cultural
characteristics, historical development, and
other nearby significant cities to convince the
nomads to settle in the African nation of your
choosing. Role Somewhat like a real-estate
agent Audience Nomads (teacher) Situation You
are visiting Africa when nations were developing,
so you see opportunity to make money acting as an
agent by promoting nations based on their growth,
development, features, and impact that location
and distribution of resources may have on the
nation. Product and Performance Proposal (with
pictures or drawings) pitching your chosen
African nation and 2 minute presentation in
class Standards Rubric for content and
presentation

43
Components of an Effective Culminating Project
  • Goals from the real world
  • Roles that are authentic and based in reality
  • Audiences to whom students will present final
    products and performances
  • Situations involving a real-world conflict to be
    resolved, decision to be made, investigation to
    be completed, invention to be created, etc.
  • Products and Performances culminate from the
    study and provide appropriate evidence of
    understanding
  • Standards for evaluating project-based products
    and performances

44
Analyzing GRASPS
  • To what extent would the project provide
    meaningful assessment data about students level
    of understanding and independent application?
  • Which, if any, of the GRASP elements might
    present challenges or problems?

45
2 Questions A Practical Test of Your Ideas
  • Could the performance be accomplished without
    in-depth understanding?
  • Could the specific performance be poor, but the
    student still understand?

46
Analyzing the Summative Assessment
  • Does your assessment match the mastery
    expectations?
  • Is the key vocabulary represented within the
    assessment or are other terms being utilized in
    place of the vocabulary of the standards?
  • Are there different ways that the student can
    show knowledge and understandings or is there a
    dominant form of questioning (true/false,
    matching, etc.)

47
Rubrics and Scoring Guides
  • Students improve their achievement on
    performance tasks when they have a clear
    understanding of how they will be evaluated. The
    more they apply the criteria articulated in
    rubrics and scoring guides, the more likely they
    are to internalize them and apply them
    independently.

48
  • On the rubric, remember to base the left-hand
    column on concepts, not directions for the unit
    assessment or parts of the assessments.
  • It is possible to differentiate the assessment
    without differentiating the rubric. This will
    help teachers stay aligned to grade-level or
    course expectations.

49
Resources
  • http//rubistar.4teachers.org/index.php
  • http//landmark-project.com/rubricbuilder/index.ph
    p

50
Thinking Slide
  • To assess students ability to transfer what they
    have learned to new tasks, the assessment must
    _______________
  • To prepare students for assessments involving
    transfer, instruction should give them
    opportunities to _________________

51
Transfer
Authentic
Standards
Valid
Performance Task
Summative Assessment
52
Three Types of Needed Assessments
  • Pre-assessments Design this after summative
    assessment
  • Formative Identify these last
  • Summative Design this first

53
UKDs
  • Understanding
  • In order to determine what to teach we consider
    both the state standards and the variance in
    achievement of our students
  • Know
  • A variety of pre-assessments for determining
    student readiness, interests, and learning
    profile
  • Do
  • Create pre-assessments to ascertain students
    needs and differences

54
Blood Pressure Check
Pre-test
Rapid pre-assessment
Fitness test when joining a gym
55
What is a pre-assessment?
  • An up-front assessment given to the whole class
  • Based on content concepts and skills to be
    learned
  • Used to determine students readiness to learn
    (what they understand, know and are able to do in
    a specific content or skill area), students
    interests, and students learning styles

56
Pre-assessments Are Not Appropriate When
  • We already know they have no information
  • We already know they have a lot of information
    and activating prior knowledge is sufficient
  • The knowledge is too specific
  • Skills do not develop in a linear fashion such as
    in reading and writing

57
Pre-assessment
Readiness Interests Learning Profile
58
Examples of Pre-assessments for Readiness
59
Pre-assessing the Gap
  • Remember to focus your gap analysis on concepts,
    thinking skills, and the type of demonstration of
    learning students will need to be successful on
    the final assessment.
  • You can use your analysis of this data to create
    differentiation opportunities in grouping,
    teaching methods, and learning methods.

60
2 Questions to Consider when Pre-assessing
  • Part One What do we already know about our
    students?
  • Part Two What do we need to know to get students
    to grow from where they are to the final
    assessment?

61
Example and Practice
  • Part One What do we already know about our
    social studies students?
  • I have information from a previous pre-assessment
    which includes initial ability of reading maps,
    identifying continents, and labeling physical
    features of an area such as mountains, deserts,
    and rivers. I also know students can look up
    information based on an earlier internet search
    activity.
  • Part Two What do we need to know to get students
    to grow from where they are to the final
    assessment?
  • I need to know what informal understanding they
    have about how physical features, climate, etc.
    impact daily living. I also need to know their
    familiarity with Africa its physical features,
    countries and nations, history, and cultures.

62
Choose the Pre-Assessment Format
  • Five minute write
  • What would life be like if you lived in the
    mountains?
  • What would life be like if you lived near the
    water?
  • What would life be like if you lived in the
    desert?
  • Look at the topographical map on page 89 of your
    text book. What do you think life would be like
    in Chad? In Egypt? In Morocco? In Ethiopia?
  • For a possible homework assignment, students will
    complete a K-W-L chart on African culture

63
Your Turn
  • Create a pre-assessment

64
What are the Gaps?
  • What do students know based on the pre-assessment
    data?
  • What can students do based on the pre-assessment
    data?
  • What else do students need to know and be able to
    do (based on the elements) to meet proficiency
    for each chunk?

65
Pre-assessment Analysis
Standards-Based Content
Pre-assessment method or tool
Filling in the Gap
B
Filling in the Gap
Filling in the Gap
Concepts or skills in place
A
Concepts or skills in place
Concepts or skills in place
High Degree
Approaching
Beginning
66
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67
Standards-Based Content. The student will be
able to describe and locate the important
physical and human characteristics of Africa. The
student will explain the impact of location,
climate, physical characteristics, natural
resources, and population size on African
countries. The student will describe the cultural
characteristics of different people who live in
Africa.
Pre-assessment method or tool KWL chart, map
activity, quick write
How physical and human characteristics impact
country (in more ways than just climate)
cause and effect of characteristics of Africa
more exposure to African culture Describes
physical features in greater detail
Needs exposure to African culture Cause and
effect characteristics of Africa Describing
physical and human characteristics of Africa
B
Locates and describes major physical features in
Africa Some cultural characteristics of
Africa Can infer what life would be like as far
as climate and travel
A
Some cultural knowledge Locates some physical
features with reference to resources
Basic map skills and recognizes African continent
High Degree
Approaching
Beginning
68
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69
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70
How Do We Differentiate?
  • Pre-assessment information helps teachers to
    respond to students needs and to match students
    traits to specific, most effective means of
    differentiation
  • Content
  • Process
  • Product
  • Learning Environment

71
Examples of Differentiating by Content
  • using reading materials at varying readability
    levels
  • using spelling or vocabulary lists at readiness
    levels of students
  • meeting with small groups to re-teach an idea or
    skill for struggling learners, or to extend the
    thinking or skills of advanced learners
  • (Tomlinson, C.A., Differentiation of
    Instruction in the Elementary Grades, August
    2000)

72
Examples of Differentiating Process
  • using tiered activities through which all
    learners work with the same important
    understandings and skills, but proceed with
    different levels of support, challenge, or
    complexity
  • providing interest centers that encourage
    students to explore subsets of the class topic of
    particular interest to them
  • developing personal agendas (task lists written
    by the teacher and containing both in common work
    for the whole class and work that addresses
    individual needs of learners)
  • to be completed either during specified agenda
    time or as students complete other work early
  • offering manipulatives or other hands-on supports
    for students who need them
  • varying the length of time a student may take to
    complete a task in order to provide
  • additional support for a struggling learner or to
    encourage an advanced learner to pursue a topic
    in greater depth
  • (Tomlinson, C.A., Differentiation of Instruction
    in the Elementary Grades, August 2000)

73
Examples of Differentiating by Product
  • giving students options of how to express
    required learning in their preferred learning
    style (e.g. create a puppet show, write a letter,
    develop a mural with labels, etc.)
  • using rubrics that match and extend students'
    varied skill levels
  • allowing students to work alone or in small
    groups on their products
  • encouraging students to create their own product
    assignments as long as the assignments contain
    required elements
  • (Tomlinson, C.A., Differentiation
    of Instruction in the Elementary Grades, August
    2000)

74
Examples of Differentiating Learning Environment
  • making sure there are places in the room to work
    quietly and without distraction as well as places
    that invite student collaboration
  • providing materials that reflect a variety of
    cultures and home settings
  • setting out clear guidelines for independent work
    that matches individual results
  • developing routines that allow students to get
    help when teachers are busy with other students
    and cannot help them immediately
  • helping students understand that some learners
    need to move around to learn, while others do
    better sitting quietly
  • (Tomlinson, C.A., Differentiation of
    Instruction in the Elementary Grades, August
    2000)

75
The Elements Of Differentiated Instruction
  • Instruction is differentiated by
  • Content what will be taught
  • Process how students will practice it
  • Product how they will demonstrate that they
    have learned
  • Learning Environment how the look and feel of
    the classroom supports student learning
  • ..according to diagnoses of students
  • Readiness what they understand, know and are
    able to do
  • Interests passions, hobbies
  • Learning Profiles intelligence preferences,
    gender, culture, environment, thinking styles

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Acquire Information
  • Read the relevant textbook chapter on the
    relation between geography and population
    settlement.
  • Quiz on possible elements of chapter.

77
Differentiated Literacy Strategies
  • Guided Reading
  • Before/During/After Strategies
  • Graphic Organizer
  • Planning

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What Differentiated Instruction Is.....
  • Responsive, proactive teaching
  • Qualitative rather than quantitative
  • Rooted in assessment
  • Fair

80
What is Fair?
81
  • Only when students work at appropriate challenge
    levels do they develop the essential habits of
    persistence, curiosity, and willingness to take
    intellectual risks.

82
Come to the edge, he said. We are afraid,
they said. Come to the edge, he said. THEY
DID. And he pushed them, And they flew. --
Apollinaire
83
TEACHING WITH STUDENT VARIANCE IN MIND
  • FRUSTRATION

Zone of Proximal Development
TASK DIFFICULTY
BOREDOM
READINESS LEVEL
84
T I E R I N G
85
Tiering - The meat and potatoes of
differentiated instruction -Tomlinson
  • Addresses a particular standard, key concept, and
    generalization
  • Allows several pathways for students to arrive at
    an understanding of these components
  • Can be tiered according to students readiness,
    interests, and learning profiles

86
Tiering by Readiness Level
  • Implies that the teacher has a good understanding
    of the students levels of understanding with
    respect to the lesson
  • Has designed the tiers to meet those needs
  • Three tiers below grade level, at grade level,
    and above grade level

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Grouping for Tiered Instruction
  • Students work in teacher-assigned groups
  • Group students by their current level of
    understanding for the topic of study
  • Number of groups per tier can vary
  • Number of students per tier can vary
  • Groups need not be of equal size

88
Lets Begin Tiering
  • Identify the standard that you are targeting
  • Common mistake develop three great activities
    and then try to force them into a tiered lesson

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Identify the Standard
  • SS7G3 The student will explain the impact of
    location, climate, physical characteristics,
    natural resources, and population size on African
    countries.

91
5 Steps to Tiering
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Ensure that group membership is flexible.
93
Why use flexible groups?
  • Change as needed
  • Increases participation and engagement
  • Improves achievement
  • Ensures all students learn to work independently,
    cooperatively and collaboratively in a variety of
    settings and with a variety of peers
  • Provides for individual differences
  • Increases the probability of student success by
    matching achievement levels and needs more of the
    time

94
What does my pre-assessment tell me?
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Standards-Based Content. The student will be
able to describe and locate the important
physical and human characteristics of Africa. The
student will explain the impact of location,
climate, physical characteristics, natural
resources, and population size on African
countries. The student will describe the cultural
characteristics of different people who live in
Africa.
Pre-assessment method or tool KWL chart, map
activity, quick write
How physical and human characteristics impact
country (in more ways than just climate)
cause and effect of characteristics of Africa
more exposure to African culture Describes
physical features in greater detail
Needs exposure to African culture Cause and
effect characteristics of Africa Describing
physical and human characteristics of Africa
B
Locates and describes major physical features in
Africa Some cultural characteristics of
Africa Can infer what life would be like as far
as climate and travel
A
Some cultural knowledge Locates some physical
features with reference to resources
Basic map skills and recognizes African continent
High Degree
Approaching
Beginning
96
When Planning
  • Remember TAPS
  • T otal group
  • A lone
  • P airs
  • S mall groups

97
Create on-level task first then adjust up and
down.
98
Create the On-grade Level Task
  • Make sure the task gets at students learning
    the concepts in the selected standard
  • Is higher order thinking present in the task?
  • Is teacher support present in the task?

99
On-Grade Level Task
  • The teacher will model the use of the semantic
    analysis graphic organizer on which only the key
    characteristics and countries are listed.
    Students will then complete the graphic organizer
    and make inferences as to the effects those
    characteristics have on the development of the
    given countries. The students will write a
    summary based on their graphic organizers and
    inferences.

100
Recognize that complexity is relative.
101
Task Analysis
  • Assess whether students have the background
    necessary to be successful in the lesson.
  • Ask, What must the student have already
    learned?
  • Ask, Are there other skills that must be taught
    first?

102
Prerequisite Knowledge and Skills
  • Making inferences
  • Summary writing
  • Countries and their locations
  • Countries and their physical characteristics

103
Plan the number of levels most appropriate for
instruction.
Standard
104
Scaffold the Task
  • Assist students in identifying countries and
    their locations
  • Assist students in describing countries
  • Assist students in organizing information
  • Lead students in drawing conclusions and making
    inferences

105
Create Ramp-Up Task
  • Using a map, the teacher will identify several
    physical characteristics of Africa for several
    key countries. The teacher will model with a
    graphic organizer with labeled characteristics
    and countries. After modeling, the teacher will
    ask the students to complete the graphic
    organizer, describing the physical and human
    characteristics of Africa while referencing the
    topographical map and the textbook. In the small
    group, the teacher will lead the students in a
    discussion in which they will make inferences as
    to the effects those characteristics have on the
    development of the countries. The students will
    then write a summary, describing the physical and
    human characteristics of Africa.

106
Create Enriched Task
  • The teacher will introduce, model, and conduct
    guided practice on the use of the Compare to
    Conclude graphic organizer. The students will
    then complete the organizer, summarizing the
    characteristics and how they relate to each of
    their two chosen countries. The students will
    then draw conclusions as to the effects those
    characteristics have on each of the two countries
    individually, and draw a comparison between the
    two countries for that defined characteristic.
    The students will then write an analysis,
    comparing the impact that the physical and human
    characteristics had on the development of the two
    chosen countries

107
Promote high level thinking in each tier.
108
Provide teacher support at every tier.
109
What Can Be Tiered?
  • Assignments
  • Activities
  • homework
  • Centers
  • Materials
  • Experiments
  • Assessments
  • Writing Prompts

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When Tiering
  • ADJUST
  • Materials
  • Form of Expression
  • Level of Complexity
  • Time
  • Level of dependence
  • Amount of Structure
  • Number of Steps

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The Equalizer
  • Concrete to abstract
  • Simple to complex
  • Basic to transformational
  • Fewer facets to
    multi-facets
  • Smaller leaps to greater
    leaps
  • More structured to
    more open
  • Less independence to greater
    independence
  • Slow
    to faster


  • Tomlinson,1995

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Dont Forget!
  • Teacher support should be present at all levels
  • Higher order thinking skills and a challenge
    should be present at all levels
  • All students are working towards the same
    standards
  • Incorporate whole group time so that all
    students can discuss shared learning

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Differentiating by Readiness Video Questions
  • What was the first thing the teacher considered
    in designing the lessons?
  • How were groups established?
  • How was the lesson differentiated according to
    readiness what three-step process was used?
  • What on-going assessment strategies were used?
  • How did the teacher reactively adjust the lesson?

116
Tiered Examples
  • In grade span groups, examine several tiered
    examples.
  • What are the common learning goals?
  • What is tiered and why?
  • Where is the teacher support?
  • What ideas from this differentiated task can I
    incorporate in my classroom?

117
Steps for Differentiating by Readiness
  • Select UKDs
  • Use pre-assessments
  • Select grouping strategy
  • Create an activity
  • Vary, extend, and/or accommodate to match
    students readiness
  • Adjust management structures-whole group
    introduction to the 3 levels

118
Criteria for Tiered Assignments
  • ____ 1. A pre-assessment was used to determine
  • grouping.
  • ____ 2. The groups are based on readiness for
    this task
  • ____ 3. Each of the tasks is respectful,
    engaging, and
  • challenging
  • ____ 4. The tasks can be identified for a learner
    with
  • above-level skills, on-level skills,
    and below
  • level skills
  • ____ 5. Each of the tasks has the same concept or
    skill
  • ____ 6. Support structures are evident in the
    tasks
  • ____ 7. Understandings, Knows, and Dos are
    evident in
  • the tasks
  • ____ 8. Clear directions are provided for each of
    the tasks
  • ____ 9. The tiered tasks lend themselves to
    additional and varied
  • grouping strategies such as whole
    group, small group, and
  • individual time to extend the
    learning or to provide the
  • next step in instruction
  • ____ 10. Varied materials/texts were considered
    for the tasks

119
How will learning be assessed in the lesson?
120
Three Types of Needed Assessments
  • Pre-assessments Design this after summative
    assessment
  • Formative Identify these last
  • Summative Design this first

121
Assessments
  • Formative assessments (quiz, prompts,
    reflections, learning logs, observations, writing
    assignments, etc.)
  • Summative assessments
  • A combination of the two methods

122
  • Too often, educational tests, grades, and report
    cards are treated by teachers as autopsies when
    they should be viewed as physicals.
  • Doug Reeves Center for Performance Assessment

123
Transition Points When do I make use of
formative assessment?
  • Transition points in learning are the points at
    which the skill load significantly increases and
    the critical thinking deepens or expands
    (Kuzmich, 1998). Standards-based curricula are
    hierarchical. Concepts appear again and again in
    deeper and more complex forms as students journey
    through school.

124
What is the difference in formative and summative
assessment?
  • Formative assessment is
  • Assessment FOR Learning
  • Summative assessment is
  • Assessment OF Learning

125
Assessments reflect long term goals
  • Quizzes
  • reflect short term goals

126
Assessment For Learning Defined
  • Typically is formative (before or during the
    learning)
  • Includes descriptive feedback, peer assessment,
    self-assessment, etc.
  • Is used for the purpose of helping the learner
    learn
  • Makes learning more possible.
  • SOURCE Leadership for Learning, 2005.

127
Assessment Of Learning Defined
  • Typically is summative (after the learning)
  • Looks at learning to decide how much has been
    learned and report out on it.
  • SOURCE Leadership for Learning, 2005.

128
Comparing Assessment FOR and Assessment OF
LearningBased upon the work of Anne Davies,
Making Classroom Assessment Work, 2000.
  • Assessment OF Learning (Summative)
  • Checks what has been learned to date
  • Is designed for those not directly involved in
    daily learning and teaching
  • Is presented in a formal report
  • Usually gathers information into easily
    digestible numbers, scores, and grades
  • Frequently used to compare one students learning
    with other students or with the standard for a
    grade level
  • Does not need to involve the student
  • Assessment FOR Learning (Formative)
  • Checks learning to decide what to do next
  • Is designed to assist teachers and students
  • Is used in conversation about learning
  • Is specific and uses descriptive feedback in
    words (instead of numbers, scores, and grades)
  • Is usually focused on improvement, compared with
    the students previous best, and progress
    toward a standard
  • Needs to involve the studentthe person most able
    to improve the learning

129
Examples of Formative Assessment
  • 3-2-1
  • Entrance cards/exit cards
  • Academic Prompts
  • Quiz
  • Reader response journals
  • Observation logs/Learning Logs
  • Stem-starters
  • Essays
  • Reflection Cards/Muddiest Point Cards

130
Students Role Based on the work of Stiggins and
Davies
  • Assessment FOR Learning
  • Self-assess and monitor progress
  • Act on classroom assessment results to be able to
    do better the next time
  • Assessment OF Learning
  • Study to meet standards
  • Take the test
  • Strive for the highest possible score
  • Avoid failure

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ANCHOR ACTIVITIES
133
RAPID ROBIN
The Dreaded Early Finisher
134
Im not finished Freddie
It takes him an hour-anda half to watch 60
Minutes
135
In a differentiated classroom......
  • In this class we are never finished---
  • Learning is a process that never ends.

136
What is an Anchor Activity?
  • Anchor activities are ongoing assignments that
    students can work on independently throughout a
    unit, a grading period or longer.

137
An Anchor Activity is.......MFI
  • Meaningful and engaging to the student
  • Focused on the curriculum
  • Independent - students can do with minimum
    teacher support

138
Using Anchor Activities
139
Anchor Must-Dos!
  • Centered around unit of study
  • Meet M.F.I. principles
  • Planned in advance
  • Materials available
  • Management of anchor activities (learning
    centers, designated space, etc.)
  • Grading/credit considered

140
 Think Dots  
  • An Instructional Strategy for Differentiation by
  • Readiness, Interest or Learning Style
  •  Kay Brimijoin, 1999

141
Think DOTS Activities for Science Lesson Concept
STRUCTURE
Share two ways that scientists study atoms. Suggest any new ways you might think of. What is the correct symbol for the element helium? Research the history of this element and create a timeline showing what elements were discovered just before and after helium.
How are physical and chemical properties different? Why? Name three types of physical changes. Create a list with at least two examples of each that are different from the examples in the book.
What does the periodic table tell us about calcium? How can this help us in our everyday lives? Which is higher, an elements atomic number or its mass number? Why?
142
Science Lesson Concept STRUCTURE
Why do you think scientists used the term cloud to describe the position of electrons in an atom? How do the atomic numbers in the periodic table change from the top to the bottom? From left to right across the table?
Suppose you were given some sugar cubes, a grinder, some water, a pan, and a hot plate. What physical and chemical changes could you make in the sugar? Predict as many properties for potassium as you can. To make your predictions, look at the information in the box for this element and consider its location on the periodic table.
There are 3 jars in the front of the room. Each has a substance with a strong odor. One is a solid, one is a liquid and one is a gas. Which odor would students in the back of the room smell first? Why? Carbon is atomic number 6. How are 2 carbon atoms with mass numbers of 12 and 14 different? Why are these atoms called isotopes?
143
Prejudice Is it possible to grow to adulthood without harboring some prejudice? Why or why not? Scapegoating What is scapegoating? Explore the words etymology and hypothesize about its present day meaning. How was your group scapegoated? Articles Read the article. What is genocide? Did the people in your article face genocide? Why?
Photography Look at the clothing, hair, setting, body language, and objects to help determine social, economic, country of origin and so on. Can you see the emotions in the people? How? Do you think they are related? Genetics Do genetics cause brown hair? How? List one way genetics affects your group (in your opinion). If genetics dont affect your group explain why. Stereotypes Identify stereotypes your group faced. Pick a clique in the school and discuss the traits of that group. Are they stereotyped?
Generic Think DOTS for High School Literature
Concept Prejudice
144
Photography Compare two photographs taken of similar events. What are the similarities and differences? What might be the significance of these similarities and differences Prejudice Is it possible to grow to adulthood without harboring some prejudice? Why or why not?
Genetics Did genetics have an impact on the Aryan race? Why? Does it in the group you are studying? Why? Scapegoating Identify and discuss the scapegoating that took place in your group. Compare the scapegoating of your group to that of a present day group.
Stereotypes Name a group you stereotype and discuss those traits that you stereotype. What were the stereotypes your group had? Articles Read the article. If you were the person behind the persecution and were asked why you did what you did, what would you say?
Generic Think DOTS for High School Literature
Concept Prejudice
145
Build a model of the solar system and label its parts. Show why it is a system. Create a mobile to show the 4 major phases of the moon. Be sure to put them in the order in which they occur. Use words, pictures, and color to complete attribute webs for the Sun, the Moon, and the Earth. List the similarities and differences you find.
Illustrate the key vocabulary for our space study. Write the word under each picture. Be sure to check your spelling. Plan a skit that will show you understand the characteristics of the four seasons and when they happen. Be ready to answer questions from the audience. You are an astronomer and have discovered another planet in our solar system. Describe the planet's location and attributes. Draw a picture and name your planet.
Space Dots
146
Draw and label a map of our solar system to scale. Describe why it is considered to be a system. Demonstrate that you know all the phases of the moon and why they occur. You are from another galaxy and are going to explore the solar system's Sun, Earth, and Moon. What will you take with you? What will you find there? What useful information will you take back to your galaxy? Share your findings with the earthlings in our class.
Create an illustrated glossary for a book about how the objects in our solar system move in space and are related to one another. Use the Key Vocabulary from our space study. Be sure to check your spelling. Prove why we have seasons. Create a way to show us what would happen without the rotation and revolution of the Earth. You are an astronomer and have discovered another space system. Find a way to tell us all about it.
147
Develop a way to categorize the planets in our solar system and their relationship to the sun. Why is it considered to be a system? Demonstrate that you know all the phases of the moon and why they occur. How does the Earth's moon compare to the moons of other planets? You are an intergalactic travel agent. Create a travel brochure for our solar system's Sun, Moon, and Earth. Be sure to include all important information about these destinations.
If you were going to teach a unit on space, what key vocabulary would you want your students to understand? List the words, their meanings, and how you would teach each one. Compare and contrast the movement in space that causes day and night to the movement that creates the seasons. If you were an astronomer, predict what your job would be like during the next 10 years. What might you discover? Figure 2
148
Make a set of cards with numerals zero to ten. Make a set of cards with dot pictures to show zero-ten. Play Match Game with a buddy. Using Unifix cubes, make trains to represent numbers 0-10. Make a numeral card to go with each train. Look in the newspaper. Find words with up to ten letters. Cut out the words and write the number of letters in each word.
Using Wikki Stix or pipe cleaners form the numerals 0-10. Match numerals with correct number of pennies. Make a diagram/web/Frayer model for a number word. Show number of dots, tally marks, the numeral, and identify if the number is odd or even. Using cereal, paperclips, or straw pieces make a necklace using thirty objects.
149
Anchors Away!
150
Management Strategies
  • Barnyard Cliques (Grouping Strategy)
  • Carousel Brainstorming (5 minutes per poster)
  • Gallery Walk
  • Summary

151
Winners
  • Credible success
  • Confidence grows
  • I can succeed
  • Within me
  • I am responsible
  • Confident learner
  • Results
  • Confidence
  • Learn
  • Responsibility
  • Character
  • Lifelong

152
  • Whats one thing you changed in the last two
    weeks in your instruction because of something
    you observed while assessing students?
  • OR
  • What did you learn about a student today and what
    did you do with that knowledge?

153
Questions to guide in Assessment Analysis
  • How well did the assessment and any accompanying
    rubric or other scoring guide work? How would you
    revise them?
  • What are the most common errors and
    misunderstandings shown on the student
    performance grid? Of these, which ones are the
    most important to focus on and why?
  • Which students have not reached the proficiency
    level and why? What assistance will you (and the
    school) provide for these students?
  • How did each individual student do on this task
    in comparison to the earlier assessment?
  • How well did the whole class do on this task in
    comparison to the earlier assessment?

154
District Policy Structure for Mastery
Learning
  • Multiple assessment opportunities (Max. of 3)
    coupled with re-teaching shall be made available
    to all students the students first grade will
    be averaged with the highest reassessment.

155
Ticket out the Door
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