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Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2)

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Title: Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2)


1
Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second
Edition (BASC-2)
  • Cecil R. Reynolds, Ph.D.
  • Distinguished Research Scientist and Professor
  • Texas A M University
  • R.W. Kamphaus, Ph.D.
  • Distinguished Research Professor and Department
    Head
  • University of Georgia

2
Acknowledgements and Disclosure
  • Cecil R. Reynolds, BASC 2 senior author, Rob
    Altmann and Mark Daniel of AGS
  • Co-researchers Andy Horne, Carl Huberty, and
    Michele Lease of UGA, Jean Baker of Michigan
    State, Christine DiStefano of Louisiana State
    University, Linda Mayes of Yale Child Study
    Center, Patrick Schniederjan of Grand Junction
    CO, David Pineda of Universidad de Antioquia
  • Student research team members Anne Winsor, Ellen
    Rowe, Jennifer Thorpe, Cheryl Hendry, Amanda Dix,
    Erin Dowdy, Anna Kroncke, Sangwon Kim, Chris
    Stokes, Meghan VanDeventer
  • Alumni research team members Drs. Nancy Lett,
    Shayne Abelkop, Martha Petoskey and Ann Heather
    Cody
  • Some BASC Research was supported in part by grant
    number R306F60158 from the At-Risk Institute of
    the Office of Educational Research and
    Improvement of the United States Department of
    Education, to R. W. Kamphaus, J. A. Baker, A.
    M. Horne.
  • R. Kamphaus is co-author of the BASC 2 with a
    significant financial interest in the product

3
Categorical Diagnosis
  • Presence of marker symptoms or deviant signs
    defines the syndrome (e.g. schizotypal affect) as
    espoused originally by Kreapelin
  • Syndromes are mutually exclusive (e.g. mental
    retardation, autism, versus pervasive
    developmental disorder) but potentially comorbid
    (e.g. ADHD and Tourettes)
  • Diagnosis is dichotomous that is one either has
    the disorder or not and subsyndromal
    psychopathology is not considered (Cantwell, D.
    P. (1996). Classification of child and adolescent
    psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and
    Psychiatry, 37, 3-12.)
  • Severity of symptoms in categorical systems is
    not measured. In other words criteria do not
    exist to define severe ADHD.
  • Differential diagnosis of syndromes (e.g. ADHD,
    CD, and ODD) remains controversial

4
Dimensional Diagnosis
  • Measures latent traits or latent constructs
    made up of multiple indicators (i.e. items) or
    behaviors (Kamphaus, 2001 Kamphaus Frick,
    2002)
  • Traits are distributed dimensionally in the
    population thus making it possible to assess
    severity or amount of the latent trait
    possessed. Positive or adaptive traits are of
    relatively greater interest
  • Norm referencing to a population is used to
    define deviance. Subsyndromal as well as
    hypersyndromal cases can be identified for both
    clinical and research purposes (Scahill et al.,
    1999)
  • Measures are well suited for assessing response
    to treatment or intervention because of known
    reliability and validity (e.g. effectiveness of
    medications)

5
Phenomenology of TRS-C Type 3 Disruptive
Behavior Problems (8) (Kamphaus, R. W., Huberty,
C. J., Distefano, C., Petoskey, M. D. (1997).
A typology of teacher rated child behavior for a
national U. S. sample. Journal of Abnormal Child
Psychology, 25, 253-263.)
6
Multi-Dimensional-Multi-Method
  • SDH Structured Developmental History (Some
    changes)
  • SOS Student Observation System (No Changes, BASC
    POP)
  • TRS Teacher Rating Scales (Some changes)
  • PRS Parent Rating Scales (Some changes)
  • SRP Self-Report of Personality (Some changes)
  • SRP-Col Self-Report of Personality College (New)
  • SRP-I Self-Report of Personality Interview (New
    ages 6-7, Available in 2005)
  • CPRF Child-Parent Relationship Form (New)

7
Additional Components
  • Spanish-Language SRP, SDH, and PRS forms
  • BASC Spanish version for Spain and Latin America
    now available
  • Spanish and English language administration CDs
  • Parent Feedback Forms
  • BASC Portable Observation Program
  • www.psychologicalforum.com

8
Changes - The Bottom Line
  • BASC/BASC-2 correlations are in the 80s and 90s
    for the TRS
  • BASC/BASC-2 correlations are in the 70s and 80s
    for the PRS
  • BASC/BASC-2 correlations are in the 60s and 70s
    for the SRP

9
BASC-2 Item Totals
BASC2 BASC
TRS
P 100 109
C 139 148
A 139 138
PRS
P 134 131
C 160 138
A 150 126
SRP
C 139 152
A 176 186
Col 185
10
BASC2 TRS and PRS Scales
  • Activities of Daily Living (PRS only)
  • Adaptability (new to A)
  • Aggression
  • Anxiety
  • Attention Problems
  • Atypicality
  • Conduct Problems (C, A)
  • Depression
  • Functional Communication
  • Hyperactivity
  • Leadership (C, A)
  • Learning Problems (TRSC, A)
  • Social Skills
  • Somatization
  • Study Skills (TRSC, A)
  • Withdrawal

11
BASC2 TRS and PRS Scales
  • Activities of Daily Living (PRS only) (MR PRS
    34-36 Motor PRS 36-38)
  • Acts in a safe manner.
  • Needs to be reminded to brush teeth.
  • Organizes chores or other tasks well.
  • Adaptability (new to A) (Bipolar TRS 36, PRS
    30-36)
  • Adjusts well to changes in family plans.
  • Recovers quickly after a setback.
  • Aggression
  • Hits other children.
  • Seeks revenge on others.(recognition of concept
    of relational aggression)

12
BASC2 TRS and PRS Scales
  • Anxiety (Somatization still key symptom of
    anxiety in childhood)
  • Is nervous.
  • Worries about making mistakes.
  • Attention Problems (sub-clinical problems may
    cause impairment Scahill, L., Schwab-Stone, M.,
    Merikangas, K. R., Leckman, J. F., Zhang, H.,
    Kasl, S. (1999). Psychosocial and clinical
    correlates of ADHD in a community sample of
    school-age children. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc.
    Psychiatry, 38, 976-984.) (ADHD TRS 60-61, PRS
    64)
  • Listens to directions.
  • Pays attention.
  • Atypicality (preschool imaginary friends persist
    into early elementary school with 27 in
    preschool and 31 at ages 6 and 7, Taylor, M.
    (2004) Developmental Psychology, 40) (ASD TRS
    66-71, PRS 75-76)
  • Sees things that are not there.
  • Acts strangely.

13
BASC2 TRS and PRS Scales
  • Conduct Problems
  • Lies to get out of trouble.
  • Deceives others.
  • Depression (clinical sample PRS 76-80, TRS
    65)
  • Is sad.
  • Seems lonely.
  • Functional Communication (MR TRS 32-39, PRS
    29-31 Speech-Lang 41-38 Motor PRS 36-38
    Hearing PRS 42-46)
  • Is unclear when presenting ideas.
  • Responds appropriately when asked a question.
  • Is able to describe feelings accurately.

14
BASC2 TRS and PRS Scales
  • Hyperactivity (ADHD TRS 61, PRS 64-66
    evidence of cross-cultural validity in Pineda,
    D.A., Aguirre, D.C., Garcia, M.A., Lopera, F.J.,
    Palacio, L.G., Kamphaus, R.W. (in press).
    Validation of Two Rating Scales for ADHD
    Diagnosis in Colombian Children. Pediatric
    Neurology.)
  • Cannot wait to take turn.
  • Acts out of control.
  • Leadership (C, A) (group collaboration assessed)
  • Gives good suggestions for solving problems.
  • Is good at getting people to work together.
  • Learning Problems (TRSC, A) (LD TRS 61-62)
  • Had reading problems.
  • Has trouble keeping up in class.

15
BASC2 TRS and PRS Scales
  • Social Skills
  • Compliments others.
  • Offers help to other children.
  • Somatization
  • Has stomach problems.
  • Complains of being sick when nothing is wrong.
  • Study Skills (TRSC, A)
  • Reads assigned chapters.
  • Tries to do well in school.
  • Withdrawal (ASD PRS 72-73, TRS 66-71)
  • Avoids other children.
  • Quickly joins group activities.

16
BASC2 TRS and PRS Composite Scales
  • Externalizing Problems
  • Hyperactivity
  • Aggression
  • Conduct Problems (C/A only)
  • Internalizing Problems
  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Somatization

17
BASC2 TRS and PRS Composite Scales
  • Adaptive Skills
  • Adaptability
  • Social Skills
  • Functional Communication
  • Leadership (C and A only)
  • Study Skills (TRS-C/A only)
  • Activities of Daily Living (PRS only)
  • School Problems (TRSC, A)
  • Attention Problems
  • Learning Problems

18
BASC2 TRS and PRS Composite Scales
  • Behavioral Symptoms Index (BSI)
  • Hyperactivity
  • Aggression
  • Depression
  • Attention Problems
  • Atypicality
  • Withdrawal

19
BASC2 TRS and PRS Validity Indexes
  • F Index
  • Consistency Index
  • Number of Omitted/Unscoreable Items
  • Patterned Responses

20
BASC-2 Software
  • ASSIST
  • Unlimited use
  • Basic scoring and reporting
  • Fast, efficient item entry with optional
    verification
  • Multi-rater report comparisons
  • Windows 98 SE and MAC OSX compatible
  • Scannable version available for Windows
  • Network compatible

21
BASC-2 Software
  • ASSIST Plus
  • Unlimited use
  • Advanced scoring and reporting
  • DSM-IV diagnostic criteria
  • Content scales
  • Extended narrative
  • Multi-rater report comparisons
  • Fast, efficient item entry with optional
    verification
  • Windows 98 SE and MAC OSX compatible
  • Scannable version available for Windows
  • Network compatible

22
Terry Mild mental retardation, ADHD combined
type, clinical depression
  • 10 year old third grader diagnosed with MR in
    grade 1
  • Full Scale IQ 66, Vineland Adaptive Behavior
    Composite 61
  • Diagnosed as ADHD in first grade as well
  • Ritalin has not worked as well for the past two
    months as she has become more emotional
  • Her mother reports I think she needs more nerve
    medicine

23
Terrys depression and school stress
  • Recent trouble getting to sleep and staying
    asleep
  • Recent crying spell at school in the lunch room
  • Refusing to go to school and is bullied by others
  • She reports, Most of them pick on me and laugh
    about it. When asked why teased she said, Im
    too slow, and I cant do my work.
  • She said that the same boy pushes her onto the
    same girls desk every day. The girl gets angry
    at her and Terry feels bad the remainder of the
    day.
  • Terry says that the teasing makes her so angry
    that she cries
  • Her mother cannot manage her at home. She is
    disobedient and refused to help around the house.
    Her mother is very stressed and says, I cant
    take it any more.

24
Terry - Maternal Ratings
25
Terry - Teacher Ratings
26
Under-diagnosis of ADHD in Children with MR
  • Pearson and Annan (1994) concluded,Findings
    suggest that chronological age should be taken
    into consideration when behavior ratings are used
    to assess cognitively delayed children for ADHD.
    However, the results do not support guidelines
    stating that mental age must be used to determine
    which norms should be applied when such children
    are evaluated clinically. (p. 395)
  • The use of mental age as a consideration in
    making the ADHD diagnosis for children with
    mental retardation may result in the denial of
    somatic and behavioral treatments that are known
    to have demonstrated efficacy (Reynolds
    Kamphaus, 2002).

27
BASC2 SRP Changes
  • Mixed item format (T/F and MC)
  • Age range expansion
  • College-form edition
  • Interview format for ages 67 (available 2005)
  • New scales

28
Response Format Change Sample Relations with
Parents Item Loadings
Item TF Item MC Item
I like to be close to my parents. .46 .56
My mother and father like my friends. .31 .71
My parents are proud of me. .37 .83
29
Response Format Change Sample Depression Item
Loadings
Item TF Item MC Item
I feel like my life is getting worse and worse. .56 .62
I think that nothing about me is right. .44 .72
I feel like I just dont care anymore. .65 .27
30
Response Format Change Sample Anxiety Item
Loadings
Item TF Item MC Item
I worry about something bad happening to me. .61 .38
I worry when I go to bed at night. .50 .79
I worry most of the day. .70 .68
31
BASC2 SRP Scales
  • Alcohol Abuse (COL)
  • Anxiety
  • Attention Problems (ADHD SRP-C 58, SRP-A 57)
    (Bipolar SRP-A 61)
  • Attitude to School (C, A)
  • Attitude to Teachers (C, A)
  • Atypicality
  • Depression (Depression SRP-A 55)
  • Hyperactivity (ADHD SRP-C 57, SRP-A 56)
    (Bipolar SRP-A 59)
  • Interpersonal Relations (ASD SRP-C 45, SRP-A
    41) (Bipolar SRP-A 44)
  • Locus of Control
  • Relations with Parents (Bipolar SRP-A 43)
  • School Maladjustment (COL)
  • Self-Esteem (Depression SRP-A 43)
  • Self-Reliance (Bipolar SRP-A 43)
  • Sensation Seeking (A)
  • Sense of Inadequacy
  • Social Stress (ASD SRP-C 55, SRP-A 57)
  • Somatization (A) (Depression SRP-A 56)

32
BASC2 SRP Composite Scales
  • School Problems (Formerly School Maladjustment
    C, A)
  • Attitude to School (C, A)
  • Attitude to Teachers (C, A)
  • Sensation Seeking (A)

33
BASC2 SRP Composite Scales
  • Internalizing Problems (Formerly Clinical
    Maladjustment cluster found in US population by
    Kamphaus, DiStefano, Lease, 2003, A Self-Report
    Typology of Behavioral Adjustment for Young
    Children. Psychological Assessment, 15, 17-28)
  • Atypicality
  • Locus of Control
  • Social Stress
  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Sense of Inadequacy
  • Somatization (A, COL)

34
BASC2 SRP Composite Scales
  • Inattention/Hyperactivity Composite
  • Attention Problems
  • Hyperactivity
  • Personal Adjustment
  • Relations with Parents
  • Interpersonal Relations
  • Self-Esteem
  • Self-Reliance

35
BASC2 SRP Composite Scales
  • Emotional Symptoms Index (ESI)
  • Social Stress
  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Sense of Inadequacy
  • Self-Esteem
  • Self-Reliance (replaces Interpersonal Relations)

36
BASC2 SRP Validity Indexes
  • F Index
  • L Index (new to C level)
  • V Index
  • Consistency Index (new)
  • Number of Omitted/Unscoreable Items
  • Patterned Responding

37
Maleco False Positive
  • Third grade boy referred for suspected ADHD with
    an abrupt onset of symptoms of inattention,
    hyperactivity and conduct problems at the
    beginning of second grade. He has been cited for
    hitting others, setting another childs hair
    ablaze, running away from school, teacher
    defiance, cursing, and anger outbursts. He is
    about to be suspended from school unless his
    behavior improves significantly. His teachers
    hope that medication will improve his behavior.

38
Maleco - History
  • He is an only child who moved across country to a
    new school at the beginning of second grade. Up
    until this time he was raised by his maternal
    grandparents. His development was normal until
    the beginning of second grade and he is
    considered to be an intelligent child by all. He
    was described by his first grade teacher as
    exceedingly well behaved, high achieving,
    obedient, and curious. He has been acting out at
    home with anger outbursts, crying spells, setting
    a garage on fire, and tearing up shrubs in his
    mothers yard. His mother does not think that he
    has any serious problems such as ADHD and is
    concerned about placing him on stimulant
    medication. He is currently receiving play
    therapy to help him control his behavior and
    emotions better.

39
Maleco Cognitive Results
  • Composite intelligence test score of 118
  • Academic achievement test scores ranging from a
    low of 116 in mathematics computation to a high
    of 128 in reading comprehension
  • Grades have been all As and Bs but are beginning
    to suffer due to refusal to complete work at
    school

40
Maleco Mothers Ratings
41
Maleco - Teacher Ratings
42
Maleco Self Report
  • Scale T-Score
  • Anxiety 66
  • Depression 75
  • Sense of Inadequacy 78
  • Social Stress 73
  • Atypicality 71
  • Locus of Control 59
  • Attitude to School 68
  • Attitude to Teachers 75
  • Relations with Parents 51
  • Interpersonal Relations 35
  • Self-Esteem 46
  • Self-Reliance 36

43
Maleco Critical Items
  • Life is getting worse and worse
  • Sometimes voice tell me to do bad things
  • No one understands me
  • I cannot stop myself from doing bad things
  • I cannot control my thoughts
  • Nobody ever listens to me
  • Other kids hate to be with me
  • I am always in trouble at home
  • Sometimes I want to hurt myself
  • I give up easily
  • Nothing goes my way

44
Assessment for Diagnosis and Classification
(Kamphaus, R. W., Frick, P. J. (2002).
Clinical Assessment of Child and Adolescent
Personality and Behavior. Needham Heights, MA
Allyn Bacon.)
  • Assess core constructs/symptoms (DSM IV) and
    severity (rating scales)
  • Assess age of onset (history), developmental
    course (history), and multiple contexts (history,
    observations, and rating scales)
  • Rule out alternative causes (history and rating
    scales)
  • Rule in comorbidities (history, DSM IV, IDEA, and
    rating scales)

45
History SDH
  • Age and rapidity of symptom onset (e.g. ADHD,
    Pandas - pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric
    disorders associated with streptococcal infection
    caused OCD ocfoundation.org differentiates ADHD
    from low birth weight, Johnson-Cramer, N.L.,
    1999. Assessment of school-aged children with
    comorbidity of attention deficit disorder and low
    birth weight classifications, Dissertation
    Abstracts Internationl, Section A Humanities and
    Social Sciences, 59, 7A, 2344)
  • Developmental course (e.g. Episodic reading
    problems)
  • Assessment of etiology (e.g. Depression
    associated with Interferon therapy for cancer)
  • Solution focused intervention design or asking
    when, or under what conditions does she or he
    behave well (e.g. Prozac related relapse or
    Cheryls head banging)
  • Assessment of risk and resilience factors (e.g.
    family resemblance for depression, peer substance
    use or abuse, recreational strengths such as
    music or sports)
  • Available in Spanish

46
Principles for Interpretation
  • All raters possess evidence of validity
  • Parent/Teacher predictive validity (Verhulst, F.
    C., Koot, H. M., Van der Ende, J. (1994).
    Differential predictive value of parents and
    teachers reports of childrens problem
    behaviors a longitudinal study. Journal of
    Abnormal Child Psychology, 22, 531-546.)
  • Teachers accurately assess effects of medication
    (Conners,1956)
  • SRP possesses concurrent validity with peer
    ratings (Kamphaus, R. W., DiStefano, C. A.,
    Lease, A. M. (2003). A Self-Report Typology of
    Behavioral Adjustment for Young Children.
    Psychological Assessment, 15, 17-28)
  • Simple interpretation schemes work as well as
    complex schemes (Piacentini, 1991)

47
SRP-C Type 9, Internalizing yoked ratings (7.4
of 8-11 year olds, 47f low self-confidence,
uncooperative, too sensitive, anxious/shy,
unhappy/sad, disruptive, loses things, seems odd,
unlikeable, unpopular, fewer friends)
48
Interpretation Step 1 Validity
  • Congruence of findings
  • Lie index
  • F index
  • Omitted items
  • Patterned responding
  • Consistency index
  • Reading proficiency

49
Interpretation Step 2 Classification
Adaptive Scales Clinical Scales T-score Range
Very High Clinically Significant 70 and above
High At-Risk 60 69
Average Average 41 59
At-Risk Low 31 40
Clinically Significant Very Low 30 and Below
50
Interpretation Step 3. Ratings
  • Identify all scales with T scores in the at-risk
    range
  • Confirm or disconfirm the importance of each with
    available evidence
  • Collect additional evidence as needed
  • Draw conclusions regarding classification,
    diagnosis, and intervention

51
Impairment and Diagnosis Guidelines
  • 70 Functional impairment in multiple settings,
    Often diagnosable condition
  • 60-69 Functional impairment in one or more
    settings, sometimes diagnosable condition
  • 45-59 No functional impairment or condition
  • lt45 Notable lack of symptomatology

52
Report Writing SRP
  • ATTITUDE TO SCHOOL Indicates negative attitudes
    toward school child may display or report
  • Bad feelings about school
  • Boredom in school
  • ATTITUDE TO TEACHERS Indicates negative attitudes
    toward teachers child may report
  • Not being cared about
  • Being treated unfairly
  • SENSATION SEEKING
  • (ages 12 21 only) Indicates a relatively high
    level of sensation seeking child may report
  • Getting into fights
  • Taking risks
  • ATYPICALITY Indicates an above-average number of
    unusual behaviors or thought child may report
  • Lacking thought control
  • Hearing strange voices
  • LOCUS OF CONTROL Indicates a below-average sense
    of control child may report
  • Being controlled by parents
  • Bad things happening
  • SOCIAL STRESS Indicates a relatively high number
    of stressful feelings in social situations child
    may report
  • Being lonely
  • Feeling out of place
  • ANXIETY Indicates a relatively high number of
    anxious feelings child may report
  • Being nervous
  • Worrying
  • DEPRESSION Indicates a relatively high number of
    depressed feelings child may report
  • Not caring about things
  • Not feeling understood

53
Report Writing SRP (contd)
  • SENSE OF INADEQUACY Indicates a relatively high
    number of feeling of inadequacy child may
    display or report
  • Quitting easily
  • Sense of failure
  • SOMATIZATION (ages 12 21 only)Indicates a
    relatively high number of health worries or
    complains child may excessively complain of
  • Headaches
  • Stomachaches
  • ATTENTION PROBLEMS Indicates problematic levels
    of paying attention child may report
  • Having a short attention span
  • Forgetting things
  • HYPERACTIVITY Indicates problematic levels of
    activity child may report
  • Having trouble sitting still
  • Being too noisy
  • RELATIONS WITH PARENTS Indicates problematic
    relationship with parents child may display or
    report
  • Lack of trust
  • Not being close with parents
  • INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS Indicates relatively poor
    interpersonal relations child may display or
    report
  • Not being liked
  • Not being respected
  • SELF-ESTEEM Indicates below-average levels of
    self-esteem child may display or report
  • Concerns about looks
  • Wanting to be someone else
  • SELF-RELIANCE Indicates below-average levels of
    self-reliance child may display or report
  • Lack of dependability
  • Difficulty making decisions

54
TRS/PRS Report Writing
  • HYPERACTIVITY Indicates problematic levels of
    activity child may display or engage in
  • ? Bothering other children
  • ? Rushing through things
  • AGGRESSION Indicates problematic levels of
    aggression child may display or engage in
  • ? Threats
  • ? Hitting others
  • CONDUCT PROBLEMS
  • (ages 6 21 only) Indicates a problematic levels
    of conduct problems child may engage in
  • ? Lies
  • ? Breaks rules
  • ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING Indicates below
    average daily living skills that may include
  • Needs help dressing
  • Acts safely
  • ANXIETY Indicates problematic levels of anxiety
    child may display
  • ? Nervousness
  • ? Worry
  • DEPRESSION Indicates problematic levels of
    depression child may display or complain of
  • ? Sadness
  • ? Being overwhelmed
  • SOMATIZATION Indicates problematic levels of
    somatization child may display or complain of
  • ? Headaches
  • ? General pain

55
TRS/PRS Report Writing (contd)
  • ADAPTABILITY Indicates below-average
    adaptability that may include
  • ? Difficulty switching tasks
  • ? Difficulty adjusting to change
  • SOCIAL SKILLS Indicates below-average social
    skills that may include
  • ? Does not complement others
  • ? Unwillingness to volunteer
  • LEADERSHIP Indicates below-average leadership
    that may include
  • ? Indecisiveness
  • ? Makes poor suggestions
  • STUDY SKILLS (ages 6 21 only) Indicates
    below-average study skills that may include
  • ? Incomplete homework
  • ? Poor study habits
  • FUNCTIONAL COMMUNICATION Indicates below-average
    communication skills that may include
  • ? Unclear communication
  • ? Cannot describe own feelings
  • ATTENTION PROBLEMS Indicates problematic levels
    of paying attention child may display
  • ? Trouble listening
  • ? Being distracted
  • LEARNING PROBLEMS (ages 6 21 only) Indicates
    problems with learning in areas that may include
  • ? Reading/math
  • ? Organization skills
  • ATYPICALITY Indicates problematic levels of
    unusual behavior or thoughts child may display
    or engage in
  • ? Strange behavior
  • ? Babbling
  • WITHDRAWAL Indicates problematic levels of
    withdrawal child may display or report
  • ? Trouble making friends
  • ? Avoidance of others

56
Assessment for Intervention
  • Define target behaviors via history, interviews,
    rating scales, and observations
  • Establish baseline behavioral adjustment using
    rating scales and/or observations
  • Assess intervention/treatment effectiveness with
    minimum of three (3) rating scales and/or
    observations
  • Adjust intervention/treatment based on findings

57
Student Observation System (SOS)
  • Both adaptive and maladaptive behaviors are
    observed
  • Multiple methods are used including, A) clinician
    rating, B) time sampling, and C) qualitative
    recording of classroom functional contingencies
  • A generous time interval is allocated for
    recording the results of each time sampling
    interval (27 seconds)
  • Operational definitions of behaviors and time
    sampling categories are included in the BASC
    manual
  • Inter-rater reliabilities for the time sampling
    portion are high which lends confidence that
    independent observers are likely to observe the
    same trends in childs classroom behavior (Lett,
    N. J., Kamphaus, R. W. (1997). Differential
    validity of the BASC Student Observation System
    and the BASC Teacher Rating Scale. Canadian
    Journal of School Psychology, 13, 1-14)

58
SOS
  • Part A - Treatment/IEP Planning frequency,
    range, and disruptiveness of classroom behavior
  • Part B - Treatment/Program evaluation of
    effectiveness (track change with ADHD Monitor
    software)
  • Part C - Functional analysis of antecedents,
    behavior, and consequences (e.g. teacher position)

59
SOS Scales
  • Adaptive Scales
  • Response to teacher
  • Work on school subjects
  • Peer interaction
  • Transition movement
  • Behavior Problem Scales
  • Inappropriate movement
  • Inattention
  • Inappropriate vocalization
  • Somatization
  • Repetitive motor movements
  • Aggression
  • Self-injurious behavior
  • Inappropriate sexual behavior
  • Bowel/bladder problems

60
Using Part B
  • There is typically no need to select target
    behaviors to observe (Tallent, 1999)
  • Schedule the observation period at a time of day
    and, in a class, where problems are known to be
    of teacher or parent concern so that problem
    behaviors can be observed. In addition, the
    examiner may want to also observe in a class
    where problems are not present
  • Use an observer who is either already familiar to
    the school, or introduced to the teacher ahead of
    time
  • Develop a timing mechanism (BASC POP recommended)

61
SOS Part B Scoring
  • Response to Teacher/Lesson This category
    describes the students appropriate academic
    behaviors involving the teacher or class. This
    category does not include working on school
    subjects (see Category 3)
  • Peer Interaction This category assesses positive
    or appropriate interactions with other students
  • Work on School Subjects This category includes
    appropriate academic behaviors that the student
    engages in alone, without interacting with others
  • Transition Movement This category is for
    appropriate and nondisruptive behaviors of
    children while moving from one activity or place
    to another. Most are out-of-seat behaviors and
    may be infrequent during a classroom observation
    period.
  • Inappropriate Movement This category is intended
    for inappropriate motor behaviors that are
    unrelated to classroom work
  • Inattention This category includes inattentive
    behaviors that are not disruptive
  • Inappropriate Vocalization This category includes
    disruptive vocal behaviors. Only vocal behavior
    should be checked.

62
SOS Part B Scoring (contd)
  • Somatization This category includes behaviors
    regardless of inferred reason (e.g., a student
    may be sleeping because of medication, boredom,
    or poor achievement motivation).
  • Repetitive Motor Movement This category includes
    repetitive behaviors (both disruptive and
    non-disruptive) that appear to have no external
    reward. Generally, the behaviors should be of
    15-second duration or longer to be checked, and
    may be more likely to be checked on Part A than
    on Part B because of their repetitive nature.
    They may, however, be checked during either part.
  • Aggression This category includes harmful
    behaviors directed at another student, the
    teacher, or property. The student must attempt
    to hurt another or destroy property for the
    behavior to be checked in this category.
    Aggressive play would not be included here.
  • Self-Injurious Behavior This category includes
    severe behaviors that attempt to injure ones
    self. There behaviors should not be confused
    with self-stimulatory behaviors. This category
    is intended to capture behaviors of children with
    severe disabilities who are being served in
    special classes in schools and institutions.

63
BASC IDEA
  • Impaired relations Social Stress, Interpersonal
    Relations, Social Skills, Relations with Parents,
    Withdrawal, Atypicality
  • Inability to learn Learning Problems and any
    clinical scale elevations
  • Inappropriate behavior Atypicality, Withdrawal
  • Unhappiness/depression Depression, Sense of
    Inadequacy
  • Physical symptoms/complaints Somatization

64
Optional Content Scales
  • Empirically based scales designed to identify
    potential problems of particular interest that
    may warrant further exploration
  • Developed for all levels of TRS/PRS SRP-A and
    SRP-COL levels
  • Available only on BASC-2 ASSIST Plus Software

65
Optional TRS/PRS Content Scales
  • Anger Control - The tendency to become irritated
    and angry quickly and impulsively, coupled with
    an inability to regulate affect and control
    during such periods
  • Bullying - The tendency to be intrusive, cruel,
    or threatening toward others, or to use force in
    order to be manipulative or to get want is wanted

66
Optional TRS/PRS Content Scales
  • Developmental Social Disorders - The tendency to
    display behaviors characterized by deficits in
    social skills, communication, interests, and
    activities. Such behaviors may include
    self-stimulation, withdrawal, and inappropriate
    socializations
  • Emotional Self-Control - The ability to regulate
    ones affect and emotions in response to
    environmental changes

67
Optional TRS/PRS Content Scales
  • Executive Functioning - The ability to control
    behavior by planning, anticipating, inhibiting,
    maintaining goal-directed activity, and reacting
    appropriately to environmental feedback in a
    purposeful, meaningful way
  • Negative Emotionality - The tendency to view
    everyday interactions or events in an overly
    negative or aversive way and to react negatively
    to any changes in plans or routines
  • Resiliency - The ability to access support
    systems, both internal and external, to alleviate
    stress and overcome adversity or difficult
    circumstances

68
Optional SRP-A/COL Content Scales
  • Anger Control - The tendency to become irritated
    and angry quickly and impulsively, coupled with
    an inability to regulate affect and control
    during such periods
  • Ego Strength - The expression of a strong sense
    of ones identity and overall emotional
    competence, including feelings of self-awareness,
    self-acceptance, and perception of ones social
    support network

69
Optional SRP-A/COL Content Scales
  • Mania - The tendency to experience extended
    periods of heightened arousal, excessive activity
    (at times with an obsessive focus), and rapid
    idea generation without the presence of normal
    fatigue
  • Test Anxiety - The tendency to experience
    irrational worry and fear of taking routine
    structured school tests of aptitude or academic
    skills regardless of the degree of preparation or
    study or confidence in ones knowledge of the
    content to be covered

70
Morgan Chronic depression and anxiety
  • Morgan is an 8th grade student referred for
    determination of ADHD and Learning Disabilities.
    Previous diagnoses included Major Depression and
    Generalized Anxiety Disorder, for which she is on
    medication. Morgans current medications include
    Prozac and Respiradol for depression and Zantac
    for stomach pain. She is currently engaged in
    psychotherapy.
  • Concentration problems have been particularly
    evident since grade 7. Reportedly, Morgan
    requires absolute quiet to complete assignments
    and she has difficulty remaining on task.
    Morgans mother denied complaints of inattention
    and concentration problems when Morgan was in
    elementary school.
  • With regard to academic attainment, Morgan has
    evidenced academic difficulties since grade 2. In
    the past 1 1/2 years her marks have significantly
    decreased.
  • Morgans mother indicated that Morgan exhibits
    considerable oppositional defiant behavior with
    temper outbursts when denied a request. Morgans
    mother also noted that she is quite emotional
    with frequent crying outbursts.

71
Morgans BASC Results
  • Scale Parent Rating Teacher (English)
    Self-Report
  • Hyperactivity 52 55 48
  • Aggression 57 49
  • Conduct Problems 70 60
  • Anxiety 45 63 61
  • Depression 100 67 80
  • Sense of Inadequacy 72
  • Somatization 70 77 65
  • Social Stress 63
  • Atypicality 68 61 55
  • Locus of Control 73
  • Withdrawal 84
  • Attention Problems 79 70 67
  • Adaptability 40 50
  • ADL 51 55
  • FCom 55 49
  • Social Skills 38 38
  • Leadership 34 33
  • Attitude to School 71

72
Development of the BASC2
  • Items selected based on
  • Standardized item loading in SEM analyses
  • Item-total correlation
  • Item bias statistics (5 items removed)
  • Construct relevance
  • Approximately 1/3 new items on TRS/PRS forms

73
Item Development Sample
Form Items Sample Size
TRS-P 185 1,023
TRS-C 252 2,010
TRS-A 248 1,536
PRS-P 243 1,368
PRS-C 306 2,231
PRS-A 284 1,886
SRP-C 198 2,033
SRP-A 256 3,180
SRP-COL 270 705
74
BASC2 Standardization Sample
  • General normative sample was be stratified by
  • Sex by race/ethnicity
  • Sex by region
  • Sex by mothers education level

75
TRS General Norm Sample
Form Ages Female Female Male Male Total
Form Ages N N N
TRS 23 200 50 200 50 400
TRS 45 325 50 325 50 650
TRS 67 300 50 300 50 600
TRS 811 600 50 600 50 1,200
TRS 1214 400 50 400 50 800
TRS 1518 500 50 500 50 1,000
76
PRS General Norm Sample
Form Ages Female Female Male Male Total
Form Ages N N N
PRS 23 250 50 250 50 500
PRS 45 350 50 350 50 700
PRS 67 300 50 300 50 600
PRS 811 600 50 600 50 1,200
PRS 1214 400 50 400 50 800
PRS 1518 500 50 500 50 1,000
77
SRP General Norm Sample
Form Ages Female Female Male Male Total
Form Ages N N N
SRP 811 750 50 750 50 1,500
SRP 1214 450 50 450 50 900
SRP 1518 500 50 500 50 1,000
78
Clinical Norm Samples Offered
  • Conditions
  • All Clinical Conditions (Ages 4-18), Combined,
    Female, Male
  • Learning Disability (Ages 6-18) , Combined,
    Female, Male
  • ADHD (Ages 6-18) , Combined, Female, Male
  • Age ranges
  • 4-5
  • 6-11
  • 12-18

79
TRS Reliabilities Median Range
Level Alpha Test-Retest
P .86 (.75.92) .83 (.72.92)
C .88 (.78.94) .88 (.65.92)
A .87 (.80.95) .79 (.66.91)
80
PRS Reliabilities Median Range
Level Alpha Test-Retest
P .81 (.70.88) .76 (.66.88)
C .85 (.73.88) .84 (.65.87)
A .85 (.72.88) .82 (.72.87)
81
SRP Reliabilities Median Range
Level Alpha Test-Retest
C .80 (.72.86) .73 (.64.82)
A .80 (.67.88) .75 (.63.84)
82
Effects of Child Sex and Culture
  • Parent ratings are invariant in level across 12
    countries with consistent patterns for age and
    child sex (e.g. China, Sweden, India, U.S. etc.
    Crijnen, Achenbach, Verhulst, 1999)
  • Teacher and Parent ratings for BASC were
    invariant in level between Medellin, Colombia and
    U.S. with consistent patterns for age and child
    sex (Kamphaus DiStefano, 2001)
  • Cluster analyses across metropolitan, rural, and
    Medellin samples reveal a similar structure of
    behavioral adjustment (DiStefano, Kamphaus,
    Horne, Winsor, 2003 Kamphaus, DiStefano
    Lease, 2003 DiStefano Kamphaus, 2001
    Kamphaus, Huberty, DiStefano, Petoskey, 1997).

83
Effects of Culture
84
Effects of Child Sex
85
Its as Easy as ABC (i.e., ASEBA, BASC-2, CRS-R)
A Comparison (2005, National Assoc of School
Psychologists, Atlanta)
  • Rob Altmann, MA
  • AGS Publishing
  • Cecil Reynolds, PhD
  • Texas AM University

86
Sample for PRS Studies
PRS-P PRS-C PRS-C PRS-A PRS-A
CBCL CBCL CPRS-R CBCL CPRS-R
Sex F, M 29, 24 31,34 30, 30 35, 32 29, 26
Race AA, H, O, W 3, 7, 1, 42 13, 12, 2, 38 7, 5, 5, 43, 13, 6, 4, 44 11, 4, 3, 37
Region NE, NC, S, W 10, 16, 11, 16 2, 28, 16, 19 6, 28, 18, 8 15, 12, 20, 20 8, 14, 17, 16
Mothers Ed. lt11, HS/GED, 1-3 yrs., 4 yrs. 3, 25, 22, 15 3, 25, 22, 15 1, 19, 21, 19 3, 28, 21, 14 4, 19, 20, 12
87
PRS-P with CBCL 1 ½-5
88
PRS-C with CBCL 6-18
89
PRS-A with CBCL 6-18
90
PRS-C with CPRS-R
91
PRS-A with CPRS-R
92
TRS-P with TRF 1 -5
93
TRS-C with TRF 6-18
94
TRS-A with TRF 6-18
95
TRS-C with CTRS-R
96
TRS-A with CTRS-R
97
Development of PRS and SRP Spanish Forms
  • Firm experienced in translating psychological
    tests completed initial translation
  • Bilingual psychologists from across US reviewed
    the materials
  • Additional rounds of changes made to develop
    standardization item sets
  • Psychometric properties of Spanish items were
    evaluated prior to making final item selections
  • Forms completed by Spanish speakers were included
    in the norming samples

98
A Comparative Study Using Parent Behavior Rating
Scales, Spanish Editions (2005, National
Association of School Psychologists, Atlanta)
  • Rob Altmann, MA
  • AGS Publishing
  • Randy W. Kamphaus, PhD
  • University of Georgia
  • AGS Publishing gratefully acknowledges Yahaira
    Marquez for her assistance with this project.

99
Method
  • Participants 83 parents from Puerto Rico and 167
    parents from the United States
  • Measures
  • Parent Rating Scales-Child (Ages 6-11)
  • Child Behavior Checklist 6-18 (Ages 6-18)
  • Procedure Parents in Puerto Rico were asked to
    voluntarily complete a PRS-C form as part of a
    larger dissertation project parents in the
    United States voluntarily completed the PRS-C
    form as part of the BASC-2 standardization
    project all parents were paid a nominal amount
    for their participation

100
Table 1. Sample Characteristics
Results
United States Puerto Rico
Sample Size 167 83
Median Age (Years) 9 9
Sex (Female, Male) 76, 91 41, 42
Race (Hispanic, White, Other) 167, 0, 0 62, 10, 3
Rater (Mother, Father, Other) 138, 27, 2 77, 3, 3
Rater Education (lt HS, HS/GED, 1-3 yr. college, 4 yr. college) 122, 31, 5, 9 10, 30, 24, 17
Note. 1-4 yr. college for Puerto Rico sample.
101
Table 2. Alpha Reliabilities
United States Puerto Rico Puerto Rico
Composite PRS-C PRS-C CBCL 6-18
Externalizing Problems .90 .89 .88
Internalizing Problems .78 .82 .77
Adaptive Skills .91 .92 --
Behavioral Symptoms Index/Total Problems .92 .91 .89
102
Table 2. Alpha Reliabilities (cont.)
United States Puerto Rico Puerto Rico
Scale PRS-C PRS-C CBCL 6-18
Hyperactivity/ADHD .74 .80 .78
Attention Problems .76 .82 .84
Aggression .79 .75 .89
Conduct Problems/Rule Breaking, Conduct Prob. .76 .81 .50, .67
Oppositional Defiant Prob. -- -- .78
Anxiety/Anxiety-Dep., Anxiety Prob. .61 .71 .72, .63
Depression/Affective Prob. .79 .74 .54
103
Table 2. Alpha Reliabilities (cont.)
United States Puerto Rico Puerto Rico
Scale PRS-C PRS-C CBCL 6-18
Som./Som. Cmp., Som. Prb. .68 .75 .55, .61
Atypicality/Thought Problems .74 .75 .68
Withdrawal/Withdrawn-Dep. .65 .69 .58
Adaptability .67 .71 --
Social Skills/Social Problems .74 .82 .61
Leadership .75 .75 --
Activities of Daily Living .68 .70 --
Functional Communication .76 .79 --
Median (All Scales) .74 .75 .65
104
Table 3. PRS-C and CBCL 6-18 Correlations
CBCL 6-18 CBCL 6-18 CBCL 6-18
BASC-2 Ext. Prob. Int. Prob. Total Prob.
Ext. Prob. .72 .31 .63
Int. Prob. .30 .63 .48
Adt. Skills -.48 -.33 -.60
BSI .69 .52 .78
105
Figure 1. PRS-C and CBCL 6-18 Mean Score
Comparisons
106
PROCESO DE ADAPTACIÓN
1- Traducción de los cuestionarios. 2- Revisión
de la traducción. 3- Elaboración de 2 ítems
nuevos para cada escala. 4- Revisión de los
cuestionarios. 5- Aplicación del S2 y S3 a 170
sujetos de diferentes niveles socioeconómicos
para comprobar la comprensión de los ítems. 6-
Modificación de la redacción de algunos ítems. 7-
Selección ítems en función de índice de
atracción, consistencia interna, correlación y
saturación. 8 Muestra total 1.900 aprox. 9
Fiabilidad Test retest 3 meses.
107
Diferencias en función del sexo T y P
108
BASC Contacts/Information
  • psychologicalforum.com includes sample cases,
    research bibliography, and discussion centers for
    BASC users
  • Randy Kamphaus, rkamp_at_uga.edu or Cecil Reynolds,
    crrh_at_earthlink.net
  • AGS, 4201 Woodland Road, P.O. Box 99, Circle
    Pines, MN 55014-1796 1 800 328 2560
    www.agsnet.com
  • PSYCAN Corporation,12-120 West Beaver Creek Road,
    Richmond Hill, Ontario, L4B 1L2, 1 800 263 3558
  • Reynolds, C.R. Kamphaus, R.W. (2002). A
    clinicians guide to the BASC. Guilford
    Publications, guilford.com
  • TEA Ediciones, Madrid, Manual Moderno, Mexico City
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