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1
 "Who would believe that a democratic government
would pursue for eight decades a failed policy
that produced tens of millions of victims and
trillions of dollars of illicit profits for drug
dealers, cost taxpayers hundreds of billions of
dollars, increased crime and destroyed inner
cities, fostered widespread corruption and
violations of human rights - and all with no
success in achieving the stated and unattainable
objective of a drug free America? - Milton
Friedman,  winner of 1976 NobelMemorial Prize
for economic science
2
How We Got Into This Mess and the Special
Interests That Keep Us Here
  • Suzanne Wills
  • Drug Policy Forum of Texas
  • Email - suzy_at_dpft.org

Slides created by Nathan Kohler
3
Serving the public by providing information and
expert opinionabout legal and illegal drugs and
the issues surrounding them.
http//www.dpft.org/
4

5
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6
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7
1906 Pure Food Drugs Act
U. S. Postal Service commemorative stamp
issued January 15, 1998.
8
George Washington reportedly used laudanum to
ease the pain caused by his ill fitting
dentures. It was easily available until 1914.
45 alcohol with 2.964 grams of opium per fluid
ounce 
http//wings.buffalo.edu/aru/preprohibition.htm
9
  • Dr. Hamilton Wright
  • Set out to eradicate opium use
  • Harrison Narcotics Act
  • The creation of addict as a
  • criminal
  • Was a severe alcoholic
  • - Supported by temperance movement
  • Financially supported by wife,
  • Elizabeth Washburn Wright


10
In 1910 there were 12,000 temperance leagues with
248,343 members. By 1920 membership had risen to
345,949.
Source Norton Mezvinsky, "The White Ribbon
Reform, 1874-1920
11
The really serious results of this
legislation will appear only gradually
and will not always be recognized as
recognized as such. These will be the
failure of promising careers, the
disrupting of happy families, the commission of
crimes which will never be traced to their
real cause, and the influx into hospitals
for the mentally disordered of many who
would otherwise live socially competent
lives. New York Medical Journal, 1915
12
Harry J. Anslinger, Commissioner of Federal
Bureau of Narcotics, 1930-1962
"... the primary reason to outlaw marijuana is
its effect on the degenerate races." 1937
13
http//www.conquestdesign.com/uncler/index.html
14
Distribution of Cannabis sativa L.
Selected Weeds of the United States. Agriculture
Handbook No. 366.
http//www.hempology.org
15
Reefer Madness, was produced in 1936 with the
close collaboration of the Bureau of Narcotics.

16
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17
- Marijuana Tax Act of 1937 to levy a token
tax of approx. 1 on all buyers, sellers,
importers, growers, physicians, veterinarians,
and any others who deal in marijuana
commercially, prescribe it professionally, or
possess it. - 5 years prison and/or
2000 fine -
Doctors had to report to Bureau of Narcotics on
patients or both would be fined/ jailed -
Made marijuana unprofitable as a pharmaceutical
product
18
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug
Enforcement Administration ______________________
_________________
)
In The Matter
Of )
) Docket
No. 86-22 MARIJUANA RESCHEDULING
PETITION ) __________________________________
____) OPINION AND RECOMMENDED RULING, FINDINGS
OF FACT, CONCLUSIONS OF LAW AND DECISION OF
Administrative LAW JUDGE. FRANCIS L. YOUNG,
Administrative Law Judge DATED SEP 6 1988
There is no record in the extensive medical
literature describing a proven, documented
cannabis-induced fatality. Marijuana, in its
natural form, is one of the safest
therapeutically active substances known to man.
19
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20
The World Health Organization estimates that 4
million people die each year worldwide
from tobacco-related illness.
21
Fumigated food crops in Colombia. Photo by Sanho
Tree, Institute for Policy Studies.
Tobacco kills over 400,000 people in the U.S.
every year and millions more worldwide.
22
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23
Inscribed To Governor Ray Shafer ...from his
devoted friend Richard M. Nixon
http//shafer.allegheny.edu/figures.html
24
The Shafer Commission issued its report on
marijuana policy on March 22, 1972-

Washington, DC - A Presidential commission's
report recommends that marijuana be legalized.
The Commission concluded that marijuana users
"are essentially indistinguishable from their
nonmarijuana using peers by any fundamental
criterion other than their marijuana use." They
found that, "Neither the marijuana user nor the
drug itself can be said to constitute a danger to
public safety." The Commission recommended
"Decriminalization of possession of marijuana for
personal use on both the state and federal
levels."
25
  • The Report of the National Commission
  • on Marihuana and Drug Abuse
  • Marihuana A Signal of Misunderstanding
  • Commissioned by President Richard M. Nixon,
    March, 1972

"...the creation of ever-larger bureaucracies,
ever-increasing expenditure of monies and an
outpouring of publicity so that the public will
know that 'something' is being done. Perhaps the
major consequence of this ... has been the
creation of a vested interest in the perpetuation
of the problem among those dispensing and
receiving funds ... In the course of well-meaning
efforts to do something about drug use, this
society may have inadvertently institutionalized
it as a never-ending project." 
26
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27
Proportion of 10th graders who report ever having
used marijuana/cannabis by region
Proportion of 10th graders who have used any
illicit drug other than cannabis by region
European Survey Project on Alcohol and Drugs
(ESPAD)
28
(2002)
(1985)
http//www.unodc.org/pdf/trends2003_www_E.pdf
29
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30
http//www.gale.com/pdf/samples/sp65756X.pdf
31
http//archive.aclu.org/graphics/forfeiture_ad_sm.
jpg
32
Barry McCaffrey Director of Office of National
Drug Control Policy, 1996 - 2001
  • U.S. Prisons -
  • More than
  • 55,000,000,000 a year
  • More than
  • 2,000,000 prisoners

33
Source 2003 ONDCP National Drug Control
Strategy2002 National Survey on Drug Use and
Health
34
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35
George McMahon Nail Patella Syndrome
Irvin Rosenfeld-Bone disorder
Elvy Musikka Glaucoma patient
Corrine Millet-glaucoma patient Barb
Douglass-multiple sclerosis
patient
36
Conant vs. McCaffrey (later vs.
Walters) established physicians right to discuss
Cannabis with their patients.
Dr. Marcus Conant Lead plaintiff
37
Mike and Valerie Corral at their medical
marijuana hospice near Santa Cruz, California.
On September 23, 2002, the hospice was raided by
federal agents. The residents were held at
gunpoint while their co-op garden was destroyed.
38
Angel Raich suffers from scoliosis, a brain
tumor, chronic nausea, fatigue and pain. The
Supreme Court will hear Ashcroft vs. Raich this
winter to rule on her right to use cannabis as a
medicine.
Angel and Robert Raich
39
After 19 major surgeries and hundreds of
pharmaceutical drugs, George McMahon now uses
only Cannabis to control his Nail Patella
Syndrome.
40
  • The undertreatment of pain in hospitals
  • is absolutely medieval.

Dr. Russell Portnoy Pain Center at Sloan
Kettering Memorial Hospital
41
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42
Heroin injection has often been the ignition
point for AIDS outbreaks in third world cities.
43
5 of the worlds people 25 of the worlds
prisoners
44
  • Correctional Populations in the United States,
    1997 and Prisoners in 2002,
  • U.S. Department of Justice Bureau of Justice
    Statistics

45
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46
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47
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48
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49
The clinic in Bern, Switzerland is in this
building
50
"I know of no other crime prevention program
with such a big reduction in theft and other
serious crimes."
Martin Killias, Institute of Police Science and
Criminology
51
In year 2000 dollars 55 pounds of heroin was
worth 128,000 on the legal market. It was
worth 3.7 million on the illegal market.

Source St. Petersburg Times
July 31, 2001
www.nagoya-customs.go.jp/. ../images/heroin.
52
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53
I find that a policy of prohibition fails to
deliver reductions in drug use or supply,
provides incentives for increased crime,
profits for criminal endeavour and an
environment of mistrust and ignorance that is
socially and educationally counter- productive.
Eddie Ellison, the former operational head of
Scotland Yard's Drug Squad
http//eddie.gn.apc.org/index.php?pID1
54
Special Interests
  • All federal agencies
  • The defense industry
  • The pharmaceutical industry
  • The advertising industry and the media
  • The prison industry
  • The tobacco and liquor industries
  • The drug testing industry
  • The drug treatment industry
  • The home security industry
  • The timber industry
  • The international illegal drug cartels

55
  • Essential public policy objectives -
  • Enhanced public order and reduced crime.   
  • Improved public health.   
  • Protection of children.
  •  Efficient use of scarce public resources.
  • The War on Drugs has not only failed to fulfill
    any
  • of these objectives, but also has exacerbated the
  • very problems it was designed to address.
  • King County Washington Bar Association, Drug
    Policy Project, 2001

56
Special Interests
  • All federal agencies
  • The defense industry
  • The pharmaceutical industry
  • The advertising industry and the media
  • The prison industry
  • The tobacco and liquor industries
  • The drug testing industry
  • The drug treatment industry
  • The home security industry
  • The timber industry
  • The international illegal drug cartels

57
The federal bureaucracy
  • MDMA and INcredible research

58
Meth-ylenedioxymethamphetamine
59
Alexander T. Shulgin, Ph.D.Dr.
Shulgin is a chemist, researcher, and author.
With his wife, Ann, has authored the books PIHKAL
and TIHKAL.
60
Oakland psychologist and psychotherapist Leo
Zeff, "the Johnny Appleseed of MDMA."
61
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62
Maxfield Parrish Ecstasy
63
The husband and wife research team
  • Dr. Una McCann
  • National Institutes on Drug Abuse

Dr. George Ricaurte The John S. Hopkins
Medical institute
64
This is what the brain thinks of Ecstasy.....
Any Questions?
Irretreviably flawed. New Scientist,
April 20, 2002
65
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66
The Perils of Ecstasy
67
Senator Joseph Biden, (D) Delaware
68
  • Source Science, Vol 301, Issue 5639, 1479Date
    12 September 2003
  • Retraction
  • We write to retract our report "Severe
    dopaminergic neurotoxicity in primates after a
    common recreational dose regimen of MDMA
    ("ecstasy")" (1), following our recent discovery
    that the drug used to treat all but one animal in
    that report came from a bottle that contained
    ()-methamphetamine instead of the intended drug,
    ()MDMA. Notably, ()-methamphetamine would be
    expected to produce the same pattern of combined
    dopaminergic/serotonergic neurotoxicity (2) as
    that seen in the animals reported in our paper
    (1).

69
  • BE CAREFUL
  • Ecstasy is illegal and a conviction for
    possession can carry long prison sentences.
  • Frequent or high doses have been linked to
    neurotoxic damage in laboratory animals. It is
    still unknown whether such damage occurs in
    humans or, if it does, whether this has any
    long-term, negative consequences.
  • Some people experience depression after taking
    MDMA. This is caused by MDMA's action on certain
    brain chemicals.
  • There have been some deaths associated with
    MDMA. Usually these have been a result of
    heatstroke from dancing for long periods of time
    in hot clubs without replenishing lost body
    fluids.
  • Much of what is sold as "ecstasy" on the black
    market actually contains other drugs, some of
    which can be more dangerous than MDMA, like PMA,
    speed, DXM and PCP.
  • Mixing ecstasy with alcohol or other drugs
    increases the risk of adverse reactions.

70
The defense industry
  • Plan Colombia

71
A farmer dries his cocaine base in the sun in
Monserrate. Photograph by Carlos Villalón
http//magma.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0407/feat
ure2/zoom4.html
72
2000 Plan Colombia bill-1.3 billion
1.1 billion to buy helicopters
200 million to spray crops with glyphosate
73
Bells Huey II
74
Sikorskys Black Hawk
75
Each year the cocoa crop and the
fumigation campaign move further into the Amazon
jungle with disastrous results to its ecosystem.
76
Destroyed peanut crop in Colombia.
77
http//www.nadir.org/nadir/initiativ/agp/free/colo
mbia/presspack
78
500-mile oil pipeline, partly owned by
Occidental Petroleum Company of California
79
www.amazonwatch.org
80
Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs
and Emergency Relief Coordinator Jan Egeland
addressing the Security Council.
Jan Egeland has described Colombia as the
biggest humanitarian problem, human rights
problem, the biggest conflict in the Western
Hemisphere.
81
The pharmaceutical industry
  • Medical marijuana

82
James E. BurkeChairman of Johnson Johnson
1976-1989Chairman of PDFA 1989-2002
83
  • Funding Sources 2000/2001

Primary Core support The Robert Wood Johnson
Foundation Gifts up to 1,000,000 Betty Wold
JohnsonJames E. and Didi Burke MetLife
FoundationThe Starr Foundation State of
California Dept of Alcohol Drugs
Gifts up to 100,000 Bristol-Myers Squibb
Foundation Comcast Cable CommunicationsConsum
er Healthcare Products AssocEastman Kodak
CompanyHJ Heinz Company Foundation IBM
Johnson JohnsonEastman Kodak Company
Pfizer Foundation, Inc.The Procter Gamble
FundSchering-Plough Corporation
Source PDFA Annual Report 2001-2002
84
PhRMA, this lobby has a death grip on
Congress. Summer, 2002
85
Pharmaceutical corporations save millions of
dollars every day that they avoid generic
competition.
86
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87
After 19 major surgeries and hundreds of
pharmaceutical drugs, George McMahon now uses
only Cannabis to control his Nail Patella
Syndrome.
88
The advertising industry and the media
  • On strategy content and the
  • National Youth Anti-Drug Campaign

89
November 14, 1996 meeting at the offices of
then drug czar Gen. Barry McCaffrey
  • Drug Enforcement Administration
  • Department of Justice
  • White House Office of Drug Control Policy
  • Department of Treasury
  • Department of Education
  • Department of Health and Human Services
  • The White House
  • Eight senior executives from private pro-drug war
    groups, including The Partnership for a Drug Free
    America

90
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91
Parade received more than any other
publication for on strategy messages in its
content.
92
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93
Media Campaign Appropriations, by Fiscal Year (
in millions)War on Drugs The National Youth
Anti-Drug Media Campaign by Mark Eddy
Year Authorized Adminis-tration request House passed Senate passed Final
1998 195.0 175.0 195.0 110.0 195.0
1999 195.0 195.0 185.0 110.0 185.0
2000 195.0 185.0 195.0 96.5 185.0
2001 195.0 185.0 185.0 98.7 185.0
2002 195.0 185.0 180.0 185.0 180.0
2003 0.0 180.0 170.0 100.0 150.0
2004 0.0 170.0
94
Advertising Hall of Achievement2003 Photo Gallery
First on the left is Stephen
Pasierb, President
Partnership for a Drug-Free America
95
The prison industry
96
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97
5 of the worlds people 25 of the worlds
prisoners
98
 Cromwell Architects Engineers Val Verde County
Jail FacilityDel Rio, Texas
99
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100
Unit Locations
101
Of the 55,183 Texas prisoners returned to their
homes during 2001, 59 returned to just 5
counties.
102
Wackenhut Corrections Corporation
  • In Lockhart, Texas, we operate work program
    facilities for the Texas Department of Criminal
    Justice-Parole Division. As there is an
    inverse relationship between marketable job
    skills and the incidence of incarceration, we
    have recruited private industry to establish
    factories within the facilities, train offenders
    in appropriate skills, and pay them for their
    labor under the Prison Industry Enhancement
    Certification Program (PIECP) program.

Source www.wcc-corrections.com
103
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104
http//www.prisonpolicy.org/graphs/privateprisons1
9872001.shtml
105
  • Today, CCA is the sixth largest corrections
    system in the country, coming just after Texas,
    California, the federal government, New York, and
    Florida.

106
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107
  • Congressman Pete
  • Sessions outlines a plan
  • to introduce a bill
  • requiring a mandatory life
  • sentence for anyone
  • caught and involved in the
  • manufacture of meth-
  • amphetamine in the United
  • States as Rep. Mark
  • Souder listens. Sessions
  • and Souder were at West
  • Mesquite High School
  • Monday to give a status
  • report to residents on the
  • Northeast Texas fight
  • against drugs.
  • Michael Marshall
  • Staff photo

The Mesquite
News, July 24, 1997
108
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109
Average sentences for federal convictions(in
months)
72.7
65.2
37.7
34.3
Report of American Bar Association Justice
Kennedy Commission, June 2004
110
(No Transcript)
111
Loren Pogue
22 years for failing to stop the sale of a
piece of real estate from a paid informant to
under-cover DEA officers after they said they
would build an airstrip and fly in drugs. Now
held in the Federal Medical Center in Ft. Worth.
http//www.hr95.org/hr95faces.html
112
World rank in public safety indicators(Higher
rank indicates greater public safety)Source
Economic and social data ranking, European
Institute of Japanese Studies
Canada
Switzerland
113
(No Transcript)
114
  • Correctional Populations in the United States,
    1997 and Prisoners in 2002,
  • U.S. Department of Justice Bureau of Justice
    Statistics

115
(No Transcript)
116
http//www.prisonpolicy.org/graphs/illiteracy.shtm
l
117
Serving three consecutive life sentences
without possibility of parole for introducing a
friend to a drug dealer.
Clarence Aaron
http//www.hr95.org/hr95faces.html
118
(No Transcript)
119
Serving 3 LIFE sentences 20 years
They didn't want me for anything they wanted
my husband I couldn't tell them what I did not
know."
Danielle Metz
http//www.hr95.org/hr95faces.html
120
http//www.prisonpolicy.org/graphs/juveniles.shtml
121
(No Transcript)
122
Percentage of males born in 2001 who can be
expected to serve time in their lifetimes
32.2
16.7
5.9
Report of American Bar Association Justice
Kennedy Commission, June 2004
123
164,222 inmates June, 2003
Texas spends 1.45 million a day keeping adult
drug offenders locked up.
124
http//www.prisonpolicy.org/graphs/TX_incrates2001
.shtml
125
(No Transcript)
126
Our resources are misspent, our punishments too
severe, our sentences too long. Supreme Court
Justice Anthony Kennedy to the American Bar
Association, August, 2003
127
  • Essential public policy objectives -
  • Enhanced public order and reduced crime.   
  • Improved public health.   
  • Protection of children.
  •  Efficient use of scarce public resources.
  • The War on Drugs has not only failed to fulfill
    any
  • of these objectives, but also has exacerbated the
  • very problems it was designed to address.
  • King County Washington Bar Association, Drug
    Policy Project, 2001

128
http//www.unodc.org/pdf/trends2003_www_E.pdf
129
http//www.unodc.org/pdf/trends2003_www_E.pdf
130
http//www.tcada.state.tx.us/research/trends/trend
s704.pdf
131
http//www.tcada.state.tx.us/research/trends/trend
s704.pdf
132
Texas adult drug use (2000) compared to high
school use (2002)
37
32
13
12
12
9
7
7
1.6
3
1.2
http//www.tcada.state.tx.us/research/trends/trend
s704.pdf
133
Global Illicit Drug Trends(most current year
available)
Data presented in this report must be
interpreted with caution. All figuresare
subject to updating.
http//www.unodc.org/unodc/en/global_illicit_drug_
trends.html
134
Global Illicit Drug Trends(most current year
available)
Data presented in this report must be
interpreted with caution. All figuresare
subject to updating.
http//www.unodc.org/unodc/en/global_illicit_drug_
trends.html
135
METHAMPHETAMINE THE CURRENT THREAT IN EAST ASIA
AND THE PACIFIC RIM September 2003 DEA-03052
http//www.usdoj.gov/dea/pubs/intel/03052/03052.pd
f
136
Drug related arrests in China 1991-2003DEA
resources for law enforcement officers,intelligen
ce reports, China country brief
http//www.usdoj/dea/pubs/intel/03081/03081.html
137
Seizures at El Paso Border Patrol sector
In pounds 2000 2001 2002 2003
Heroin 26 21 15 218
Cocaine 3,123 1,991 3,363 3,872
Marijuana 305,793 306,622 323,083 335,169
Metham-phetamine 11 95 92 706
Dallas Morning News, August 15, 2004
138
Gross National Income per capita 2003, Atlas
method
  • USA
  • Switzerland
  • The Netherlands
  • Australia
  • Russia
  • Thailand
  • China
  • Iran
  • Singapore
  • 37,610
  • 39,880
  • 26,310
  • 21,650
  • 2,610
  • 2,190
  • 1,100
  • 2,000
  • 21,230

http//www.worldbank.org/data/databytopic/GNIPC.pd
f
139
Figure 2.1 Percentages Reporting Past Month Use
of Any Illicit Drug among Persons Aged 12 or
Older, by State 2002
http//oas.samhsa.gov/2k2State/html/ch2.htmfig2.1
140
Texas per SAMSHA 2002 Total Age 12-17 Age 18-25 26 older
Past mo. use 0f illicit subs. 6.67 9.73 17.22 4.14
Past mo. use of marijuana 4.87 5.94 13.17 3.09
Annual 1st use of mj 1.70 6.14 5.48 0.13
Past yr use of cocaine 2.38 1.46 5.82 1.10
Past mo. binge alcohol 23.48 9.96 41.26 22.16
Past mo. use of tobacco 29.02 12.88 41.46 29.14
Past yr need not get trmt-ill drug 2.43 4.47 6.66 1.28
Past yr need not get trmt-alcohol 7.96 5.36 17.53 6.52
141
General population per 2000 censusPrison
population per Texas Dept of Criminal Justice,
Aug 2002
142
Texas prisoners by offense Texas Dept. of
Criminal Justice, August, 2002
46
24
19
11
143
Religious groups which endorse a variety of drug
policy reforms, including repealing mandatory
minimum sentencing National Council of the
Churches of Christ in the USA Evangelical
Lutheran Church in America Presbyterian Church
(USA), the United Church of Christ Unitarian
Universalist Association of Congregations Progress
ive Jewish Alliance Rainbow/PUSH
Coalition Religious Society of Friends Progressive
National Baptist Convention
Religious groups that support legal access to
cannabis for patients who have obtained their
doctors' approval Episcopal Church United
Church of Christ Unitarian Universalist
Association Union for Reform Judaism United
Methodist Church Progressive National Baptist
Convention
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