Chemistry of Life - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: Chemistry of Life


1
Chemistry of Life
  • Organic and Inorganic compounds

2
Objectives
  • Distinguish between organic and inorganic
    compounds
  • Explain the importance of carbon bonding in
    biological molecules
  • Identify functional groups in molecules
  • Summarize how large carbon molecules are
    synthesized and broken down
  • Describe how the breaking down of ATP supplies
    energy to drive chemical reactions.

3
Inorganic Molecules
  • Generally small
  • Few or no carbon atoms
  • Dissolve easily in water
  • Resist decomposition
  • Undergo rapid chemical reactions
  • Usually more likely to ionize
  • 2/3 of your body is inorganic molecules

4
Inorganic Compounds
  • Can be minerals (most are ions)
  • Ca, Fe, Mg, P, I, Na
  • Could be molecules like O2,CO2 and H2O
  • CO2 waste product in respiration. Source of
    carbon for photosynthesisO2 essential for
    aerobic respiration. Waste product of
    photosynthesis

5
Where are minerals found in the body?
  • Calcium
  • Bones and Teeth, Vit D required for absorption
  • Iron
  • DNA synthesis, oxygen transport in blood
  • Magnesium
  • Bone and muscle
  • Phosphorus
  • Bones (90) and Brain (grey matter)

6
Where are minerals found in the body?
  • Iodine
  • Essential to thyroid gland functioning (growth
    and metabolism)
  • Sodium, chlorine, potassium electrolytes
  • Regulate membrane potential
  • let things in and out of the cell due to
    polarity.
  • Potassium also regulates
  • the heartbeat, formation of glycogen.
  • Potassium deficiency ? fatigue, muscle cramps,
    stiffness.

7
Water
  • Most important and abundant molecule in the body
  • 60-65 of body mass
  • Cannot survive more than a few days without it.

8
Functions of water
  • Universal Solvent
  • No chemical reactions without water
  • Chemical Reactant
  • Source of H for PS and Respiration
  • Can donate O in some reactions
  • Stabilizes temperature
  • Absorbs and releases heat slowly

9
Functions of water
  • Lubricant
  • Membranes, heart, lungs, digestive system
  • Cushioning
  • Brain and spinal cord, surrounds major organs,
    surrounds all cells
  • Transport
  • Blood, lymph
  • Moves things from place to place

10
Location of water
  • Compartmentalized
  • Intracellular
  • Extracellular
  • Interstitial and Intravascular
  • Salt/water balance
  • maintained between compartments
  • Interact with environment
  • via respiratory, excretory, and digestive systems

11
Characteristics of Organic Compounds (in
Organisms)
  • 1/3 of body ? organic molecules.
  • Can contain 100s to 10,000s of atoms.
  • Carbon backbone can form
  • Chains, branches, or ring structures.
  • Single, double or triple bonds
  • Bonds with Carbon or other molecules
  • Usually contain H, O, N, and P

12
Characteristics of Organic Compounds (in
Organisms)
  • May or may not dissolve easily in water
  • All major organic molecules CAN be used for
    energy production (except vitamins)

13
Non-living Organic Compounds
  • Organic always involve the bonding of carbon and
    hydrogen.
  • Methane, ethane, ethene, benzene are organic
    compounds found in the earth or manufactured.
  • These ARE NOT found in living things

Methane, ethane,
ethene, benzene
14
Important Organic Compounds in Living Things
  • Carbohydrates
  • Lipids
  • Proteins
  • Nucleic Acids
  • Must know what they are made of and how they are
    made important examples of each their
    job/location within the cell

15
What is a macromolecule
  • Macro large
  • Molecule two or more atoms joined together
    (covalent bonding)
  • Small organic molecules are called monomers.

16
Polymers
  • Monomers can be linked together to form polymers.

17
Why can Carbon make long polymer chains?
  • Consider the valence electrons.
  • Can bond with itself, with other atoms, can
    branch or be straight,cyclic, can form single,
    double, or triple bonds

18
Carbon Bonding(SEE FIGURE 3.2 BOOK)
19
How are bonds represented?
  • Parallel lines between atoms

20
Biochem Basics
  • Simplify your structures by hiding the Cs and
    Hs. This is called a shorthand structure.
  • In a glucose molecule,
  • There is a Carbon atom at each corner or point
  • If no atom is shown, Carbons remaining bonds are
    filled up with H
  • Draw examples from board/Class model activity
  • Glucose Fatty acid

21
Dehydration synthesis chemical reaction that
joins two or more monomers to form polymers plus
a water molecule (Building)
- Step 1 begin with at least two unlinked
monomers

OH
HO
OH
HO
- Step 2 Remove an H from monomer 1 and an OH
from monomer 2 The H and OH
combine to form water
HO
H
OH
O
HO


OH
O
HO
HOH H2O
22
Dehydration synthesis chemical reaction that
joins two or more monomers to form polymers plus
a water molecule (Building)
- Step 3 Connect remaining atoms of monomers
O
H2O
OH
HO
Final Products of Dehydration synthesis - 1
growing polymer - 1 water molecule You can now
add on a third monomer the same exact way!!
23
Hydrolysis Chemical reaction that uses water to
separate polymers into monomers. (Break apart)
- Exactly the opposite of Dehydration
synthesis Step 1 Begin with a polymer and 1
water molecule
H2O
OH
O
HO
Step 2 Separate the H2O into an H and an OH.
- Attach the H to one side of the bond, attach
the OH to the other
OH
O
HO
H
HO
Final product of Hydrolysis two separate
monomers
OH
HO
OH
HO
24
Functional Groups
  • Affect the characteristics and chemical reactions
    of organic molecules
  • Four main functional groups
  • OH Hydroxyl
  • COOH Carboxyl
  • NH2 Amino
  • H2PO4 Phosphate

25
Functional Groups can
  • OH allow molecules to attach to polar molecules
  • Could be water, or something else
  • COOH ? acidic
  • NH2 groups ? basic
  • H2PO4 ? high energy bonds

26
Carbon Molecules
  • MOST (not all) are polymers
  • Repeating linked units
  • Might be identical, or structurally related
  • Monomers
  • Small simple molecules
  • Large polymers? macromolecules

27
Carbon Molecules
  • Monomers
  • glucose -tryptophan
  • oleic acid -adenine
  • Polymers
  • starch casein
  • corn oil DNA

28
Four Main Classes of Organic Compounds
  • Carbohydrates
  • Lipids
  • Proteins
  • Nucleic Acids

29
Polymers and Monomers of sugars
30
Linking Monomers
  • Condensation reaction
  • AKA dehydration synthesis
  • Builds larger molecules

31
Splitting Polymers
  • Hydrolysis
  • Water is used (hydro) to split the molecule
    (lysis)
  • Reverse the previous reaction (start with the
    product and go to the reactants

32
A different polymer
Base
P
o
CH2
Nucleotide
H
H
P
Phosphate H2PO3
33
Base
o
CH2
P
H
H
H
OH
P
H2PO3
HPO3-
34
Where is the Energy?
  • ATP
  • Adenosine Triphosphate

Looks like a nucleotide, but has 3 phosphate
groups Water is used to break the
phosphatebonds High energy but easy to break
35
Carbohydrates
Straight Chain
Structural
Molecular Formula
C6H12O6
36
Carbohydrates
  • CH2O (approximate ratio of atoms)
  • Main source of energy for living things
  • Some are important structurally
  • Can be simple (glucose) or complex (starch)

37
Monosaccharides
  • Single sugar molecules (simple sugars)
  • Glucose
  • Galactose - in milk
  • Fructose - in fruit
  • sweetest of the simple sugars

Can be absorbed directly into the bloodstream
glucose
38
Disaccharide
  • Sucrose - glucose fructose
  • Lactose - galactose glucose
  • Maltose - glucose glucose

39
Polysaccharides
  • Glycogen (animal starch)
  • storage in muscle and liver
  • Plant starch
  • stores excess sugar in a plant
  • Cellulose
  • provides strength and rigidity in plants
  • Chitin
  • Animal exoskeletons

glycogen
40
Glycogen Structure
Storage form of glucose. Found in liver and
muscles. Glucose in excess of glycogen needs is
converted to fat.
41
Plant Starch branched and unbranched
42
(No Transcript)
43
Cellulose
44
LIPIDS
45
Lipids - Steroids
46
Food Lipid - Triglyceride
47
Not a Monomer!!!!
The three fatty acids do NOT link to each
other. Instead they link to another molecule
(glycerol) This unit is called a triglyceride
ora fat. This unit DOES NOT link to another
triglyceride!
48
(No Transcript)
49
Lipids
  • Purpose
  • store energy - membrane components
  • waterproof - chemical messengers (steroids)

50
Lipids
  • Chemical composition
  • Predominantly Carbon and Hydrogen
  • DO NOT HAVE MONOMERS!!!
  • Common categories
  • Fats/Oils (Triglycerides)
  • Pigments -Waxes
  • Steroids - Phospholipids

51
Lipid Structure
  • Many have 3 fatty acids attached to a glycerol
    backbone
  • Called a triglyceride
  • Saturated
  • maximum of hydrogens, no CC bonds
  • generally solid at room temperature
  • Unsaturated
  • one or more CC or triple bond.
  • Generally liquid at room temperature

52
(No Transcript)
53
(No Transcript)
54
(No Transcript)
55
NUCLEIC ACIDS
56
Nucleic Acids
  • H, O, N, C, P
  • Monomers are called nucleotides
  • Composition of a nucleotide (3 parts)
  • phosphate group
  • 5 C sugar
  • nitrogenous base
  • Nucleotides join covalently to form nucleic acids

57
Nucleic Acids
  • Types of Nucleic Acids (Polymers)
  • RNA
  • contains ribose and uracil, single stranded
  • DNA
  • contains deoxyribose and thymine, double stranded

58
Nucleotide (Monomer) Structure
59
DNA nucleotides
60
DNA STRUCTURE
61
Nucleic Acid Structure
62
PROTEINS
63
Proteins
  • N, C, H, O others
  • Monomer amino acid
  • NH2 group at one end COOH group at the other
  • R groups differentiate one aa from another

64
Proteins
  • Polypeptides and Proteins
  • Polymers
  • 20 different aa linked in countless ways

65
Amino group
Carboxyl grouop
Generic amino acid
66
Structure of Protein
Most be tertiary structure to be called a protein
67
Role of Proteins
  • Control rates of reactions
  • Regulate cell processes
  • Build bone and muscles
  • Transport

68
Protein organization
  • Four levels
  • Primary (1o - sequence of aa acids in polypeptide
    chain
  • Secondary (2o) - aa can be twisted (a) or folded
    (b)
  • Tertiary 3o - how chain is folded this is the
    functional level of many proteins
  • Quaternary 4o - how chains interact together
    -some proteins require more than one polypeptide
    to work.

69
nucleotides
triglyceride
Amino acid
70
steroids
glucose
polysaccharide
hydrolysis
Dehydration synthesis
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Chemistry of Life

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Title: Chemistry of Life


1
Chemistry of Life
  • Organic and Inorganic compounds

2
Objectives
  • Distinguish between organic and inorganic
    compounds
  • Explain the importance of carbon bonding in
    biological molecules
  • Identify functional groups in molecules
  • Summarize how large carbon molecules are
    synthesized and broken down
  • Describe how the breaking down of ATP supplies
    energy to drive chemical reactions.

3
Inorganic Molecules
  • Generally small
  • Few or no carbon atoms
  • Dissolve easily in water
  • Resist decomposition
  • Undergo rapid chemical reactions
  • Usually more likely to ionize
  • 2/3 of your body is inorganic molecules

4
Inorganic Compounds
  • Can be minerals (most are ions)
  • Ca, Fe, Mg, P, I, Na
  • Could be molecules like O2,CO2 and H2O
  • CO2 waste product in respiration. Source of
    carbon for photosynthesisO2 essential for
    aerobic respiration. Waste product of
    photosynthesis

5
Where are minerals found in the body?
  • Calcium
  • Bones and Teeth, Vit D required for absorption
  • Iron
  • DNA synthesis, oxygen transport in blood
  • Magnesium
  • Bone and muscle
  • Phosphorus
  • Bones (90) and Brain (grey matter)

6
Where are minerals found in the body?
  • Iodine
  • Essential to thyroid gland functioning (growth
    and metabolism)
  • Sodium, chlorine, potassium electrolytes
  • Regulate membrane potential
  • let things in and out of the cell due to
    polarity.
  • Potassium also regulates
  • the heartbeat, formation of glycogen.
  • Potassium deficiency ? fatigue, muscle cramps,
    stiffness.

7
Water
  • Most important and abundant molecule in the body
  • 60-65 of body mass
  • Cannot survive more than a few days without it.

8
Functions of water
  • Universal Solvent
  • No chemical reactions without water
  • Chemical Reactant
  • Source of H for PS and Respiration
  • Can donate O in some reactions
  • Stabilizes temperature
  • Absorbs and releases heat slowly

9
Functions of water
  • Lubricant
  • Membranes, heart, lungs, digestive system
  • Cushioning
  • Brain and spinal cord, surrounds major organs,
    surrounds all cells
  • Transport
  • Blood, lymph
  • Moves things from place to place

10
Location of water
  • Compartmentalized
  • Intracellular
  • Extracellular
  • Interstitial and Intravascular
  • Salt/water balance
  • maintained between compartments
  • Interact with environment
  • via respiratory, excretory, and digestive systems

11
Characteristics of Organic Compounds (in
Organisms)
  • 1/3 of body ? organic molecules.
  • Can contain 100s to 10,000s of atoms.
  • Carbon backbone can form
  • Chains, branches, or ring structures.
  • Single, double or triple bonds
  • Bonds with Carbon or other molecules
  • Usually contain H, O, N, and P

12
Characteristics of Organic Compounds (in
Organisms)
  • May or may not dissolve easily in water
  • All major organic molecules CAN be used for
    energy production (except vitamins)

13
Non-living Organic Compounds
  • Organic always involve the bonding of carbon and
    hydrogen.
  • Methane, ethane, ethene, benzene are organic
    compounds found in the earth or manufactured.
  • These ARE NOT found in living things

Methane, ethane,
ethene, benzene
14
Important Organic Compounds in Living Things
  • Carbohydrates
  • Lipids
  • Proteins
  • Nucleic Acids
  • Must know what they are made of and how they are
    made important examples of each their
    job/location within the cell

15
What is a macromolecule
  • Macro large
  • Molecule two or more atoms joined together
    (covalent bonding)
  • Small organic molecules are called monomers.

16
Polymers
  • Monomers can be linked together to form polymers.

17
Why can Carbon make long polymer chains?
  • Consider the valence electrons.
  • Can bond with itself, with other atoms, can
    branch or be straight,cyclic, can form single,
    double, or triple bonds

18
Carbon Bonding(SEE FIGURE 3.2 BOOK)
19
How are bonds represented?
  • Parallel lines between atoms

20
Biochem Basics
  • Simplify your structures by hiding the Cs and
    Hs. This is called a shorthand structure.
  • In a glucose molecule,
  • There is a Carbon atom at each corner or point
  • If no atom is shown, Carbons remaining bonds are
    filled up with H
  • Draw examples from board/Class model activity
  • Glucose Fatty acid

21
Dehydration synthesis chemical reaction that
joins two or more monomers to form polymers plus
a water molecule (Building)
- Step 1 begin with at least two unlinked
monomers

OH
HO
OH
HO
- Step 2 Remove an H from monomer 1 and an OH
from monomer 2 The H and OH
combine to form water
HO
H
OH
O
HO


OH
O
HO
HOH H2O
22
Dehydration synthesis chemical reaction that
joins two or more monomers to form polymers plus
a water molecule (Building)
- Step 3 Connect remaining atoms of monomers
O
H2O
OH
HO
Final Products of Dehydration synthesis - 1
growing polymer - 1 water molecule You can now
add on a third monomer the same exact way!!
23
Hydrolysis Chemical reaction that uses water to
separate polymers into monomers. (Break apart)
- Exactly the opposite of Dehydration
synthesis Step 1 Begin with a polymer and 1
water molecule
H2O
OH
O
HO
Step 2 Separate the H2O into an H and an OH.
- Attach the H to one side of the bond, attach
the OH to the other
OH
O
HO
H
HO
Final product of Hydrolysis two separate
monomers
OH
HO
OH
HO
24
Functional Groups
  • Affect the characteristics and chemical reactions
    of organic molecules
  • Four main functional groups
  • OH Hydroxyl
  • COOH Carboxyl
  • NH2 Amino
  • H2PO4 Phosphate

25
Functional Groups can
  • OH allow molecules to attach to polar molecules
  • Could be water, or something else
  • COOH ? acidic
  • NH2 groups ? basic
  • H2PO4 ? high energy bonds

26
Carbon Molecules
  • MOST (not all) are polymers
  • Repeating linked units
  • Might be identical, or structurally related
  • Monomers
  • Small simple molecules
  • Large polymers? macromolecules

27
Carbon Molecules
  • Monomers
  • glucose -tryptophan
  • oleic acid -adenine
  • Polymers
  • starch casein
  • corn oil DNA

28
Four Main Classes of Organic Compounds
  • Carbohydrates
  • Lipids
  • Proteins
  • Nucleic Acids

29
Polymers and Monomers of sugars
30
Linking Monomers
  • Condensation reaction
  • AKA dehydration synthesis
  • Builds larger molecules

31
Splitting Polymers
  • Hydrolysis
  • Water is used (hydro) to split the molecule
    (lysis)
  • Reverse the previous reaction (start with the
    product and go to the reactants

32
A different polymer
Base
P
o
CH2
Nucleotide
H
H
P
Phosphate H2PO3
33
Base
o
CH2
P
H
H
H
OH
P
H2PO3
HPO3-
34
Where is the Energy?
  • ATP
  • Adenosine Triphosphate

Looks like a nucleotide, but has 3 phosphate
groups Water is used to break the
phosphatebonds High energy but easy to break
35
Carbohydrates
Straight Chain
Structural
Molecular Formula
C6H12O6
36
Carbohydrates
  • CH2O (approximate ratio of atoms)
  • Main source of energy for living things
  • Some are important structurally
  • Can be simple (glucose) or complex (starch)

37
Monosaccharides
  • Single sugar molecules (simple sugars)
  • Glucose
  • Galactose - in milk
  • Fructose - in fruit
  • sweetest of the simple sugars

Can be absorbed directly into the bloodstream
glucose
38
Disaccharide
  • Sucrose - glucose fructose
  • Lactose - galactose glucose
  • Maltose - glucose glucose

39
Polysaccharides
  • Glycogen (animal starch)
  • storage in muscle and liver
  • Plant starch
  • stores excess sugar in a plant
  • Cellulose
  • provides strength and rigidity in plants
  • Chitin
  • Animal exoskeletons

glycogen
40
Glycogen Structure
Storage form of glucose. Found in liver and
muscles. Glucose in excess of glycogen needs is
converted to fat.
41
Plant Starch branched and unbranched
42
(No Transcript)
43
Cellulose
44
LIPIDS
45
Lipids - Steroids
46
Food Lipid - Triglyceride
47
Not a Monomer!!!!
The three fatty acids do NOT link to each
other. Instead they link to another molecule
(glycerol) This unit is called a triglyceride
ora fat. This unit DOES NOT link to another
triglyceride!
48
(No Transcript)
49
Lipids
  • Purpose
  • store energy - membrane components
  • waterproof - chemical messengers (steroids)

50
Lipids
  • Chemical composition
  • Predominantly Carbon and Hydrogen
  • DO NOT HAVE MONOMERS!!!
  • Common categories
  • Fats/Oils (Triglycerides)
  • Pigments -Waxes
  • Steroids - Phospholipids

51
Lipid Structure
  • Many have 3 fatty acids attached to a glycerol
    backbone
  • Called a triglyceride
  • Saturated
  • maximum of hydrogens, no CC bonds
  • generally solid at room temperature
  • Unsaturated
  • one or more CC or triple bond.
  • Generally liquid at room temperature

52
(No Transcript)
53
(No Transcript)
54
(No Transcript)
55
NUCLEIC ACIDS
56
Nucleic Acids
  • H, O, N, C, P
  • Monomers are called nucleotides
  • Composition of a nucleotide (3 parts)
  • phosphate group
  • 5 C sugar
  • nitrogenous base
  • Nucleotides join covalently to form nucleic acids

57
Nucleic Acids
  • Types of Nucleic Acids (Polymers)
  • RNA
  • contains ribose and uracil, single stranded
  • DNA
  • contains deoxyribose and thymine, double stranded

58
Nucleotide (Monomer) Structure
59
DNA nucleotides
60
DNA STRUCTURE
61
Nucleic Acid Structure
62
PROTEINS
63
Proteins
  • N, C, H, O others
  • Monomer amino acid
  • NH2 group at one end COOH group at the other
  • R groups differentiate one aa from another

64
Proteins
  • Polypeptides and Proteins
  • Polymers
  • 20 different aa linked in countless ways

65
Amino group
Carboxyl grouop
Generic amino acid
66
Structure of Protein
Most be tertiary structure to be called a protein
67
Role of Proteins
  • Control rates of reactions
  • Regulate cell processes
  • Build bone and muscles
  • Transport

68
Protein organization
  • Four levels
  • Primary (1o - sequence of aa acids in polypeptide
    chain
  • Secondary (2o) - aa can be twisted (a) or folded
    (b)
  • Tertiary 3o - how chain is folded this is the
    functional level of many proteins
  • Quaternary 4o - how chains interact together
    -some proteins require more than one polypeptide
    to work.

69
nucleotides
triglyceride
Amino acid
70
steroids
glucose
polysaccharide
hydrolysis
Dehydration synthesis
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