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Indoor Air Quality: Common Problems and Health Effects

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Indoor Air Quality: Common Problems and Health Effects Jeff Mears Area Manager Environmental Health & Safety Area Oneida Nation Quality of Life People spend most time ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Indoor Air Quality: Common Problems and Health Effects


1
Indoor Air Quality Common Problems and Health
Effects
  • Jeff Mears
  • Area Manager
  • Environmental Health Safety Area
  • Oneida Nation

2
Quality of Life
  • People spend most time indoors
  • Half of waking hours at work or school
  • Pollutant levels higher indoors
  • Most-sensitive people spend more time inside
  • Health impacts and medical expenses are great

3
The Dirty Dozen
  1. Carbon Monoxide
  2. Lead
  3. Mold
  4. Radon
  5. Particles
  6. Tobacco Smoke
  1. Asbestos
  2. Chemicals Pesticides
  3. Pests
  4. Ozone
  5. Volatile Organic Compounds
  6. Building/Remodeling

4
Environmental Asthma Triggers
  • Animals
  • Mites, insects, rodents
  • Mold
  • Tobacco smoke/wood smoke
  • Combustion by-products
  • Pollen, dusts, odors, VOCs
  • Ozone, chemicals

5
Carbon Monoxide
Odorless and Colorless
6
Symptoms of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
  • At low to moderate levels
  • Headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness,
    sleepiness, confusion
  • At high levels
  • Loss of consciousness or death

7
Potential Causes of Carbon Monoxide (CO) Problems
  • Cooking
  • Un-vented appliances
  • Improperly installed combustion
  • equipment
  • Broken combustion equipment
  • Pressure problems
  • Internal combustion equipment
  • Generators, cars, etc.

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10
Furnace needs maintenance !
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12
Building pressures can cause combustion gas
spillage
13
Check for Carbon Monoxideand other combustion
by-products
  • CO alarms
  • Odors
  • Visual evidence
  • Building pressures

14
Best to locate CO detectors 18 from ceiling
15
Best to locate 18 from ceiling CO slightly
lighter than air Heat sources produce CO
16
Lead
  • Found in paint, dust, soil
  • Most common source lead-based paint
  • 1 in 11 U. S. children have dangerous level of
    lead in bloodstream

17
Lead Health Effects
  • Kids
  • Delayed development, lowered IQ, memory
    learning problems, hyperactivity, discipline
    problems
  • Adults kids
  • Anemia, high blood pressure, kidney
    reproductive disorders

18
Lead and Kids
  • Young children at special risk
  • Unintentional eating of lead-tainted dust most
    important route (hand-to-mouth)
  • Childrens absorption of lead highly efficient
  • Childrens developing systems especially
    vulnerable

19
Simple Measures To Reduce Lead Hazards
  • Dust control (damp dust)
  • Duct tape for chips
  • Coating surfaces
  • Hand-washing to minimize dust ingestion effects
  • Never sand, scrape, or burn old paint unless
    certain theres no lead content !

20
Mold
  • Moisture
  • Temperature between 40 and 100 F
  • Spores
  • Nutrients

21
Mold Health Effects
  • Allergic Reactions
  • Runny nose, sinus congestion, irritated or red
    eyes, scratchy throat, cough
  • Asthma
  • Coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath
  • Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis
  • Tightness in chest, difficult breathing, cough,
    fever, muscle aches

22
Radon
  • Naturally occurring radioactive gas
  • Invisible and odorless
  • Seeps into homes through cracks in the foundation
    or crawl space

23
Radon Health Effects
  • Increased risk of developing lung cancer
  • Second leading cause of lung cancer
  • Smokers more likely to get radon-induced lung
    cancer

24
Particles
  • Sources
  • Outdoor sources
  • Activities pets
  • Tracked-in dirt
  • Health effects
  • Asthma trigger
  • Allergy trigger

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26
Settling velocity of smallest particles in terms
of days
smallest particles can be suspended for 10 days
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30
Change Furnace Filters
  • Keeps air cleaner
  • Extends life of equipment
  • Furnace overheating
  • Heat pumps
  • Energy savings

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32
If you cannot remove the source . . . Reduce the
exposure with cleaning or containment
33
Particles
  • Remove source of particles
  • . . . if possible
  • Keep particles out
  • Air sealing
  • Stop dirt at door
  • Improved particle removal
  • Housekeeping
  • Filtration

34
Tobacco Smoking
  • High risk
  • Frequent smoking indoors
  • Medium risk
  • Occasional smoking only in well ventilated
    areas
  • Low risk
  • Tobacco smoking not permitted indoors

35
Second-Hand Smoke Health Effects
  • In adults
  • Increased risk of lung cancer
  • Allergic reactions
  • Asthma, wheezing
  • In children
  • Increased risk of respiratory infections
  • Higher risk of developing asthma
  • Frequent middle ear infections

36
ASBESTOS
37
Asbestos
  • Shingles
  • Linoleum
  • Floor tiles
  • Fireproof board
  • Pipe and duct wrap
  • Vermiculite insulation
  • Popcorn ceiling texture

38
Asbestos Lung Cancer Risks
  • High risk
  • Friable asbestos present
  • Medium risk
  • Asbestos present, but intact
  • Low risk
  • Asbestos encapsulated
  • Regularly inspected and maintained

39
Particles Bioaerosols Asthma Triggers
40
Chemicals and Pesticides
  • Toxins, irritants, carcinogens
  • Exposure may be oral, inhaled or skin
  • contact
  • Get LD-50 and irritancy information
  • Longevity to affect pest and occupants
  • Pests may be resistant
  • Ease of becoming airborne

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42
Integrated PestManagement Strategies
  • Keep them out
  • Change surrounding landscape
  • Block pest entries and passages
  • Reduce food and water availability
  • Establish and enforce food policy
  • Repair leaks and prevent condensation

43
Integrated Pest Management Strategies (cont.)
  • Use pesticides appropriately
  • Use least toxic
  • Respond to problems
  • Apply when building is empty
  • Notify staff and parents

44
Ozone Generator
45
Ozone
  • Avoid exposure to indoor ozone
  • Strong respiratory irritant
  • Asthma trigger
  • Ozone air cleaners
  • Photocopiers laser printers

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47
Volatile Organic Compounds
48
Volatile Organic Compounds Chemicals
  • Cleaning products solvents
  • Personal care products
  • Crafts
  • Particle board, carpet, rubber/vinyl

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51
  • Crafts
  • Chemicals
  • Markers, glues, paints, lacquer, cleaners

52
Household Products Chemicals
  • High risk
  • Chemicals used without ventilation
  • Long periods of exposure
  • Products stored in home
  • Medium risk
  • Hazardous materials used with limited ventilation
  • Short exposure times
  • Low risk
  • Products stored and used outside
  • Used with proper ventilation

53
Carpet
  • High risk
  • Old carpet (mold, organics, lead, dirt)
  • Installed on damp concrete/soil
  • Medium risk
  • New carpet without ventilation
  • Low risk
  • Low-VOC carpet
  • Carpet off-gassed before installation
  • Improved vacuum equipment
  • Consider no carpet

54
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55
Building Remodeling
  • Particles
  • Lead, asbestos, mold, fiberglass
  • Glues, sealants, paints, asphalt
  • Pressed wood, paneling/plywood
  • Pressure-treated materials
  • Carpet, rubber, vinyl
  • Internal combustion equipment

56
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