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Chapter 10: Becoming Who We Are: The Development of Self, Gender, and Morality

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Chapter 10: Becoming Who We Are: The Development of Self, Gender, and Morality Who Am I? The Development of Self By Kati Tumaneng (for Drs. Cook and Cook) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 10: Becoming Who We Are: The Development of Self, Gender, and Morality


1
Chapter 10 Becoming Who We Are The Development
of Self, Gender, and Morality
 
  • Who Am I? The Development of Self

By Kati Tumaneng (for Drs. Cook and Cook)
2
What is the Self?
  • Self The characteristics, emotions, and beliefs
    people have about themselves, including an
    understanding that people are unique individuals.
  • I-self The conscious awareness that you exist
    as a separate person and that you can affect
    others.
  • Me-self What you know about and how you
    describe yourself (also self-concept or
    self-representation).
  • Self-representation The ways people describe
    themselves (also me-self).
  • Self-evaluations The opinions people have and
    judgments they make about their own
    characteristics.
  • Self-esteem The emotions people feel about
    themselves.

3
What is the Self?
  • Most believe that the I-self and the me-self are
    cognitive constructions that children create as
    their cognitive skills develop.
  • Looking-glass self The idea that in social
    interactions the child uses others as a social
    mirror into which the individual gazes in order
    to detect their opinions toward the self
    (Harter, 1999, p. 17).

4
Changes in Self-Representation Across Ages
  • Self-Representation in Infancy and Childhood
  • Newborns have no sense of themselves as separate
    individuals no I-self.
  • During first few months, babies move from this
    state of not knowing they are physically or
    emotionally separate from other people and
    objects to an understanding that they are
    individuals with unique physical sensations and
    emotions.

5
Changes in Self-Representation Across Ages
  • Cross-modal perception helps infants become aware
    of physical self and understand that their
    emotions distinct are from others.
  • Personal agency Learn that their actions and
    feelings have an effect on environment.
  • Consistent interactions form basis for sense of
    self-efficacy.

6
Changes in Self-Representation Across Ages
  • Between 1st and 2nd year, the me-self begins to
    emerge.
  • Toddlers who recognized that the features in the
    mirror were their own touched their own faces to
    wipe off a spot of rouge rather than the
    reflection in the mirror (Lewis Brooks, 1978).
  • Me-self also emerges in childrens language.

7
Development of the Me-Self
(Lewis Brooks, 1978, p. 214)
8
Changes in Self-Representation Across Ages
  • Factors that influence changes in
    self-representation
  • Overall cognitive development
  • Language (personal narratives)
  • Social comparison The process of comparing our
    own qualities and performance to those of our
    peers.

9
Changes in Self-Representation Across Ages
  • Adolescence and the Search for Identity
  • Eriksons theory of psychosocial development
    Adolescents increasing cognitive abilities
    enable them to think about abstract qualities of
    the self, to compare their real selves to their
    ideal selves, and to think about other
    possible selves (Erikson, 1968).
  • Social demands increase.
  • If dont resolve the crisis of identity, their
    unclear sense of self will make it more difficult
    to deal with the crises that will arise during
    the adulthood years.

10
Changes in Self-Representation Across Ages
  • Adolescence and the Search for Identity (cont.)
  • James Marcia (1966)elaborated Eriksons theory
    with 2 components crisis and commitment
  • Identity statuses
  • Identity achievement
  • Identity foreclosure
  • Identity diffusion
  • Identity moratorium

11
The Four Identity Statuses of James Marcia
(Marcia, 1966)
12
Changes in Self-Representation Across Ages
  • Adolescence and the Search for Identity (cont.)
  • Some adolescents have additional task of
    developing ethnic or racial identity
  • Phinneys 3 stages (1990)

Developing identity http//teacher.scholastic.co
m/products/ect/identity.htm
13
Phinneys Three-Stage Model of Ethnic Identity
Development
(Phinney, 1989)
14
Changes in Self-Representation Across Ages
  • Adolescence and the Search for Identity (cont.)
  • Identity is multifaceted an adolescent may reach
    commitment in some facets well before others.
  • Culture plays an important role.
  • Relationships with parents affect how adolescents
    deal with issues of identity.

15
Evaluating the Self
  • Begin to evaluate their performance on individual
    tasks during toddler years age 7 form an overall
    opinion of themselves (global self-evaluation
    Harter, 1998 Stipek, Recchia, McClintic,
    1992).
  • More negative beginning at age 11 or 12.
  • Gradually increases during later adolescence.

16
Evaluating the Self
  • Influences on Self-Evaluation
  • Roots in quality of caregiving in infancy secure
    attachment (Bowlby, 1982).
  • Comparisons children draw between their real
    selves and their ideal selves.
  • Actual discrepancy between the ideal and the real
    in domains that are important to the child
    (Harter, 1999).
  • The degree of social support the child receives
    from parents and/or peers (Harter, 1999).
  • Perceived physical appearance has highest
    correlation with self-esteem (.65-.82 Harter,
    1998).

NASE http//www.self-esteem-nase.org/
17
Evaluating the Self
  • Consequences of Positive and Negative
    Self-Evaluations
  • Childrens evaluations of their own skills and
    competencies directly affect their choices of
    activities and their persistence on difficult
    challenges.
  • There is a strong relationship between
    self-evaluations and depression (.72-.80).

18
Evaluating the Self
  • Suggestions for parents
  • Provide sensitively responsive caregiving.
  • Provide positive support and encouragement but
    also honest feedback.
  • Help children learn to set realistic and
    achievable short-term goals (Damon, 1995).
  • Ethnic minority parents should help children
    develop positive self-evaluations and ethnic
    identities.

Parent info http//www.cyberparent.com/esteem/
19
Self-Regulation
  • The ability to control our own behavior,
    emotions, or thoughts and change them to meet the
    demands of the situation.
  • Includes the ability to inhibit first responses,
    to resist interference from irrelevant
    stimulation, and to persist on relevant tasks
    even when we dont enjoy them.
  • Aspects of self-regulation correlate with various
    positive outcomes for children and adolescents.

20
Self-Regulation
  • When Do Children Develop Self-Regulation Skills?
  • Precursors appear early in life.
  • Very young babies show primitive control of some
    aspects of behavior and reactions.
  • 12-18 months Awareness of social demands in
    their environment.
  • 24 months Show aspects of self-control even
    when caregiver is not immediately with them.
  • 3-7 years Grow steady in ability to inhibit
    first responses.

21
Self-Regulation
  • When Do Children Develop Self-Regulation Skills?
    (cont.)
  • Older children and adolescents increasingly able
    to self-regulate behavior, emotions, and
    problem-solving strategies.
  • Comes from internal and external sources.

22
Context and Self-Regulation
(Kochanska, Coy, Murray, 2001)
23
Self-Regulation
  • What Factors Influence the Development of
    Self-Regulation?
  • Aspects of temperament related.
  • Maturation of certain areas of the brain,
    especially frontal lobes, enables children to
    resist interference and inhibit responses.
  • Environment has strong influence.
  • Modeling The process of imitating, practicing,
    and internalizing others behaviors (Schunk
    Zimmerman, 1997). Also, the process of providing
    the example behavior, as in her parents are
    modeling good study skills.
  • Parenting style affects how well and how quickly
    self-regulatory skills develop.

Teaching self-regulatory skills
http//www.talaris.org/pdf/spotlight_effort.pdf
24
  • Graph on Slide 7 from Cook, J. L., Cook, G.
    (2005). Child development Principles and
    perspectives (1st ed.) (p. 372). Boston Allyn
    and Bacon.
  • Picture on Slide 7 from Cook, J. L., Cook, G.
    (2005). Child development Principles and
    perspectives (1st ed.) (p. 373). Boston Allyn
    and Bacon.
  • Chart on Slide 11 from Cook, J. L., Cook, G.
    (2005). Child development Principles and
    perspectives (1st ed.) (p. 376). Boston Allyn
    and Bacon.
  • Chart on Slide 13 from Cook, J. L., Cook, G.
    (2005). Child development Principles and
    perspectives (1st ed.) (p. 377). Boston Allyn
    and Bacon.
  • Charts on Slide 22 from Cook, J. L., Cook, G.
    (2005). Child development Principles and
    perspectives (1st ed.) (p. 384). Boston Allyn
    and Bacon.
  • All other images retrieved from Microsoft
    PowerPoint Clip Art.
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