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Title: SOL Quiz 8


1
SOL Quiz 8
  • China

2
1. In order to show respect to the emperor a
person performed a series of three low bows, with
the forehead actually touching the ground. This
series of bows was known as the a. tea
ceremony b. Great Leap Forward c. divination d.
Kowtow
In order to show respect to the emperor a person
performed the kowtow. The kowtow was a series of
three deep bows in which the person's forehead
actually touched or knocked on the ground. By
performing this act of submission, the person
acknowledged the superior status of the emperor.
3
2. The major text of Confucianism is the a.
Analects b. Dao De Jing c. Koran d. Torah
The disciples of Confucius (551-479 B.C.)
recorded the major tenets of Confucianism in the
Analects after the philosopher's death.
Confucianism stressed social conformity,
obedience to authority, and respect for one's
elders. In general, Confucianism maintained that
through education, and by following the exemplary
behavior of one's superiors, the people of
society could be shaped into a harmonious and
orderly whole.
4
3. What major contribution did Confucius make to
the cultural development of China? a. He created
a system of cooking in which food is finely
diced and sauteed in a wok. b. He created a
system of ethics which, if followed, would lead
to a stable and harmonious society. c. He
created a system of brush painting and
calligraphy. d. He created a system of herbal
medicine to ease the suffering of the sick.
Confucius created a system of ethics and behavior
which, if followed, would lead to a stable and
harmonious society. Many of Confucius's ideas,
which were recorded in the "Analects" by his
disciples, codified practices already in
existence in Chinese society -- such as filial
piety. While Confucianism originally began as a
code of conduct, it became a religious system for
some people who worshipped Confucius as a deity.
5
4. Which of the following was NOT a principle of
Confucianism? a. emphasis on proper conduct b.
filial piety c. social conformity d. individual
rights
Individual rights were NOT stressed in
Confucianism since it was believed that the group
was more important than the individual.
Confucianism promoted peace and harmony by
stressing social conformity, obedience to
authority, and respect for one's elders.
Confucius's sayings were recorded in the book
known as the "Analects." According to Confucius,
there were five important social relationships
friend to friend, son to father, subject to
emperor, younger brother to older brother, and
wife to husband.
6
5. In Confucianism's four-class system, which
group sat at the top of the hierarchy? a.
nobility b. merchants c. peasants d. Scholars
Within Confucianism's four-class system, scholars
sat at the top of the hierarchy. This
positioning highlighted the importance that the
Confucian value system placed on education.
Peasant farmers occupied the second highest
class. The farmer earned respect because he
produced food for the large Chinese population.
Artisans occupied the position below peasants.
Although merchants may have been wealthy, Chinese
society did not view them as highly since wealth
lacked importance in the Confucian value system.
This four-class system omitted the nobility.
7
6. Which of the following was NOT part of the
traditional religious practice of a Chinese
family? a. keeping a family shrine b. ancestor
worship c. monotheism d. making offerings of rice
and wine
The ancient Chinese did NOT practice monotheism.
Instead, many spirits and gods filled the Chinese
religious system. For example, Guan Yin was the
Goddess of Mercy and appeared in a thousand
forms. Many people even worshipped the
philosopher Confucius as a deity.
8
7. Which of the following people is believed to
be the founder of Daoism? a. Confucius b.
Mencius c. Lao-Zi d. Siddhartha Gautama
Lao-Zi is credited with founding Daoism in the
6th century B.C. His writings can be found in a
volume titled "Dao De Jing" ("Tao Te Ching"), the
Way of Virtue. Daoism, with its emphasis on the
individual, became an alternative to Confucianism.
9
8. What do yin and yang represent in Chinese
culture? a. two ancient Chinese painters b.
opposing forces in nature c. two rivers in
China d. an ancient Chinese musical system
Yin and yang are believed by the Chinese to be
the major energy forces of life. Both yin and
yang are to be found within every natural object.
They are frequently shown as two parts of a
divided circle, representing a balance of
opposing forces. Yin is negative, feminine,
cool, dark, secret, and submissive.
10
9. Which of the following beliefs do we associate
with Legalism? a. belief in reincarnation b.
belief in polytheism c. belief that minor
offenses should be punished severely d. belief
that the best government places the fewest
restrictions on its citizens
We associate with Legalism the belief that minor
offenses should be punished severely. Legalism
was a philosophy which developed in ancient China
at the end of the Zhou era. It was concerned
primarily with the political system. It was
believed that rulers had the right to make laws
which must be obeyed by all people. Minor
offenses were punished severely to discourage the
people from committing more serious ones. As a
result, in ancient Chinese society the emperor
had great power.
11
10. The combination of Legalism and Confucianism
which the Han Dynasty (206 B.C.- 220 A.D.)
implemented as its ruling ideology is called a.
Legalistic Confucianism b. Shintoism c. Daoism d.
Imperial Confucianism
The Han Dynasty implemented a combination of
Legalism and Confucianism as their ruling
ideology, an ideology called Imperial
Confucianism. In calling it "Imperial
Confucianism," this ideology is distinguished
from the original teachings of Confucius. Unlike
Legalism, Imperial Confucianism recognized that a
ruler could not exercise power solely through the
threat of violence. The ruler needed to set a
positive, moral example for his subjects, thereby
encouraging others to embrace his leadership.
12
11. The attitude of respect and devotion to one's
family observed in Chinese society, especially in
the Imperial era, is known as a. animism b.
reincarnation c. ethnocentrism d. filial piety
Filial piety is the Chinese belief, especially
prevalent in imperial times, which demanded an
attitude of respect and devotion toward one's
family. Filial piety pre-dated Confucianism, but
upon the establishment of that belief system, it
was incorporated as a main tenet of Confucian
thought.
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