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Chemistry of Life

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Chemistry of Life Matter Anything that has mass and takes up space. 3 types of matter: a). Solid b). Liquid c). Gas Solids Any substance that has a definite shape and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chemistry of Life


1
Chemistry of Life
2
Matter
  • Anything that has mass and takes up space.
  • 3 types of matter
  • a). Solid
  • b). Liquid
  • c). Gas

3
Solids
  • Any substance that has a definite shape and
    definite volume.

4
LIQUID
  • Any substance that has a definite volume but not
    a definite shape. It takes the shape of its
    container.

5
Gas
  • Any substance that has no definite shape or
    definite volume.

6
Physical Change
  • Changing the physical properties of a substance
    without changing the substance itself.

7
Physical Properties
  • The characteristics of a substance that you can
    observe with the senses.
  • They include

shape
color
volume
texture
odor
8
ATOMS
  • The smallest particle of matter that can exist
    and still have the properties of a particular
    kind of matter.

9
  • Atoms are composed of
  • 1. Nucleus central part of the atom
  • 2. Protons positively charged particles ()
  • 3. Neutrons uncharged particles
  • 4. Electrons negatively charged particles (-)

electrons
protons
neutrons
orbit
10
Orbits (Energy Levels)
  • A region around the nucleus in specific energy
    levels.
  • There are 7 energy levels known to date.
  • 1st energy level holds a maximum of 2 electrons.
  • 2nd energy level holds a maximum of 8 electrons.
  • 3rd energy level holds a maximum of 18 electrons.

11
Elements
  • http//www.chemsoc.org/viselements
    /pages/page3.html
  • Substances that are made up entirely of atoms of
    the same kind and cannot be divided into simpler
    substances by ordinary chemical means.

12
(No Transcript)
13
Symbol a shorthand method of representing an
element. Atomic Number - of protons in the
nucleus of the element. Atomic Mass Number -
protons of neutrons protons of
electrons atoms are electrically neutral
14
How many protons, electrons, and neutrons are
found in the following atoms?
Calcium protons electrons neutrons
-
Iodine protons electrons neutrons -
I 53 53 74
Ca 20 20 20
Gold protons electrons neutrons -
Au 79 79 118
15
Molecule the smallest part of a substance that
has all the chemical properties of that
substance. Made up of atoms of the same or
different kinds of atoms.Compound matter made
up of 2 or more atoms that are chemically
combined from different elements.
  • H2O NH3 O2 2NaCl 4H2 CO2 He

16
Chemical (Molecular) Formulas
  • Shows the kind and number of atoms in a molecule
    or compound.
  • Ex H2 - hydrogen gas
  • H symbol
  • 2 subscript
  • 2 atoms of Hydrogen
  • 2H2O C6H12O6

17
Chemical Change
  • Always uses or gives off energy
  • Results in a new substance
  • Ex H2 O2 ? 2H2O
  • Na Cl ? NaCl

18
Mixtures substances that are combined but not
changed chemically.Ex cereal milk vegetable
saladHow could a mixture of salt and water be
separated?2 types a) homogeneous one in
which the substances are evenly distributed. b)
heterogeneous the substances are not evenly
distributed.
19
Mixtures
  • Solution a mixture that is formed when the
    molecules of one substance mix evenly with those
    of another substance.
  • ex Kool-Aid lemonade
  • Suspension a heterogeneous mixture containing
    particles distributed with a liquid, gas, or
    solid.
  • ex soil water RBC blood
  • Colloid a mixture composed of particles
    dispersed in a medium
  • ex gelatin (partly solid partly liquid)
  • How is fog a
    colloid?

20
Acids Bases
  • Acid a chemical that produces hydrogen ions in
    a water solution.
  • Ex HCl H2SO4
  • Base a chemical that produces hydroxide ions in
    a water solution.
  • Ex NaOH

21
pH
  • pH scale scale for measuring how acidic or
    basic various solutions are.
  • Ranges from 0 to 14
  • a solution w/a pH of 7 is neutral
  • a solution w/a pH below 7 (0 to 6.9) is acidic
  • a solution w/a pH above 7 (7.1 to 14) is basic
  • Ex stomach acid
  • vinegar
  • milk
  • blood
  • soap

1 3 6.5 7.3 10
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