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Chapter 8 Emotional and Social Development in Early Childhood

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Title: Chapter 8 Emotional and Social Development in Early Childhood


1
Chapter 8Emotional and Social Development in
Early Childhood
  • Development Through the Lifespan 2nd edition Berk

2
ERIKSONS STAGES
3
ERIKSONS THEORY
  • Basic conflict of early childhoodInitiative
    versus Guilt
  • Play fosters initiative and develops a conscience
    that is not too strict.
  • Play develops new skills.

4
Eriksons Theory
  • Negative outcome is an overly strict superego.
  • Causes child to feel too much guilt

5
SELF-DEVELOPMENT
  • Self-concept
  • Sum total of attributes, abilities, attitudes,
    and values of an individual
  • Defines who he or she is

6
Foundations of Self-Concept
  • Describe self in concrete terms.
  • By 3 1/2, describe self in terms of beliefs,
    emotions, and attitudes
  • Do not reference dispositions
  • Struggles over objects are efforts at boundaries
    between self and others.
  • Firmer sense of self permits cooperation.

7
Emergence of Self-Esteem
  • Self-esteem
  • Sense of self-worth
  • Competencies affect emotions, behaviour, and
    adjustment.
  • Preschoolers usually rate own ability high.
  • High self-esteem initiative
  • Criticism undermines self-esteem.

8
EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT
  • Gains in representation, language, and
    self-concept support emotional development.
  • Rise in self-conscious emotions such as shame,
    embarrassment, guilt, envy, and pride

9
Understanding Emotion
  • Children refer to signs of emotion.
  • Ability to interpret, predict, and change others'
    feelings
  • Conflicting cues
  • Focus on most obvious
  • Neglecting the relevant

10
Emotional Self-Regulation
  • Language contributes to self-regulation.
  • Emotions blunted by
  • Restricting sensory input, talking to oneself or
    changing goals
  • Emotional outbursts less frequent through
    preschool

11
Emotional Self-Regulation (cont.)
  • Temperament affects self-regulation.
  • Environment affects capacity to cope.
  • Imagination
  • Difficulty separating reality and appearance
    fears

12
Self-Conscious Emotions
  • Injury or enhancement of self
  • Audience necessary for self-conscious emotions
  • Achievement and moral behaviour

13
Empathy
  • Altruistic behaviour
  • Does not always yield kindness
  • Can escalate into distress.
  • Focuses on self rather than on person in need
  • React to suffering of others in same way parents
    respond to them

14
Hoffman -EMPATHY seeing how others feel and
relating that to oneself
  • Global Empathy (see the feeling of another
    mirror that behaviour- innate behaviour, mostly
    emotional)
  • Egocentric (see the feeling of another relate
    to how you would want comfort -some cognition
    strong emotion)
  • Empathy for feelings (see the feeling and match
    for understanding but action relate to helping
    -more cognition than emotion)
  • Empathy for condition (see the feeling, know the
    context possibilities -strongly cognitive
    emotion)

15
EisenbergMoral behaviour is caring, sharing or
doing good for otherscalled prosocial
behaviour or altruism
  • Hedonistic (self)
  • Needs- oriented (others needs related to how the
    individual would feel)
  • Approval oriented (parents, friends approve)
  • Self-reflective, empathetic (good of group, a
    good thing to do)
  • Internalised value system

16
PEER RELATIONS
  • Advances in Peer Sociability (Parten)
  • Nonsocial activity
  • Onlooker behaviour and solitary play
  • Parallel play
  • Plays near other children with similar materials
  • Does not interact.
  • Highest level
  • Associative play
  • Engaged in separate activities, but interact
  • Cooperative play
  • Actions are directed toward a common goal

17
Recent Evidence on Peer Sociability
  • Play emerges in Partens order.
  • Forms overlap.
  • Type, not just amount, of social activity
    changes.
  • Most play is positive and constructive.
  • Sociodramatic play is common.
  • Supporting cognitive and social development

18
Cultural Variations
  • Collectivist societies
  • Peer sociability takes different forms than in
    individualistic cultures.
  • Beliefs about play affect interaction.

19
First Friendships
  • Basic to emotional and social development
  • 4- to 7-year-olds regard friendship as
    pleasurable play.
  • Spontaneity and intimacy characterise
    friendships.
  • Parental influences
  • Show children how to initiate their own peer
    contacts.
  • Guidance and examples of how to act
  • Some children have difficulty with peer relations.

20
MORALITY
  • By 2, act with alarm to aggression
  • At first morality is externally controlled
  • Later regulated by inner standards
  • Moral individuals have principles that they
    follow in a variety of situations.

21
Psychoanalytic Perspective
  • Freud places burden on parents.
  • Moral development complete by 5 to 6
  • Superego
  • Children whose parents use threats or physical
    force
  • Show little guilt after harming others
  • Show poor self-control
  • Induction
  • Effects of misbehaviour are communicated to the
    child.
  • Encourages empathy and prosocial behaviour

22
Behaviourism and Social Learning Theory
  • Imitate models who demonstrate appropriate
    behaviour
  • More likely to copy prosocial actions of person
    if
  • Consistent between assertions and behaviour
  • Warm
  • Competent
  • Powerful

23
Punishment
  • Justified when immediate obedience is necessary
  • Long term Warmth and reasoning better
  • Punishment promotes momentary compliance.

24
Harsh Punishment
  • Provides model of aggression
  • Teaches to avoid the punishing adult
  • Offers relief to adults, who are then reinforced
    for using coercive discipline

25
Alternatives to Harsh Punishment
  • Time out
  • Removal from setting until ready to act
    appropriately
  • Withdrawal of privileges

26
Alternatives to Harsh Punishment
  • Effectiveness of punishment is increased when
  • Used consistently
  • In a warm parent-child relationship
  • Accompanied by an explanation
  • Encourage and reward good conduct

Figure 8.1
27
Cognitive-Developmental Perspective
  • Children actively think about social rules.
  • React to violations of moral rules more than
    social conventions
  • Understand moral rules because they protect
    people's rights and welfare
  • Preschoolers who are disliked by peers due to
    aggression show difficulties with moral reasoning.

28
Development of Aggression
  • Instrumental aggression
  • Obtaining an object, privilege, or space with no
    intent to harm
  • Declines with age
  • Hostile aggression
  • Intended to harm another individual
  • Increases between 4 and 7.

29
Development of Aggression (cont.)
  • Overt aggression
  • Harms others by injury or threat
  • Relational aggression
  • Damages peer relationships

30
Gender and Aggression
  • Boys more aggressive
  • Male sex hormones contribute.
  • As 2-year-olds become aware of gender stereotypes
  • Aggression drops off in girls.
  • Maintained in boys
  • Girls express hostility through relational
    aggression.

31
Family and Aggression
  • Boys expect less disapproval and are less guilty
    over aggression.
  • Spreads from one member to another
  • More likely to command and punish sons
  • Overlook fighting among boys
  • Aggressive children
  • Rejected by peers, fail in school, and seek out
    deviant peer groups

32
Television and Aggression
  • 62 of U.S./Aust programs contain violence.
  • Preschoolers do not understand much of what they
    see.
  • May increase willingness to imitate.
  • TV violence hardens children to aggression.

33
Controlling Aggression
  • Teach adaptive ways of interacting
  • Social problem-solving training
  • Teaches how to resolve conflicts through
    discussing and trying successful strategies

34
GENDER TYPING
  • Process of developing gender roles
  • Gender-linked preferences and behaviours

35
Gender-Stereotyped Beliefs and Behaviour
  • Age 2, children begin to label their own sex and
    others
  • Categorise sex-type behaviours
  • Boys Active, assertive, and aggressive
  • Girls Fearful, dependent, compliant, and
    sensitive
  • Gender beliefs stronger in preschool years

36
Genetic Influences on Gender Typing
  • Maccoby argues hormones lead to rough, noisy boys
    and calm, gentle girls.
  • Children choose same-sex partners with interests
    and behaviours compatible with own.
  • Social forces build on heredity to develop gender
    roles.

37
Environmental Influences on Gender Typing
  • Family
  • Parents promote play with gender-appropriate
    toys.
  • Believe boys and girls should be raised
    differently
  • Children with opposite-sex siblings have
    opportunity to imitate and cross-gender play.
  • Boys more gender-typed by parents

38
Environmental Influences on Gender Typing (cont.)
  • Teachers
  • Encourage gender role conformity
  • Girls encouraged in adult activities at preschool
  • Peers
  • Same-sex peers reinforce gender-typed play
  • Television
  • Gender stereotyping in programs for children

39
Gender Identity
  • Image as masculine or feminine
  • Androgyny
  • Identity high on both masculine and feminine
    traits
  • Masculine and androgynous people
  • Higher self-esteem

40
Emergence of Gender Identity
  • Social learning
  • Acquired through modelling and reinforcement
  • Cognitive-developmental
  • Acquire gender constancy before gender-typed
    responses

41
Gender Constancy
  • Understanding that sex remains the same even if
    clothing, hairstyle, and activities change
  • Not present until the end of preschool
  • May be due to lack of opportunity to learn about
    genital differences

42
Gender Schema Theory
  • Information-processing approach
  • Environmental pressures, child's cognitions shape
    gender role
  • Organize experiences into gender schemes.
  • Masculine and feminine categories

Figure 8.2
43
Reducing Gender Stereotyping in Young Children
  • Society promotes gender equality.
  • Adults can remove stereotyping from own
    behaviour.
  • Explain that interests and skills should
    determine a person's occupations and activities.

44
CHILD REARING
  • Child-Rearing Styles
  • Demandingness
  • High standards for children
  • Responsiveness
  • Accepting and responsive
  • Authoritative Child Rearing
  • Demanding and responsive fair and reasonable
  • Children happier and relaxed

45

46
Child-Rearing Styles (cont.)
  • Authoritarian Child Rearing
  • Demanding but not responsive to needs/rights
  • Obedience valued
  • Children anxious, withdrawn, unhappy, and hostile
    if frustrated
  • Boys Anger and defiance
  • Girls Dependent and retreat from challenges

47
Child-Rearing Styles (cont.)
  • Permissive Child Rearing
  • Responsive but undemanding
  • Overly tolerant
  • Children
  • Immature
  • Have difficulty controlling impulses
  • Demanding and dependent on adults
  • Less persistent

48
What Makes Authoritative Child Rearing So
Effective?
  • Associated with maturity, self-esteem, and
    academic achievement in children
  • Fair and reasonable control
  • Provides model of concern and assertiveness
  • Parents demands are tied to childrens
    capacities.

49
Cultural Variations
  • Chinese describe parenting as demanding.
  • Hispanic and Asian Pacific Islanders
  • Parental control by the father paired with
    maternal warmth
  • African-American mothers often rely on
    adult-cantered approach.
  • Expect immediate obedience
  • Uninvolved parents
  • Little commitment to caregiver role
  • Can be a form of child neglect

50
Child Maltreatment
  • Increase in public concern
  • Qld Government responses
  • Many cases now reported (teachers, parents,
    church, family, friends)
  • Includes physical, sexual, emotional, or
    psychological abuse or neglect
  • Largest number of sexual abuse victims identified
    in middle childhood.

51
Origins of Child Maltreatment
  • The Family
  • More likely to be abused
  • Premature or sick babies
  • The difficult, inattentive, and overactive
  • Those with developmental problems
  • Once started, becomes self-sustaining family
    relationship
  • Parental stress

52
Origins of Child Maltreatment (cont.)
  • The community
  • Abusive parents isolated from social supports
  • Mistrust and avoid others
  • Few links between family and community
  • The larger culture
  • Society views violence as appropriate to solve
    problems.
  • In U.S., laws against maltreatment, but support
    for the use of physical force in parent-child
    relations.
  • Child abuse rare where physical punishment is not
    accepted.

53
Consequences of Maltreatment
  • Abused children show learning and adjustment
    problems.
  • Aggressive behaviour
  • At school
  • Noncompliance, poor motivation, cognitive
    immaturity interfere with achievement.

54
Preventing Maltreatment
  • Family, community, and overall societal
    interventions (criminal codes, publicity,
    community standards)
  • Social supports to ease parental stress
  • Separating abusive parent from child
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