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Mining for Spatial Patterns

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Spatial Data Mining(SDM) - Examples Historical Examples: London Asiatic Cholera 1854 ... IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, Jan.-Feb. 1999. S. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Mining for Spatial Patterns


1
Mining for Spatial Patterns
  • Shashi Shekhar
  • Department of Computer Science
  • University of Minnesota http//www.cs.umn.edu/s
    hekhar
  • Collaborators V. Kumar, G. Karypis, C.T. Lu, W.
    Wu, Y. Huang, V. Raju, P. Zhang, P. Tan, M.
    Steinbach
  • This work was partially funded by NASA and Army
    High Performance Computing Center

2
Spatial Data Mining(SDM) - Examples
  • Historical Examples
  • London Asiatic Cholera 1854 (Griffith)
  • Dental health and fluoride in water, Colorado
    early 1900s
  • Current Examples
  • Cancer clusters (CDC), Spread of disease (e.g.
    Nile virus)
  • Crime hotspots (NIJ CML, police petrol planning)
  • Environmental justice (EPA), fair lending
    practices
  • Upcoming Applications Location aware services
  • Defense Sensor networks, Mobile ad-hoc networks
  • Civilian Mortgage PMI determination based on
    location

3
Army Relevance of SDM
  • Strategic
  • Predicting global hot spots (FORMID)
  • Army land endangered species vs. training and
    war games
  • Search for local trends in massive simulation
    data
  • Critical infra-structure defense (threat
    assessment)
  • Tactical
  • Inferring enemy tactics (e.g. flank attack) from
    blobology
  • Detection of lost ammunition dumps (Dr.
    Radhakrishnan)
  • Operational
  • Interpretation of maps map matching (locating
    oneself on map)
  • identify terrain feature, e.g. ravines, valleys,
    ridge, etc.
  • Locating enemy (e.g. sniper in a haystack, sensor
    networks)
  • Avoiding friendly fire

4
Spatial Data Mining(SDM) - Definition
  • Search of implicit, interesting patterns in
    geo-spatial data
  • Ex. Reconnaissance, Vector maps(NIMA, TEC), GPS,
    Sensor networks
  • Data Mining vs. Statistics
  • Primary vs. Secondary analysis
  • Global vs. local trends
  • Spatial Data Mining vs. Data Mining
  • Spatial Autocorrelation
  • Continuous vs. Discrete data types

5
Background
  • Spatial Data Mining
  • Spatial statistics in Geology, Regional Economics
  • NSF workshop on GIS and DM (3/99)
  • NSF workshop on spatial data analysis (5/02)
  • Spatial patterns
  • Spatial outliers
  • Location prediction
  • Associations, colocations
  • Hotspots, Clustering, trends,

6
Framework
  • 2 Approaches to mining Spatial Data
  • 1. Pick spatial features use classical DM
    methods
  • 2. Use novel data mining techniques
  • Our Approach
  • Define the problem capture special needs
  • Explore data using maps, other visualization
  • Try reusing classical DM methods
  • If classical DM perform poorly, try new methods
  • Evaluate chosen methods rigourously
  • Performance tuning if needed

7
Spatial Association Rule
  • Citation Symp. On Spatial Databases 2001
  • Problem Given a set of boolean spatial features
  • find subsets of co-located features, e.g. (fire,
    drought, vegetation)
  • Data - continuous space, partition not natural,
    no reference feature
  • Classical data mining approach association rules
  • But, Look Ma! No Transactions!!! No support
    measure!
  • Approach Work with continuous data without
    transactionizing it!
  • confidence Pr.fire at s drought in N(s) and
    vegetation in N(s)
  • support cardinality of spatial join of instances
    of fire, drought, dry veg.
  • participation min. fraction of instances of a
    features in join result
  • new algorithm using spatial joins and apriori_gen
    filters

8
Event Definition
  • Convert the time series into sequence of events
    at each spatial location.

9
Interesting Association Patterns
  • Use domain knowledge to eliminate uninteresting
    patterns.
  • A pattern is less interesting if it occurs at
    random locations.
  • Approach
  • Partition the land area into distinct groups
    (e.g., based on land-cover type).
  • For each pattern, find the regions for which the
    pattern can be applied.
  • If the pattern occurs mostly in a certain group
    of land areas, then it is potentially
    interesting.
  • If the pattern occurs frequently in all groups of
    land areas, then it is less interesting.

10
Association Rules
  • Intra-zone non-sequential Patterns
  • Region corresponds to semi-arid grasslands, a
    type of vegetation, which is able to quickly take
    advantage of high precipitation than forests.
  • Hypothesis FPAR-Hi events could be related to
    unusual precipitation conditions.

11
Co-location
Can you find co-location patterns from the
following sample dataset?
Answers and
12
Co-location
Spatial Co-location A set of features
frequently co-located Given A set T of K
boolean spatial feature types Tf1,f2, ,
fk A set P of N locations Pp1, , pN in
a spatial frame work S, pi? P is of some spatial
feature in T A neighbor relation R over
locations in S Find Tc ?subsets of T
frequently co-located Objective Correctness
Completeness Efficiency Constraints R
is symmetric and reflexive Monotonic
prevalence measure
Reference Feature Centric
Window Centric
Event Centric
13
Co-location
Comparison with association rules
Association rules Co-location rules
underlying space discrete sets continuous space
item-types item-types events /Boolean spatial features
collections transactions neighborhoods
prevalence measure support participation index
conditional probability measure Pr. A in T B in T Pr. A in N(L) B at L
Participation index Participation ratio pr(fi, c)
of feature fi in co-location c f1, f2, , fk
fraction of instances of fi with feature f1, ,
fi-1, fi1, , fk nearby 2.Participation index
minpr(fi, c) Algorithm Hybrid Co-location
Miner
14
Spatial Co-location Patterns
  • Dataset
  • Spatial feature A,B,C and their instances
  • Possible associations are (A, B), (B, C), etc.
  • Neighbor relationship includes following pairs
  • A1, B1
  • A2, B1
  • A2, B2
  • B1, C1
  • B2, C2

15
Spatial Co-location Patterns
  • Partition approachYasuhiko, KDD 2001
  • Support not well defined,i.e. not independent of
    execution trace
  • Has a fast heuristic which is hard to analyze for
    correctness/completeness
  • Dataset

Spatial feature A,B, C, and their instances
Support A,B1 B,C2
Support A,B 2 B,C2
16
Spatial Co-location Patterns
  • Dataset
  • Reference feature approach Han SSD 95
  • C as reference feature to get transactions
  • Transactions (B1) (B2)
  • Support (A,B) ? from Apriori algorithm
  • Note Neighbor relationship includes following
    pairs
  • A1, B1
  • A2, B1
  • A2, B2
  • B1, C1
  • B2, C2

Spatial feature A,B, C, and their instances
17
Spatial Co-location Patterns
  • Our approach (Event Centric)
  • Neighborhood instead of transactions
  • Spatial join on neighbor relationship
  • Support ? Prevalence
  • Participation index min. p_ratio
  • P_ratio(A, (A,B)) fraction of instance of A
    participating in join(A,B, neighbor)
  • Examples
  • Support(A,B)min(2/2,3/3)1
  • Support(B,C)min(2/2,2/2)1
  • Dataset

Spatial feature A,B, C, and their instances
18
Spatial Co-location Patterns
  • Partition approach
  • Our approach
  • Dataset

Support(A,B)min(2/2,3/3)1
Spatial feature A,B, C, and their instances
Support(B,C)min(2/2,2/2)1
Support A,B 2 B,C2
  • Reference feature approach

C as reference feature Transactions (B1)
(B2) Support (A,B) ?
Support A,B1 B,C2
19
Spatial Outliers
  • Spatial Outlier A data point that is extreme
    relative to it neighbors
  • Case Study traffic stations different from
    neighbors SIGKDD 2001, JIDA 2002
  • Data - space-time plot, distr. Of f(x), S(x)
  • Distribution of base attribute
  • spatially smooth
  • frequency distribution over value domain normal
  • Classical test - Pr.item in population is low
  • Q? distribution of diff.f(x), neighborhood
    aggf(x)
  • Insight this statistic is distributed normally!
  • Test (z-score on the statistics) gt 2
  • Performance - spatial join, clustering methods

20
Spatial Outlier Detection
Given A spatial graph GV,E A neighbor
relationship (K neighbors) An attribute
function V -gt R An aggregation function
R k -gt R A comparison function
Confidence level threshold ? Statistic test
function ST R -gtT, F Find O vi vi ?V,
vi is a spatial outlier Objective
Correctness The attribute values of vi is
extreme, compared with its neighbors
Computational efficiency Constraints
and ST are algebraic aggregate functions of
and Computation cost dominated by I/O op.
21
Spatial Outlier Detection
Spatial Outlier Detection Test 1. Choice of
Spatial Statistic S(x) f(x)E y?
N(x)(f(y)) Theorem S(x) is normally
distributed if f(x) is
normally distributed 2. Test for Outlier
Detection (S(x) - ?s) / ?s gt ?
Hypothesis I/O cost determined by clustering
efficiency
f(x)
S(x)
22
Graphical Spatial Tests
Moran Scatter Plot
Original Data
Variogram Cloud
23
A Unified Approach Spatial Outliers
  • Tests quantitative, graphical
  • Results
  • Computation spatial self-join
  • Tests algebraic functions of join
  • Join predicate neighbor relations
  • I/O-cost f(clustering efficiency)
  • Our algorithm is I/O-efficient for
  • Algebraic tests

Scatter Plot
Original Data
Our Approach
24
Spatial Outlier Detection
Results 1. CCAM achieves higher clustering
efficiency (CE) 2. CCAM has lower I/O cost
3. High CE gt low I/O cost 4. Big Page gt high
CE
I/O cost
CE value
Z-order
CCAM
Cell-Tree
25
Location Prediction
  • Citations IEEE Tran. on Multimedia 2002, SIAM DM
    Conf. 2001, SIGKDD DMKD 2000
  • Problem predict nesting site in marshes
  • given vegetation, water depth, distance to edge,
    etc.
  • Data - maps of nests and attributes
  • spatially clustered nests, spatially smooth
    attributes
  • Classical method logistic regression, decision
    trees, bayesian classifier
  • but, independence assumption is violated ! Misses
    auto-correlation !
  • Spatial auto-regression (SAR), Markov random
    field bayesian classifier
  • Open issues spatial accuracy vs. classification
    accurary
  • Open issue performance - SAR learning is slow!

26
Location Prediction
Given 1. Spatial Framework 2. Explanatory
functions 3. A dependent class 4. A family
of function mappings Find Classification
model Objectivemaximize classification_accurac
y Constraints Spatial Autocorrelation exists

Nest locations
Distance to open water
Water depth
Vegetation durability
27
Motivation and Framework
28
Spatial AutoRegression (SAR)
  • Spatial Autoregression Model (SAR)
  • y ?Wy X? ?
  • W models neighborhood relationships
  • ? models strength of spatial dependencies
  • ? error vector
  • Solutions
  • ? and ? - can be estimated using ML or Bayesian
    stat.
  • e.g., spatial econometrics package uses Bayesian
    approach using sampling-based Markov Chain Monte
    Carlo (MCMC) method.
  • Likelihood-based estimation requires O(n3) ops.
  • Other alternatives divide and conquer, sparse
    matrix, LU decomposition, etc.

29
Evaluation
  • Linear Regression
  • Spatial Regression
  • Spatial model is better

30
MRF Bayesian
  • Markov Random Field based Bayesian Classifiers
  • Pr(li X, Li) Pr(Xli, Li) Pr(li Li) / Pr
    (X)
  • Pr(li Li) can be estimated from training data
  • Li denotes set of labels in the neighborhood of
    si excluding labels at si
  • Pr(Xli, Li) can be estimated using kernel
    functions
  • Solutions
  • stochastic relaxation Geman
  • Iterated conditional modes Besag
  • Graph cut Boykov

31
Experiment Design
32
Prediction Maps(Learning)
MRF-P Prediction (ADNP3.36)
Actual Nest Sites (Real Learning)
NZ85
NZ138
MRF-GMM Prediction (ADNP5.88)
SAR Prediction (ADNP9.80)
NZ140
NZ130
33
Prediction Maps(Testing)
MRF-P Prediction (ADNP2.84)
Actual Nest Sites (Real Testing)
Actual Nest Sites (Real Learning)
NZ30
NZ80
MRF-GMM Prediction (ADNP3.35)
SAR Prediction (ADNP8.63)
NZ76
NZ80
34
Comparison (MRF-BC vs. SAR)
  • SAR can be rewritten as y (QX) ? Q?
  • where Q (I- ?W)-1 which can be viewed as a
    spatial smoothing operation.
  • This transformation shows that SAR is similar to
    linear logistic model, and thus suffers with same
    limitations i.e., SAR model assumes linear
    separability of classes in transformed feature
    space
  • SAR model also make more restrictive assumptions
    about the distribution of features and class
    shapes than MRF
  • The relationship between SAR and MRF are
    analogous to the relationship between logistic
    regression and Bayesian classifiers.
  • Our experimental results shows that MRF model
    yields better spatial and classification
    accuracies than SAR predictions.

35
MRF vs. SAR
Confusion Matrix
Spatial Confusion Matrix
36
Conclusion and Future Directions
  • Spatial domains may not satisfy assumptions of
    classical methods
  • data auto-correlation, continuous geographic
    space
  • patterns global vs. local, e.g. spatial outliers
    vs. outliers
  • data exploration maps and albums
  • Open Issues
  • patterns hot-spots, blobology (shape), spatial
    trends,
  • metrics spatial accuracy(predicted locations),
    spatial contiguity(clusters)
  • spatio-temporal dataset
  • scale and resolutions sentivity of patterns
  • geo-statistical confidence measure for mined
    patterns

37
Army Relevance and Collaborations
  • Relevance Maps are as important to soldiers as
    guns - unknown
  • Joint Projects
  • High Performance GIS for Battlefield Simulation
    (ARL Adelphi)
  • Spatial Querying for Battlefield Situation
    Assessment (ARL Adelphi)
  • Joint Publications
  • w/ G. Turner (ARL Adelphi, MD) D. Chubb (CECOM
    IEWD)
  • IEEE Computer (December 1996)
  • IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Eng.
    (July-Aug. 1998)
  • Three conference papers
  • Visits, Other Collaborations
  • GIS group, Waterways Experimentation Station
    (Army)
  • Concept Analysis Agency, Topographic Eng.
    Center, ARL, Adelphi
  • Workshop on Battlefield Visualization and Real
    Time GIS (4/2000)

38
Reference
  1. S. Shekhar, S. Chawla, S. Ravada, A. Fetterer, X.
    Liu and C.T. Liu, Spatial Databases
    Accomplishments and Research Needs, IEEE
    Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering,
    Jan.-Feb. 1999.
  2. S. Shekhar and Y. Huang, Discovering Spatial
    Co-location Patterns a Summary of Results, In
    Proc. of 7th International Symposium on Spatial
    and Temporal Databases (SSTD01), July 2001.
  3. S. Shekhar, C.T. Lu, P. Zhang, "Detecting
    Graph-based Spatial Outliers Algorithms and
    Applications, the Seventh ACM SIGKDD
    International Conference on Knowledge Discovery
    and Data Mining, 2001.
  4. S. Shekhar, C.T. Lu, P. Zhang, Detecting
    Graph-based Saptial Outlier, Intelligent Data
    Analysis, To appear in Vol. 6(3), 2002
  5. S. Shekhar, S. Chawla, the book Spatial
    Database Concepts, Implementation and Trends,
    Prentice Hall, 2002
  6. S. Chawla, S. Shekhar, W. Wu and U. Ozesmi,
    Extending Data Mining for Spatial Applications
    A Case Study in Predicting Nest Locations, Proc.
    Int. Confi. on 2000 ACM SIGMOD Workshop on
    Research Issues in Data Mining and Knowledge
    Discovery (DMKD 2000), Dallas, TX, May 14, 2000.
  7. S. Chawla, S. Shekhar, W. Wu and U. Ozesmi,
    Modeling Spatial Dependencies for Mining
    Geospatial Data, First SIAM International
    Conference on Data Mining, 2001.
  8. S. Shekhar, P.R. Schrater, R. R. Vatsavai, W. Wu,
    and S. Chawla, Spatial Contextual Classification
    and Prediction Models for Mining Geospatial
    Data,To Appear in IEEE Transactions on
    Multimedia, 2002.
  9. S. Shekhar, V. Kumar, P. Tan. M. Steinbach, Y.
    Huang, P. Zhang, C. Potter, S. Klooster, Mining
    Patterns in Earth Science Data, IEEE Computing
    in Science and Engineering (Submitted)

39
Reference
  1. S. Shekhar, C.T. Lu, P. Zhang, A Unified
    Approach to Spatial Outliers Detection, IEEE
    Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
    (Submitted)
  2. S. Shekhar, C.T. Lu, X. Tan, S. Chawla, Map Cube
    A Visualization Tool for Spatial Data Warehouses,
    as Chapter of Geographic Data Mining and
    Knowledge Discovery. Harvey J. Miller and Jiawei
    Han (eds.), Taylor and Francis, 2001, ISBN
    0-415-23369-0.
  3. S. Shekhar, Y. Huang, W. Wu, C.T. Lu, What's
    Spatial about Spatial Data Mining Three Case
    Studies , as Chapter of Book Data Mining for
    Scientific and Engineering Applications. V.
    Kumar, R. Grossman, C. Kamath, R. Namburu (eds.),
    Kluwer Academic Pub., 2001, ISBN 1-4020-0033-2
  4. Shashi Shekhar and Yan Huang , Multi-resolution
    Co-location Miner a New Algorithm to Find
    Co-location Patterns in Spatial Datasets, Fifth
    Workshop on Mining Scientific Datasets (SIAM 2nd
    Data Mining Conference), April 2002
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