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Indoor Air Quality Issues MOLD

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Title: Indoor Air Quality Issues MOLD


1
Indoor Air Quality Issues MOLD
  • ENVH 390

2

3
What Are Molds?
  • Molds live on plants and in soil
  • Molds grow on dead and decaying vegetation
  • Mold growth is encouraged by moist, warm
    conditions

4
Molds and Spores
  • Molds produce microscopic cells called spores
  • Spores act like seeds forming new growth when
    moist, warm conditions are found on surfaces

5
Molds
  • Fungi
  • Molds, yeast, and mushrooms
  • 25 of earths biomass
  • Estimated 10,000 300,000 Species
  • Historical Events Potentially Related to Mold
  • Old Testament Leviticus 14
  • Salem Witch Trials
  • King Tuts Curse

6
Kinds of Molds Alternaria and Cladosporium
  • These molds normally grow on plants, grasses, and
    other vegetation.
  • They are normally dominant in outdoor and indoor
    air

7
Kinds of Molds Penicillium and Aspergillus
  • These molds normally grow on decaying material in
    soils
  • They also grow on damp, wet building materials

8
Kinds of Molds Stachybotrys
  • These molds are present in indoor environments
    that have wet, cellulosic (paper-based) materials

9
Mold Principles
  • It is normal to have some mold spores present in
    both outdoor and indoor air
  • The kinds of spores in indoor air should be
    similar to the kinds of spores in the outdoor air
  • When this is not the case, there may be a problem

10
Mold Principles
  • It is abnormal to have VISIBLE mold growth
    consistently present on interior surfaces such as
    ceilings, walls, floors, and furnishings

11
Why is Mold Growth A Seemingly New and Increasing
Problem?
  • More biodegradable construction materials are
    used in modern buildings such as paper
    (cellulose) based materials and pressed-wood
    products
  • Traditional construction (pre-WWII) used
    materials resistant to biodeterioration such as
    brick, stone, terra cotta, hard plaster, and old
    growth timber

12
Mold Growth
  • Buildings Leak
  • Moisture can become trapped in exterior walls
  • Some building components are consistently damp
  • Chronic wetting/dampness of biodegradable
    building materials equals mold growth

13
Warning Signs of Mold
  • Visible mold growth
  • The indoor air smells musty

14
Health Risks
  • Risk is associated with the proportional square
    footage of mold growth on interior surfaces (may
    be hidden surfaces)
  • A small amount of mold as on a shower curtain
    is generally not a concern
  • A whole wall covered by mold is a definitive
    concern

15
How Long Does Mold Take to Grow?
  • Within 24-48 hours, mold will initiate growth
  • Within 7 days, mold will be visible to the human
    eye
  • The window of opportunity to dry out these
    materials is approximately 2 days (ASHRAE)

16
Mold Clean-Up
  • Mold growth must be removed under safe conditions
  • Fine dust must be removed
  • The underlying moisture problem must be fixed

17
Mold Clean-Up
  • Remove and Discard moldy, porous materials such
    as carpet, drywall, OSB, etc.
  • Visually moldy, non-porous materials can be
    cleaned with detergent and wet/damp cloth
  • Dust control and dust removal during clean-up are
    essential
  • Biocides and encapsulants are not needed

18
Mold Clean-Up
  • There are no numerical guidelines for mold
    exposure
  • Environmental consultants can not make health
    effect statements based upon environmental
    sampling alone

19
Mold Surveillance
  • A thorough building inspection for square footage
    of visible mold growth and for water damage is
    the most critical component of a mold
    investigation

20
Moisture and Mold
  • Moisture on the surface of a material or in the
    material controls mold growth.
  • The relative humidity in room air, although an
    important parameter, is less important than
    standing water, because the mold does not grow in
    the air.

21
Is Mold An Indoor Air Quality Issue?
22
Scope of the Problem
  • Nearly 300 different species of mold have been
    identified as living in the home environment.
  • Molds can cause adverse health effects in people.

Severe Chronic Illness
Death
No Effect
Allergy
23
Factors Leading to Mold Growth
  • Exterior
  • Marked Shade
  • Increased Levels of Organic Debris
  • Natural or Uncared for Property
  • Interior
  • Floods, Leaking Pipes, Leaking Windows, Leaking
    Roofs
  • Increased Humidity
  • - Tight home closure
  • - Multiple indoor house plants
  • Poor housecleaning habits

24
Adverse Human Health Effects
  • Allergy
  • All Molds Are Allergens.
  • Most Common Reaction to Mold Exposure.
  • Exacerbates Asthma
  • Infection
  • Not common to the general public.
  • Susceptible Populations.
  • - Pulmonary Hemorrhage in Infants?
  • Toxicity
  • Mycotoxicosis

25
Other Effects Associated With Mold Exposure
  • Non-Specific Effects
  • Muscle Pain
  • Inability to Concentrate
  • Chronic Fatigue
  • ODTS (Organic Dust Toxic Syndrome)
  • Abrupt Onset of Fever, Flu-like Symptoms, and
    Respiratory Distress
  • Single Heavy Exposure to an Organic Dust.

26
Allergic Responses to Mold Exposure
  • Runny Eyes Nose (allergic rhinitis).
  • Irritated Throat.
  • Dermatitis (skin rash).
  • Coughing and Sneezing.
  • Congestion
  • Respiratory Distress.
  • Kidney Damage (animal models).
  • Infertility (animal models).
  • Lung Damage (Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis or HP).
  • Disruption of Reproductive cycle (animal models).
  • Severe Chronic Illness.
  • Sinusitis
  • Asthma
  • Neurtoxicity (animal models).

27
Toxic Molds Produce Mycotoxins
  • Mycotoxins
  • Production occurs under certain conditions.
  • Tend to concentrate in spores.
  • Stachybotrys produces gt 163 different mycotoxins.
  • Penicillium produces gt 100 different mycotoxins.

28
Effects of Mycotoxin Exposure
  • Hemostatic Derangements.
  • Skin Toxicity.
  • Decreased Reproductive Capacity.
  • Inhibition of Protein Synthesis.
  • Bone Marrow Damage.
  • Respiratory Dysfunction (including coughing up
    blood)
  • Kidney Damage.
  • Liver Damage.
  • Lung Damage.
  • Impaired Immune Function.
  • Flu-like Symptoms.
  • Fever.
  • Fatigue.
  • Dizziness.
  • Headaches.
  • Emesis (vomiting).
  • Diarrhea.
  • Weight Loss.
  • Excessive and Regular Nose Bleeds.
  • Nervous Disorders.
  • Cardiovascular Alterations.

29
Potential Health Effects of Mold
  • Four species of mold found to be consistently
    responsible for many of the adverse health
    effects in humans and vertebrates
  • Aspergillus
  • Cladosporium
  • Penicillium
  • Stachybotrys

Penicillium Mold
30
Stachybotrys Chartarum
31
Stachybotrys
  • A black, common mold that is prolific at
    producing mycotoxins
  • These mycotoxins have been implicated in numerous
    incidents of disease and deaths

32
Aspergillus Niger
  • A. niger is one of the most common molds present
    in indoor environments
  • A. niger, like Stachybotrys, can produce
    mycotoxins
  • In many sensitive individuals, aspergillus can be
    deadly

33
Potential Health Effects of Mold
  • Those at risk for systemic fungal infections are
  • Severely immumocompromised individuals
  • Undergoing chemotherapy
  • Have had organ or bone marrow transplants
  • Have HIV/AIDS

34
Those at Risk in Health Care
  • Infants
  • The elderly
  • The chronically ill
  • Severely immunocompromised individuals
  • Patients
  • Volunteers
  • Sitters
  • Employees
  • Doctors

35
Aspergillus
  • Includes A. fumigatus, A. niger, and A. flavus
  • Three clinical types of pulmonary aspergillosis
    allergic aggressive tissue invasion and fungus
    ball
  • Culture requires 1-3 weeks to grow
  • Is a serological test for aspergillosis
  • Commonly found in food, soil, air vents, and paint

36
Cladosporium
  • Frequently found in water damaged environments,
    on fiberglass duct insulation, paint and textiles
  • Cladosporium species are causative agents for
    skin lesions, keratitis, onychomycosis,
    sinusitis, edema, and pulmonary infections
  • Common allergen and some strains can produce
    mycotoxins

37
Penicillium
  • P.Chrysogenum is the mold that creates the drug
  • Penicillium, in general, is rapid growing, with a
    musty odor.
  • Found in soil, carpet, cellulose, water-damaged
    material, paint, wall paper, and in fiberglass
  • Associated with allergic reactions,
    hypersensitivity pneumonitis, a variety of severe
    lung conditions, and organ and bone marrow
    infections
  • Inhalation, skin contact, and ingestion are the
    main routes of entry

38
Stachybotrys Chartarum
  • Found in cellulose-containing products (such as
    wood, wicker, ceiling tile, dry wall, vapor
    barriers, and fiberboard) and water damaged
    materials
  • Can produce mycotoxins and spores and mycotoxins
    are very bad if inhaled or ingested
  • Can cause lung disorders, and permanent
    neurological, pathological, psychological, and
    immunological effects on the human body

39
Some Signs and Symptoms of Diseases Caused by Mold
  • Allergic reaction/sensitivity (hives, runny nose
    runny eyes, headache) when in the facility
  • Acute or chronic cough
  • Fatigue and confusion
  • Shortness of breath
  • Body aches and pains fairly intense and chronic
  • Lethargy
  • Coma

40
Diagnostic Process
  • Serological testing for patients and staff
  • Rule-out of other conditions for the inpatient
  • Identification of mold invasion in the facility
  • Physical health condition of patient or staff
    member
  • Staff needs to be seen by employee health and/or
    own physician
  • Construction projects in or around facility
  • Community outbreak

41
Prevention of Mold Infestation and Disease
  • Clean up and fix all leaks
  • Replace all water-damaged materials and goods
  • Keep HVAC clean and standing water free
  • Ensure that there are good housekeeping practices
    that include deep carpet, cloth, furniture and
    drapery cleaning
  • Target critical areas, patients and staff for
    closer observation
  • If it smells like mold, it probably IS mold

42
COMMON CAUSES OF INDOOR MOLD
  • Basic Requirements
  • Temperature
  • Nutrients
  • Lighting
  • Necessary Factors for Indoor Mold Growth
  • Food
  • Moisture
  • Time

43
TOXIC MOLD THE MYTH
  • Toxic Molds
  • mycotoxins
  • Stachybotrys Chartarum, Aspergillus
  • Black Mold
  • Nontoxic Molds
  • Allergens
  • Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

44
HUMAN HEALTH IMPACTS
  • 3 Processes
  • Exposure Routes
  • Mycotoxins and Allergens
  • VOCs
  • Typical Symptoms
  • Effects
  • Duration
  • Severity

45
Suspected Human Health Impacts
  • Sick Building Syndrome (SBS)
  • Nonrespiratory symptoms
  • Death

46
ASSESSMENT, MITIGATION, AND PREVENTION OF MOLD
  • Just One Component of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ)
  • Advocated by
  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services
  • U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  • National Institute for Occupational Safety and
    Health

47
Mold Assessment
  • Inspection
  • Identify Growth
  • Identify Cause
  • Investigate Complaints
  • Communicate risks

48
Mold Mitigation
  • Remediation
  • Remove Source
  • Non-porous Building Materials
  • Porous Building Materials
  • Periodic Re-inspection
  • Monitor Building Occupants

49
Mold Mitigation (Contd)
  • Complete When
  • Moldy or musty odors are no longer discernable,
  • No visible mold is present, and
  • Moisture source has been eliminated.

50
Mold Prevention Existing Buildings
  • Prompt Repair of Moisture Sources
  • Moisture Prevention
  • Building Temperature Control
  • HVAC System Maintenance
  • Adequate Ventilation
  • Landscaping
  • Mold Inhibitors

51
Mold Prevention New Construction
  • Structural Design for Moisture Prevention
  • Vapor barriers
  • Ventilation
  • Insulation
  • HVAC Systems
  • Proper design, installation, and operation, and
    maintenance

52
TESTING FOR MOLD
  • What Are You Looking for and How Will the
    Information Serve to Meet Your Clients Goals.
  • Protection of Human Health.
  • Remediate Building (Remove Clean Affected
    Materials).
  • Locate of Hidden Source.
  • Determine Scope of Remediation.

53
Mold Test Selection
  • Visual Identification of Mold Growth
    Conditions.
  • Presence of Mold, Moisture, and Organic Food
    Source.
  • Destructive v. Non-Destructive Testing.
  • 50 of Microbial Problems are Not Visible.
  • Destructive Testing Requires Containment.
  • Bulk/Surface Sampling.
  • Identification of Mold Species Present.
  • Air Sampling.
  • Passive Collection Under Non-Use Conditions.
  • Semi-aggressive Collection Under Normal Use
    Conditions.
  • Aggressive Vigorously Disturb Mold Sources.

54
Sequential Approach to Mold Evaluation
  • Visual Inspection.
  • Sufficient to Indicate Remediation.
  • Bulk/Surface Sampling.
  • Identify Fungal Spores Fragments.
  • Air Monitoring.
  • Cannot Rule Out Contamination.
  • Necessary If Exposed Individual is Diagnosed With
    a Disease Related to Fungal Exposure.
  • Necessary if HVAC System is Potentially
    Contaminated.
  • Location of Hidden Source of Fungal
    Contamination.
  • Comparative Air Monitoring (Concurrent Indoor
    Outdoor Sampling).
  • Sample Analysis.
  • Apply Common Sense QA/QC.
  • Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Program
    (EMLAP).

55
What Do The Test Result Mean?
  • Visual Inspection
  • You Have a Mold Problem If
  • - You See It … Clean It Up.
  • - Level of Concern
  • Small 1 Patch of 1 meter2
  • Moderate 1 Patch of Between 1 meter2 and 3
    meter2.
  • OR More Than 3 Patches.
  • Extensive 1 Patch of More Than 3 meter2 (4 ft x
    8 ft).
  • Document with Photographs, Video, and Notes.

56
What Do The Test Result Mean?
  • Bulk/Surface Samples
  • You Have a Mold Problem If
  • Mold Species Found Inside Are Different and From
    Those Typically Encountered Outside.
  • You Find High Levels of Toxic Mold Spores and
    Fragments.
  • Sampling Demonstrates a Concentration Gradient to
    the Suspected Source.

57
What Do The Test Result Mean?
  • Air Monitoring
  • Cannot Be Used to Rule Out Contamination.
  • Prone to False Negative Results.
  • Can Indicate Level of Exposure.
  • If HVAC is Contaminated, Air Sampling Can Aid in
    Determining the Extent of Contamination.
  • You Have a Mold Problem If
  • Indoor Mold Spore and/or Fragment Counts Exceed
    Those Collected From Outdoors.
  • Viable Indoor Mold Species Are Different From
    Those Identified in Outdoor Samples.

58
How Much Can Hurt You?
  • Limited Information.
  • Case Study Stachybotrys Chartarum (Stachy)
  • 1,000 spore/m3 is associated with severe
    non-allergenic type health effects
  • - Nose bleeds
  • - Chronic Infections
  • Nausea
  • Respiratory Distress (requiring emergency
    treatment).

59
Mold Prevention - Construction
  • EPA Registered (64881-3, 75497-1, 75497-8)  Mold
    Preventatives are available to kill and prevent
    the growth of MOLD, BACTERIA, FUNGI AND ALGAE on
    any surface treated with the antimicrobial. 

60
Dry Out Before Rebuilding
  • Wood should be less than 15 moisture

61
Ozone Generators
  • Ozone (O3) is a toxic form of oxygen
  • In some cases, there may be an application for
    using an ozone generator in UNOCCUPIED AREAS, to
    reduce the population of mold colonies

62
Mold Removal
  • Conducted similar to the removal of
  • Asbestos
  • Lead
  • Histoplasmosis

63
Summary
64
Health Effects of Mold
  • Watery or itchy eyes
  • Sore throat
  • Stuffed up nose
  • Coughing
  • Skin irritations
  • May trigger asthma attacks

65
Whos at Most Risk?
  • Infants and young children
  • Pregnant women
  • People with lower immunities
  • The elderly
  • Asthma sufferers

66
Recognizing Mold
  • Use your eyes look for it
  • Use your nose smell for musty odors
  • Experiencing health effects of mold

67
What is Required for Mold to Grow?
  • Food source of organic material such as drywall,
    carpet, wallpaper
  • Moisture
  • Moderate temperature

68
Moisture Sources
  • Water leaks
  • Flooded areas
  • Humidity levels above 65
  • Condensation

69
Remove Mold
  • Clean with detergent and brush
  • Disinfect with chlorine bleach solution
  • Rinse with water and dry quickly

70
Protect Yourself When Removing Mold
  • Respirator or mask to filter mold spores
  • Rubber gloves
  • Eye protection
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