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SOL Quiz 4

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The adoption of cuneiform writing by the Babylonians, Assyrians, and Hittites is ... Cuneiform writing was used in the Middle East for thousands of years before it ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: SOL Quiz 4


1
SOL Quiz 4
  • Middle Eastern Civilizations

2
1. All of the following are necessary for a
Neolithic culture to evolve into a civilization,
EXCEPT a. the development of a system of public
education for the community b. job specialization
with different groups performing different
tasks c. the growth of a settlement large enough
to be a city d. a centralized government for the
city
The first civilizations did not need a system of
public education because children could be taught
necessary work, social, and survival skills
within the family. Sometimes arrangements were
made with artisans to teach specialized skills to
children as apprentices. First civilization had
to have cities ruled by a central government, and
people had to acquire specialized jobs as
priests, builders, potters, carpenters, etc.
Such work specialization, however, could only
develop when farmers produced a food surplus to
feed these artisans and religious and government
officials.
3
2. The city-states of Sumer, the world's earliest
civilization, developed in a. Mesopotamia b.
Egypt c. the Levant d. Anatolia
The early civilization of the city-states of
Sumer developed in Mesopotamia on the plains
between the southern parts of the Tigris and
Euphrates rivers and on the delta formed where
the rivers joined before entering the Persian
Gulf. The first civilizations began between 4000
B.C. and 3500 B.C.
4
3. The source of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers
is in a. the mountains of Iran (then Persia) b.
Mesopotamia c. the mountains of Turkey (then
Anatolia) d. the Persian Gulf
All major rivers have their source in the
mountains. Both the Tigris and Euphrates rivers
begin in the mountains of Turkey to the north and
flow south to empty into the Persian Gulf.
Mesopotamia means "land between the rivers."
5
4. The Fertile Crescent was a major means of
migration in ancient times because a. rivers flow
through all of the land in the arc of the Fertile
Crescent b. it is the shortest distance between
Mesopotamia and the Mediterranean Sea c. the land
of the Fertile Crescent can support agriculture
and grazing d. other routes from Mesopotamia to
the Mediterranean are blocked by water
The Fertile Crescent was an important avenue of
migration because the land is relatively flat and
can support agriculture and grazing. Migrations
took many years, so people grazed their herds
along the way and sometimes planted crops and
stayed in place for a number of years. The
Fertile Crescent is believed to be the route
followed by the ancient Hebrews from Ur in
Mesopotamia to the Mediterranean coast.
6
5. Scribes became important in Sumerian and
Egyptian life because they a. were the only
people who could read and write b. judged
property disputes after the annual floods
receded c. taught the priests and nobles to read
and write d. were the poets, authors, and
scholars of the time
Scribes were important because they were the only
people in the culture who could read and write
the difficult cuneiform or hieroglyphics forms of
written language. To be a scribe was a highly
specialized skill learned only after years of
apprenticeship and study. The scribes kept
records of commercial transactions and court
judgments, wrote and read communications, and
kept the official government archives. Their
work was essential to the orderly functioning of
the society, but it was not creative, unless they
chose to write literature in their spare time.
7
6. The people in the highest social class in the
city-states of Sumer were a. artisans b.
scribes c. farmers d. Priests
The priests of the temple were the highest social
class in Sumer. They led the prayers and called
for the sacrifices to the gods to ask their
favors for a good harvest. The priests were the
most important leaders in the city-states until
the warrior chiefs came to power as kings.
Scribes and artisans were members of the small
middle class whereas farmers, the vast majority
of the people, were the lowest social class, but
above slaves in social standing.
8
7. The Egyptians built pyramids as a. temples b.
tombs c. monuments to victories d. lookout towers
The pyramids of Egypt were built as tombs for
kings of the Old Kingdom. They were built
entirely of blocks of stone, except for passages
that led to inner chambers where the body of the
pharaoh and many possessions were placed. After
entombment, the passages were filled in.
However, all pyramids were later invaded by
robbers seeking the wealth of the pharaohs.
9
8. Cuneiform writing originated with the
Sumerians about 5,300 years ago. The adoption of
cuneiform writing by the Babylonians, Assyrians,
and Hittites is an example of a. nationalism b.
economic determinism c. cultural diffusion d.
ethnic identity
Cultural diffusion is the spread of cultural
factors, teachings, and skills originating in one
society to another. The Babylonians, Assyrians,
and Hittites were later civilizations that
developed north of the Sumerians and conquered
Mesopotamia. The Babylonians who conquered the
Sumerians learned their system of writing, which
was passed on through later conquests and other
cultural contacts. Cuneiform writing was used in
the Middle East for thousands of years before it
was replaced by simpler forms of writing.
10
9. In ancient times, coins made from gold and
silver gradually replaced which commonly used
means of exchange in commerce? a. beads and
shells b. cuneiform tablets c. slaves d. Barter
Barter was the most common means of exchange
before coins were used beginning sometime before
700 B.C. Coins were first used in Lydia, a
kingdom in northwest Anatolia. The use of coins
spread rapidly among merchants after the Persians
encouraged the development of a money economy.
However, barter continued as the medium of
exchange among peasants and in the local village
economy.
11
10. Which culture is MOST closely associated with
seafaring, trading, and establishing colonies on
other continents that border the Mediterranean
Sea? a. Phoenicians b. Assyrians c. Hittites d.
Egyptians
The Phoenicians who lived along the Levant became
a major seafaring and trading nation. They sent
ships and colonists to Spain and Sicily in Europe
and to North Africa where they established the
cities of Carthage and Utica. The Assyrians and
Hittites were militant nations that invaded other
regions with land armies. The Egyptians sent out
merchant ships that influenced island cultures in
the eastern Mediterranean, but did not establish
colonies.
12
11. Christianity FIRST began as an outgrowth of
which religion? a. Zoroastrianism b. the religion
of the Phoenicians c. Judaism d. the religion of
the Egyptians
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