Development, Advancement and Modernity - Science and Technology and its Impact on Society and the Environment - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Development, Advancement and Modernity - Science and Technology and its Impact on Society and the Environment PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 44af04-Nzk3N



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Development, Advancement and Modernity - Science and Technology and its Impact on Society and the Environment

Description:

Topic 3 Development, Advancement and Modernity - Science and Technology and its Impact on Society and the Environment Assoc Prof Dr Sharifah Norazizan Syed Abd Rashid ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:570
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 76
Provided by: SFY4
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Development, Advancement and Modernity - Science and Technology and its Impact on Society and the Environment


1
Topic 3
  • Development, Advancement and Modernity -Science
    and Technology and its Impact on Society and the
    Environment
  • Assoc Prof Dr Sharifah Norazizan Syed Abd Rashid
    APPM
  • Department of Social and Development Science
  • Faculty of Human Ecology, UPM
  • sharifah_at_putra.upm.edu.my

2
Content
  • Science and Technology and its Impact on Society
    and the Environment
  • Positive and negative impacts on
  • - the environment
  • - society
  • Global Crisis

3
GROWTH DEVELOPMENT
  • Economic growth provides people with more goods
    and services.
  • Measured in gross domestic product (GDP) and
    purchasing power parity (PPP). PPPs are
    indicators of price level differences across
    countries. PPP compares the standard of living
    between countries by taking into account the
    impact of their exchange rates.
  • Economic development uses economic growth to
    improve living standards.
  • The worlds countries economic status (developed
    vs. developing) are based on their degree of
    industrialization and GDP-PPP.

4
The New Global Setting
  • Increased financial, trade, investment and
    technology flows
  • Rapid and accelerating technological progress,
    including ICTs, biotechnology, new materials,
    electronics, robotics have both positive and
    negative impacts on society and the environment.
  • New managerial and organizational systems
  • New international rules and regulations trade,
    quality, environment, intellectual property rights

5
Science and Technology and its impact on the
environment
  • Understand the definition of technology
  • Difference between science and technology
  • The human limitations, and the technology we use
    to overcome them
  • Explore the characteristics of technology and the
    resources of technology Renewable and
    non-renewable resource

6
What is Technology?
  • Technology is the modification of the natural
    environment in order to satisfy perceived human
    needs and wants.
  • The application of knowledge, tools, and
    processes to solve practical problems and extend
    human capabilities.
  • Technological literacy is the ability to use,
    manage, assess, and understand technology.

7
How is Technology different than Science?
  • Technology is the application of knowledge.
    Science is the accumulation of knowledge.
  • Technology is the use of knowledge to turn
    resources into the goods and services that
    society needs. Science is the study of WHY
    natural things happen the way they do.
  • SCIENCE answers the question WHY
  • TECHNOLOGY answers the question HOW?

8
Characteristics of Technology
  • evident in all cultures
  • knowledge based
  • fundamental to humanity
  • fundamental to survival
  • extends our capabilities
  • is accumulative
  • alters our culture
  • future oriented
  • observable
  • seeks harmony

9
Resources for Technology
  • Perpetual On a human time scale are continuous.
  • Renewable On a human time scale can be
    replenished rapidly (e.g. hours to several
    decades).
  • Nonrenewable On a human time scale are in fixed
    supply.

10
(No Transcript)
11
What Keeps Us Alive?
  • Solar
  • Natural

12
Natural Capital Degradation
  • The exponential increasing flow of material
    resources through the worlds economic systems
    depletes, degrades and pollutes the environment.

13
Back
14
Causes of Environmental Problems
  • The major causes of environmental problems are
  • Population growth
  • Wasteful resource use
  • Poverty
  • Poor environmental accounting
  • Ecological ignorance

15
(No Transcript)
16
SOLAR CAPITAL
EARTH
Goods and services
Heat
Human Economic and Cultural Systems
Human Capital
Depletion of nonrenewable resources
Degradation of renewable resources
Natural Capital
Pollution and waste
Recycling and reuse
17
Poverty Environmental Problems
  • 1 of 3 children under 5, suffer from severe
    malnutrition.

18
Resource Consumption and Environmental Problems
  • Underconsumption
  • Overconsumption
  • Affluenza unsustainable addiction to
    overconsumption and materialism.

19
Connections between Environmental Problems and
Their Causes
20
Global Perspective
21
(No Transcript)
22
THE TECHNOLOGY DIVIDE OUTLOOK
  • A small number of industrialized countries
    provide practically all the worlds technology
    innovation.
  • Some developing countries are able to adopt these
    technologies in production and consumption.
  • The remaining part is technologically
    disconnected, neither innovating nor adopting
    foreign technologies.

23
Planet Earth is Impacted -The Developed and
Developing Worlds
  • Ecological Footprints -The ecological footprint
    is a measure of human demand on the Earth's
    ecosystems.
  • United States - 5 hectares/person
  • Developing nations - 0.5 hectare/person
  • For everyone to live at todays US footprint
    would require 3 planet Earths
  • Increasing affluence and population is damaging
    Earths essential ecology

24
Our Ecological Footprint
  • Humanitys ecological footprint has exceeded
    earths ecological capacity.

25
Our Planet in Danger
  • Atmospheric pollution and climate change
  • Water pollution, including ground aquifers
  • Deforestation and loss of oxygenation
  • The oceans, coral reefs and their bounty
  • National parks, wildernesses and wetlands
  • Nonrenewable natural resource depletion
  • Biodiversity is in Danger
  • Global warming

26
Planet Earth is Impacted -The Developed and
Developing Worlds
  • Ecological Footprints -The ecological footprint
    is a measure of human demand on the Earth's
    ecosystems.
  • United States - 5 hectares/person
  • Developing nations - 0.5 hectare/person
  • For everyone to live at todays US footprint
    would require 3 planet Earths
  • Increasing affluence and population is damaging
    Earths essential ecology

27
Our Ecological Footprint
  • Humanitys ecological footprint has exceeded
    earths ecological capacity.

28
Our Planet in Danger
  • Atmospheric pollution and climate change
  • Water pollution, including ground aquifers
  • Deforestation and loss of oxygenation
  • The oceans, coral reefs and their bounty
  • National parks, wildernesses and wetlands
  • Nonrenewable natural resource depletion
  • Biodiversity is in Danger
  • Global warming

29
Planet Earth is Impacted -The Developed and
Developing Worlds
  • Ecological Footprints -The ecological footprint
    is a measure of human demand on the Earth's
    ecosystems.
  • United States - 5 hectares/person
  • Developing nations - 0.5 hectare/person
  • For everyone to live at todays US footprint
    would require 3 planet Earths
  • Increasing affluence and population is damaging
    Earths essential ecology

30
Our Ecological Footprint
  • Humanitys ecological footprint has exceeded
    earths ecological capacity.

31
Our Planet in Danger
  • Atmospheric pollution and climate change
  • Water pollution, including ground aquifers
  • Deforestation and loss of oxygenation
  • The oceans, coral reefs and their bounty
  • National parks, wildernesses and wetlands
  • Nonrenewable natural resource depletion
  • Biodiversity is in Danger
  • Global warming

32
Environmentally Sustainable Societies
  • meets basic needs of its people in a just
    and equitable manner without degrading the
    natural capital that supplies these resources.

33
Drivers for Technological Change
  • Social
  • Technology and Science
  • Economic
  • Environmental
  • Political

34
Social Drivers
  • Consumer awareness, perceptions, attitudes
  • and beliefs affecting preferences and choice
  • Increasing per capita incomes in developing
    countries
  • Demographic changes
  • Lifestyle changes associated with urbanisation in
    developing countries

35
Environmental Drivers
  • Waste reduction along supply chain
  • Water conservation and use
  • Energy efficiency
  • Carbon footprint
  • Reduced emission
  • Optimisation of resource use

36
Economic Drivers
  • Current wastage of crops
  • Commodity / raw material costs (food vs fuel)
  • Labour costs / availability
  • Availability of risk capital
  • Cost of compliance
  • Cost of regulatory approval
  • Acceptable returns of capital investments

37
Biotechnology
  • Herbicide tolerance
  • Pest and disease resistance
  • Adaption to climatic and soil condition
  • Drought
  • Salinity
  • Acidity
  • Temperature extremes
  • Quality improvement
  • Proteins, oils, fats, starches,
    vitamins
  • Functional components, antioxidants

38
Info and Communication
  • Cell phones, internet access
  • Greater direct access to international markets
  • web site
  • Internet
  • Greater accessibility to information
  • Technologies, market data, scientific
    and
  • technical databases
  • Direct connection between buyer and seller
  • Improved and real time traceability

39
The Social Impact of the Computers and ICT
40
Computers and Employment
  • Has machinery displaced workers?
  • Steam engine turbines Industrial revolution.
  • Factory workers and robotics.
  • Have computers replaced workers?
  • Have more jobs have been created by the new
    technology (computerisation)?
  • What has happened to clerical workers over the
    last 20 years?
  • - How has their skills been lost/changed?

41
The Changing Nature of Employment
  • What has happened to the Farm and Factory
    workers?
  • What is the Service industries?
  • How does computers assist employment in the
    Service industry?
  • Consider banking, travel, supermarket etc.
  • Has computerisation given greater job
    satisfaction?
  • Consider engineering, architecture, accounting
    etc.

42
Tele-working
  • What is Tele-working? The term used for people
    who work from outside the office, usually from
    home and is usually connected to the workplace
    through email, the internet and/or a private
    network.
  • What are the benefits of Tele-working?
  • Consider environment, commuting, working hours,
    commitments, space saving, team-working in a
    network.
  • What are the problems with Tele-working?
  • Consider management, organisational loyalty,
    social isolation, separation of work with leisure
    time.
  • Would you do any form of Tele-working?
  • Consider doing school-work at home and e-mailing
    it to your teacher.

43
The Other Side
  • What happens to older workers who may find it
    difficult to re-train to adapt to the new
    technology?
  • What happens to people that do not have access to
    the new technology?
  • What about people who try to ignore the new
    technology?
  • What can happen when people rely on technology?
  • Consider back up systems for breakdown, fault
    handling, natural accidents, malicious damage.

44
New Products and Services
  • Will you need to understand and use Information
    Technology?
  • What are some of the new ICT products available
    now?
  • Consider CD Rom, DVD, mobile phones, barcode
    scanning, Internet shopping.

45
IT in Banking
  • IT used in Banking
  • Consider telephone banking, Internet banking,
    ATMs, Debit cards, Credit cards, MICR (Magnetic
    Ink Character Recognition) e.g. cheque
    processing, Direct debiting, etc.

46
(No Transcript)
47
Internet Shopping
  • Web sites used for advertising have been
    developed into a virtual store. Widespread in
    the western world.
  • How can a virtual store help a business?
  • What is another useful by-product that a web site
    can collect?
  • Consider a database of potential customers.
  • What could a business do with this information?

48
Supermarkets
  • Offer on-line shopping for customers unable to
    get to the shop.
  • What are the advantages for the shop?
  • What are the advantages for the customer?

49
Manufacturing
  • How are computers used in manufacturing?
  • Consider order processing, stock reports and
    replacement, progress tracking. Project
    management budgets, on-time.
  • What is CAD (Computer aided Design)?
  • What is CAM (Computer aided Manufacture)?

50
Medicine
  • Give some example where computers are used in the
    Health service?
  • Consider records, databases, computerised
    medical devices, monitoring, expert systems
    (diagnosis), surgery.
  • What is an expert (knowledge-based) system?
  • Consider image capture and processing.
  • What is robotic surgery?
  • Consider operations.
  • How important are computers for the disabled?
  • Consider blind, deaf, special devices, implants.

51
Education
  • Why are there so many computers in schools?
  • How do computers assist with teaching and
    learning?
  • What is an interactive teaching package?
  • How should the Internet be used to assist
    learning?
  • How can computers help with distance learning?

52
Can Computers Replace Teachers
  • What can computers do that is better than having
    a teacher?
  • Consider pace, repetition, patience,
    consistency, cost effective.
  • What can a teacher do that is better than a
    computer?
  • What could the classroom of the future look like?
  • will it exist,
  • will students need to attend school,
  • could they choose what subject to do and when,
  • will they be motivated to take charge of their
    own learning?

53
Dependence on IT
  • How are individuals dependant on IT?
  • Routine chores money, shopping, holiday,
  • Scanners and imaging systems,
  • Traffic control, and car parking, motorway,
  • Flood warning systems,
  • Computer controlled braking, fuel, on cars,
  • Personal use, data, accounts, education,
  • Electrical devices in the home, washing machines,
    video DVD players, microwaves, etc,
  • Telephone lines for Internet communications.

54
Possible Shifts in Culture
  • 4th dimension live life on the web
  • Collaborative Communities
  • Aggregation and convenience
  • Multidisciplinary
  • Rapid change accepted
  • Ownership and identity
  • less strictly defined

55
Net Generation
  • Digital
  • Connected
  • Social

56
Social Networks
  • Social networks
  • MySpace
  • ?Attracts 230,000 new users per day
  • Facebook
  • ?17 million members in February 2007
  • ?60 of users log in each day
  • ?85 of users log in each week
  • ? 6 million photos uploaded daily
  • ?7th most visited site in US

57
Virtual Worlds
  • Online, 3D virtual world
  • Social presence with others
  • Explore, meet others, socialize,
  • Participate in group activities
  • Conversation, reflections, roleplaying
  • Virtual or Electronic communities refers to
    a group of people in cyber space where they
    communicate, network, and know each

58
Contd.
  • Until the advent of telecommunications
    technology, definitions of community focused on
    close-knit groups in a single location. Factors
    such as physical location determined belonging to
    a community. Interaction took place primarily
    face-to-face therefore, social relationships
    took place with a stable and limited set of
    individuals (Gergen, 1997 Jones, 1997).
  • This way of defining community became less useful
    as the development of modern transportation and
    telecommunication systems increased personal
    mobility and reduced the costs of communicating
    across distances.

59
Rheingold (1999) Definition of E Community
  • ...any groups of people who may never meet one
    another face to face, but who exchange words and
    ideas through the mediation of computer bulletin
    board and networks.

60
A SLICE OF LIFE IN MY VIRTUAL COMMUNITY by.
Howard Rheingold
  • For the past seven years I have made many
    friends and acquaintances, engage in many
    intelectually stimulating and professionally
    rewarding conversations and debates...and I still
    spend many of my days in my room, physically
    isolated. My mind, however, is linked with a
    worldwide collection of like minded (and not so
    like minded) souls My Virtual Community.

61
  • Millions of people other than me, have already
    built communities where our identities commingle
    and interact electronically, independent of local
    time or location. The way a few of us live now
    might be the way a larger population will live,
    decades hence.

62
cont
  • ..online or virtual community is the gathering
    of people, in an online space where they come,
    communicate, connect and get to know each other
    better over time. Boethcher 2002
  • ..virtual community is a place in which people
    meet to share ideas, thoughts, feelings and
    opinions about particular issues that they have
    in common. Kawamura, 1999

63
Virtual Meetings
64
Lectures On You Tube
65
  • How are organisations dependant on IT?
  • Consider the type of organisation
  • Supermarkets,
  • Hospitals,
  • The emergency services,
  • The utility companies,
  • Schools,
  • Air traffic control,
  • Nuclear power stations.
  • What would be the consequences of failure on the
    organisations above?

66
Summary
  • Major increases are occurring in human population
    and affluence.
  • Major stresses result in our society, natural
    environment, and ecology.
  • Technology and engineering are central to the
    creation and the mitigation of problems.
  • Predicting the future is difficult. The next
    twenty five to fifty years will be decisive.

67
Role and Impact of TechnologySustainability
  • It is technological development that meets the
    economic and environmental needs of the present
    while enhancing the ability of future generations
    to meet their own needs.
  • As world population increases, the industry can
    serve more customers with higher quality, higher
    performing products and services, while
    demonstrating responsible responsible stewardship
    of our planet.
  • The nation should be properly positioned to bring
    into reality the technology vision of an industry
    one that protects environmental quality,
    improves economic well-being, and promotes a
    higher quality of life.

68
cont
  • The industry now has the opportunity to
    accelerate its development of advanced
    manufacturing technologies and innovations that
    use materials and energy more efficiently.
  • Environmental technologies make sustainable
    development possible by reducing risk, enhancing
    cost effectiveness, improving process efficiency,
    and creating products and processes that are
    environmentally beneficial or benign.

69
References
  • Kim, A.J (2000) Community Building on the Web
    Secret Strategies For Successful online
    Communities, London, Addison Wesley
  • Preece, J (2000) Online Communities Designing
    Usability, Supporting Sociability. John Wiley and
    Sons.
  • Lee Komito (1998) The Net as a Foraging Society
    Flexible Communities http//www.ued.ie/lis/Ikomito
    /virtband.html

70
cont
  • Cohen, Joel, How Many People Can The Earth
    Support?, W. W. Norton Co., New York, 1995,
    p79-82.
  • G.Edward Stephen (2004) The Concept of Community
    in Human Ecology http//www.ac.wwu.edu/stephen/Art
    icles/70.psr.html
  • Chris Werry (2004) Imagined Electronic Community
    Representations of Virtual Community in
    Contemporary Business Discourse
    http//www.firstmonday.org/issues/issue4_9/werry/

71
cont
  • Gurstein M. Michael (2000), Community
    Informatics Enabling Communities with
    Information and Communications Technologies.
    Hershey, PA, Idea Grp Pub.
  • Loader, B and L. Keeble (2002) Community
    Informatics Shaping computer mediated social
    relations. New York, Routledge.
  • Kim A J (2000) Community Building on the Web
    Secret Strategies for Successful Online
    Communities, London Addison Wesley
  • Marc Smith and Peter Kollock (eds) (1999)
    Communities in Cyberspace, London, Routledge.
  • Preece, J (2000) Online Communities Supporting
    Sociability, Designing Usability. Chichester.
    John Wiley and Sons ltd.

72
Discussion
  • Explain the benefits and drawbacks of the use of
    information and communication technology in
  • manufacturing,
  • industry,
  • commerce,
  • medicine,
  • the home,
  • education
  • tele-working.

73
cont
  • Discuss the difference between conventional
    community and the e community? In your opinion
    which is a better form of community?

74
Thank You
75
Our Changing Society
  • Living longer
  • More generations co-existing
  • Rising divorce rate
  • Changing household structures
  • Smaller households
  • Fast rising incomes wealth
  • Changing ethnic mix (Eurasian)
  • Living elsewhere
  • Living differently
  • Home leasing on the rise
  • New tribalism
  • Spending differently
  • Outsourcing tasks and chores
  • Rise of virtual shopping
  • Living with leisure
  • New entertainment sports
  • Increasing knowledge
  • Increasing financial literacy
  • Living with ICT
  • Electronic guardian angels
  • Working differently
  • New industries/ occupations
  • Changing spirituality
  • Outlawing discrimination
  • Changing politics (ideologies)
  • Ecological sensitivity
About PowerShow.com