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Lesson 3 At War with the Planet


Lesson 3 At War with the Planet Preparation: Author: Barry Commoner (1917-) born May 28, 1917, Brooklyn, N.Y. U.S. biologist and educator. He studied at Harvard ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Lesson 3 At War with the Planet

Lesson 3 At War with the Planet
  • Preparation
  • Author Barry Commoner (1917-)
  • born May 28, 1917, Brooklyn, N.Y. U.S. biologist
    and educator. He studied at Harvard University
    and taught at Washington University and Queens

  • His warnings, since the 1950s, of the
    environmental threats posed by modern technology
    (including nuclear weapons, use of pesticides and
    other toxic chemicals, and ineffective waste
    management) in such works as his classic Science
    and Survival (1966) made him one of the foremost
    environmentalist spokesmen of his time. He was a
    third-party candidate for U.S. president in 1980.

  • Commoner's activist career can be defined as an
    attempt to weave together a larger vision of
    social justice. Since the 1960s, he has called
    attention to parallels between the environmental,
    civil rights, labor, and peace movements, and
    connected environmental decline with poverty,
    injustice, exploitation, and war, arguing that
    the root cause of environmental problems was the
    American economic system and its manifestations.

  • He was instrumental in pointing out that there
    was a direct association between socioeconomic
    standing and exposure to environmental pollutants
    and that economics, not social responsibility,
    was guiding technological decision making.

2. Cultural notes
  • 1) Three Mile Island The accident at the Three
    Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) nuclear power plant
    near Middletown, Pennsylvania, on March 28, 1979,
    was the most serious in U.S. commercial nuclear
    power plant operating history, even though it led
    to no deaths or injuries to plant workers or
    members of the nearby community..

  • But it brought about sweeping changes involving
    emergency response planning, reactor operator
    training, human factors engineering, radiation
    protection, and many other areas of nuclear power
    plant operations. It also caused the U.S. Nuclear
    Regulatory Commission to tighten and heighten its
    regulatory oversight. Resultant changes in the
    nuclear power industry and at the NRC had the
    effect of enhancing safety

Three Mile Island nuclear power plant
2) The Chernobyl Disaster
  • On April 25th -26th, 1986 the World's worst
    nuclear power accident occurred at Chernobyl in
    the former USSR (now Ukraine). The Chernobyl
    nuclear power plant located 80 miles north of
    Kiev had 4 reactors and whilst testing reactor
    number 4 numerous safety procedures were
    disregarded. At 123am the chain reaction in the
    reactor became out of control creating explosions
    and a fireball which blew off the reactor's heavy
    steel and concrete lid.

  • The Chernobyl accident killed more than 30 people
    immediately, and as a result of the high
    radiation levels in the surrounding 20-mile
    radius, 135,00 people had to be evacuated.

3)   What happened in Bhopal?
  • On the night of Dec. 2nd and 3rd, 1984, a Union
    Carbide plant in Bhopal, India, began leaking 27
    tons of the deadly gas. None of the six safety
    systems designed to contain such a leak were
    operational, allowing the gas to spread
    throughout the city of Bhopal. Half a million
    people were exposed to the gas and 20,000 have
    died to date as a result of their exposure.

  • More than 120,000 people still suffer from
    ailments caused by the accident and the
    subsequent pollution at the plant site. These
    ailments include blindness, extreme difficulty in
    breathing, and gynecological disorders. The site
    has never been properly cleaned up and it
    continues to poison the residents of Bhopal.

(No Transcript)
3. Outline of the essay
  • 3. Outline of the essay
  • Part 1 (pp. 1)
  • Introduction people live in 2 worlds, natural
    world and our own world.
  • Part 2 (pp. 2-5) Why the two worlds are at war?
  • Part 3 (pp. 6-9) Deal with the first law of the
    ecosphere and the law governing the relationship
    between man-made object and the surroundings

  • Part IV. (pp. 10-11) The closed cyclical process
    of ecosphere and the linear process of
  • Part V. (pp. 12-14) The consistent and harmonious
    nature of ecosphere as contrasted to the rapid
    change and variation of the techno-sphere.
  • Part VI. (pp. 15-16) The consequences of failure
    of the ecosphere and the techno-sphere.

  • Part VII. (pp. 17-21) The danger for us to take
  • Part VIII. (pp. 22-23) The importance of

II. Discourse analysis
  • Guide to Reading
  • 1. abridge vt. To make shorter by using fewer
  • e.g.
  • The story was abridged from the original work.
  • The rights of citizens must not be
    abridged.???????????He decided to abridge his
    stay here after he received a letter from

  • 2. watershed n. an event marking a unique or
    important historical change of course or one on
    which important developments depend ( landmark
    turning point)

  • e.g.
  • Leaving her first job was a watershed in her
  • Her visit to India proved to be a watershed in
    her life.????????????????

  • 3. elaborate (on) vi. To express at greater
    length or in greater detail (clarify)
  • e.g.
  • Please elaborate your plan.????????.
  • Can you elaborate on that, Mr. fox.?????,????????
  • It takes cunning workmen to make such elaborate

4. remedy to relieve or cure (a disease or
  • e.g.
  • Aspirin may remedy a headache.?????????
  • If I made a mistake, I will try to remedy
  • Is there a sovereign remedy for this

5. as such (in and of itself, per se)??,????
  • e.g.
  • Wealth, as such, doesnt matter much.
  • (????????.)
  • I dont have a nervous breakdown as such, it was
    more a reaction to overwork.(????????????,????????

6. instigate serve as the inciting cause for
(promote, inspire, incite cause, stimulate)
  • e.g.
  • The antigovernment gangsters instigated a
  • My children finally instigated me to buy a
  • instigator ??????

Part 1 ( para.1) two worlds, natural world and
our own world
  • 1. occur, happen, take place
  • You can say an event occurs. However, you only
    use occur to talk about events which are not
    planned. And occur is a fairly formal word. In
    conversation, you usually say that an event
  • You do not say that a planned event occurs or
    happens. You say that it takes place.

  • e.g.
  • Mrs. Weaver had been in the milking shed when the
    explosion occurred.
  • You might noticed what happened on Friday.
  • The first meeting of this committee took place on
    9 January.

Occur to happen to
  • Error correction
  • She no longer cared what happened to her.
  • I wonder whats occurred to Jane.
  • The idea/thought had never happened to me.
  • It happened to him that he hadnt eaten anything
    since the night before.
  • It occurred to him to tell the director the

2. exempt except
  • exempt to release from obligation
  • except to leave out, omit
  • e.g.
  • He is exempt from punishment about this
  • No one is exempt from talking nonsense the
    mistake is to do it solemnly.?????????,??????????

  • No admittance except on business.?????
  • I have no other wish except to pass the
  • I like her except when she is angry.????????,????

Part 2 (pp. 2-5) Why two worlds are at war?
  • 1. breach
  • If you breach an agreement, a law, or a promise,
    you break it. (violate)
  • If someone or something breaches a barrier, they
    make an opening in it, usually leaving it
    weakened or destroyed (formal). (rupture)

  • e.g.
  • Traders who breach the rules could face a fine of
    up to 10,000.
  • The enemys fierce attack finally breached the
    walls of the city.

  • 2. On planetary scale, the division between the
    two worlds has been breached
  • Globally, the two worlds are no longer separated,
    having nothing to do with each other.
  • This is a transitional sentence, linking up the
    following part with the first paragraph.

3. unwitting adj.
  • If you describe a person or their actions as
    unwitting, you mean the person does something or
    is involved in something without realizing it.
    (unintentional ?witting)
  • e.g.
  • We are unwitting victims of the unfair system.
  • I feel sorry for my unwitting interruption of
    their private conversation.

4. even droughts, floods, and heat weaves may
become unwitting acts of man
  • What people do may unintentionally cause
    droughts, floods and heat weaves.

  • 5. Like the Creation, the portending global
    events are cosmic(pp.3)
  • Like the Creation of the universe, events that
    happen in this world may have vast effects,
    especially on the relationship between the planet
    Earth and the sun.

6. portend to serve as an omen or a warning of
  • e.g.
  • Black clouds portend a storm.??????????
  • What do these strange events portend???????????
  • It portends the approach of a violent
    revolutionary storm.??????????????.

7. exert exercise put to use
  • e.g.
  • His teachings still exert a strong
  • You'll have to exert yourself more if you want to
    pass your exam.???????, ???????.
  • To achieve this goal, you must have ambition
    likewise you need to exert great

8. largely for the most part mainlyon a large
  • e.g.
  • His successes were largely due to
  • He lived high and expended largely.?????,?????
  • One's upbringing largely determines success in

9. fluctuate vary irregularly be unstable, have
ups and downs ( swing)
  • e.g.
  • The stock market fluctuates all the time.
  • The old man fluctuated between hope and
  • Prices fluctuate from year to year.???????

10. govern direct or strongly influence the
behavior of rule
  • e.g.
  • You should govern your temper??????????
  • Govern by supply and demand, price is the
    invisible hand in economics??????,????????,??????
  • Who are the men who really govern in this
    country? ?????? ???????

  • 11. tamper vi. to interfere in a harmful manner
    intrude in other people's affairs or business
    interfere in an unwanted way
  • e.g.
  • Dont tamper with my affairs. (interfere meddle)
  • Someone tampered with the documents on my desk.
  • He got the permission by tampering with an
    official. (??)

12. We have been unaware, of the potentially
  • Notice the structure of the sentence. It could be
    reconstructed in the following way
  • Like the Sorcerers Apprentice, we have been
    tampering with this powerful force, unaware of
    the potentially disastrous consequences of our
  • It means We have been doing things without
    knowing that they may have serious effects on the
    planet Earth.

  • 13. swirl n. the shape of something rotating
    rapidly v. turn in a twisting or spinning

  • e.g.
  • Jane today wears a nice hat with a swirl of lace
    around it.
  • A swirl of dust forced the girl to cover her face
    with her hands.
  • The poor man was swirled away by the current.

  • 14. But this image, now repeatedly thrust before
    us in photographs, posters, and advertisements,
    is misleading.( pp.4.)
  • The Earth we see in photos, posters, and ads,
    which appears so beautiful, is not the true
    reflection of the world we live in.

15. materialize v. come into being become
reality (happen, appear)
  • e.g.
  • They feel very sad that their dream failed to
  • You can materialize your lofty aspiration through
    hard working.
  • He planned to materialize his idea in words

16. esoteric mysterious ?exoteric
  • e.g.
  • I hate studying those esoteric philosophical
  • To me an English teacher, Buddhism is totally

17. blanket v. cover as if with a blanket form
a blanket-like cover (over)
  • e.g.
  • Snow blanketed the fields.
  • Heavy clouds blanket over the sky before a storm

18. Niche the specific space occupied by an
organism with its habitat
  • e.g.
  • Amy, trying to keep as far from him as possible,
    moved across the stone floor of the tower roof,
    and found a niche which concealed her.
  • He found the right niche for himself.
  • (?????????????.)

  • 19. Ecosphere ecological sphere /earth/planet(
    referring to the air, water, and soil that cover
    the Earth and the plants and animals that live on
    it. (??????)

  • 20. grandiose impressive because of unnecessary
    largeness or grandeur used to show disapproval
    ( grand)
  • e.g.
  • Hes always producing grandiose plans that never
  • They have gone through those long and bitter
    deliberations made in presence of some grandiose
    purpose they had not the means to carry out.

  • 21. catastrophically diminishing our ability to
    provide for basic human needs
  • Frequent natural disasters have reduced our
    ability to satisfy the needs of people on earth.

Part III( paras.6-9)
  • One of the basic laws of the ecosphere can be
    summed up as Everything is connected to
    everything else. (para.6)
  • The first law is that in ecosphere, every
    component is related to other components, thus
    forming an elaborate network.

  • 2. elaborate adj. Planned or executed with
    painstaking attention to numerous parts or
    details. (?????)
  • e.g.
  • I'm sure you look more charming in them than
    any one we shall see in the most elaborate dinner
  • The tablecloth is very expensive, because if
    the elaborate lace patterns

  • 3. aquatic adj. relating to or consisting of or
    being in water

  • e.g.
  • Boats are aquatic vehicles.
  • Water lilies are aquatic plants.
  • Fish are aquatic animals.

  • 4. Photosynthesis n. U ????
  • The production of special sugar-like substances
    that keep plants alive, caused by the action of
    sunlight on Chlorophyll.( the green matter in
    leaves) the way green plants make their own
  • Photosynthetic adj.

  • 5. habitat n. the area or environment where an
    organism or ecological community normally lives
    or occurs ( home ground)
  • e.g.
  • The polar bears habitat is the icy waters of the
  • I prefer to see animals in their natural habitat,
    rather than in zoos.

  • 6. The fish is not only, existentially, a fish,
    but also an element of this network, which
    defines its functions. ( para. 6)
  • The function of the fish is determined by the
    role it plays in the ecological network.

  • 7. Indeed, in the evolutionary sense, a good care
    of the network the microorganisms and plants,
    for example preceded the fish, which could
    establish itself only because it fitted properly
    into the preexisting system.( para. 6)
  • The fish could play its role because it became a
    necessary link with the processes preceding it
    and the processes following it in the ecological

  • 8. A car, for example, imposes itself on the
    neighborhood rather than being defined by
    it(para. 7)
  • A car does not respond to its environment but
    insists on its own needs being met...

  • 9. fit in/into to find a time when something can
    happen without causing problemse.g.
  • The gear doesnt fit into the machine.
  • How is the extra work getting to fit into the
  • Nancy tried to fit her holidays in with Alexs.

10. impose on/upon compel to behave in a
certain way (enforce compel)
  • e.g.
  • Did you think, child, because you have been able
    to impose upon your father, that you could impose
    upon me?
  • It was now their turn to impose some limit on
    that sort of science, which had lots of influence
    on our habitat.

11. accommodate v. have enough space for
  • e.g.
  • Are there enough shelves to accommodate all our
    books ?
  • A flat can accommodate a family of five.

12. afflict inflict
  • afflict cause great unhappiness for distress
    (be afflicted with/by) (?????)
  • inflict impose something unpleasant (???)
  • e.g.
  • She was afflicted by the death of her parents.
  • Famine and war still afflict mankind.????????????
  • Dont inflict your ideas on me.???????????

  • 13. Defined so narrowly, it is no surprise that
    cars have properties that hostile to the
    environment. ( para. 8)
  • When cars are produced to serve such narrow
    purposes, it is not surprising that some of their
    characteristic qualities are harmful to the

14. hostile hostel
  • Hostile antagonistic feeling or showing enmity
  • Hostel lodging at minimum cost with minimum
    amenities, usually reserved for the young or old
  • e.g.
  • Americans are hostile to the idea of higher
  • Bicycling through Europe can be fairly
    inexpensive if you stay in hostels.

  • 15. in proportion to agreeing in amount,
    magnitude, or degree
  • e.g.
  • The room is wide in proportion to its
  • Payment will be in proportion to the work done,
    not to the time spent doing it.??????????,

  • 16. year by year, less and less of the applied
    fertilizer was taken up by the crop and
    progressively more drained through the soil into
    groundwater, in the form of nitrates that
    contaminated river, lakes, and water supplies. (
    para. 9 )
  • When the soil is saturated with nitrogen
    fertilizer, it cannot take in more so the excess
    fertilizer finds its way into underground water,
    thus causing water pollution.

  • 17. progressively advancing in amount or
    intensity ( more and more, increasingly )
  • e.g.
  • His eyesight is becoming progressively worse.
  • The bank has progressively increased its
    liquidity. ?????????????

Part IV ( Paras. 10-11)
  • 1. respire v. to breathe in and out inhale and
  • e.g.
  • Say respires when she reaches the top of the hill.

  • 2. excrete to get rid of waste material from
    your body through your bowels, your skin etc.
  • e.g.
  • The skin excretes sweat.
  • Certain plants excrete a sweet juice, apparently
    for the sake of eliminating something injurious
    from their sap.

  • 3. mold n. any of various fungi that often cause
    disintegration of organic matter (????????????)
  • e.g. Throw that bread away. It has been kept for
    so many days, and theres mold on it.

  • 4. convert v. to change (something) into another
    form, substance, state, or product ( change
  • e.g.
  • The cold weather has converted water into ice.
  • Could you please convert feet into meters?
  • We converted from 220 to 110 volts.

5. ingest v. to take (food) into the stomach
  • e.g.
  • An elephant needs to ingest at least 40Kgs of
  • Cf.
  • digest convert food into absorbable substances
  • e.g.
  • I cannot digest milk products.

  • 6. Crops and the animals to which they are fed
    are eaten by people their waste is flushed into
    the sewer system, altered in composition but not
    in amount at a treatment plant, and the residue
    is dumped into rivers or the ocean as waste
    which upsets the natural aquatic ecosystem.(
    para.11 )

  • People, after digestion, excrete the waste which
    is flushed into the sewer system. The sewage gets
    to a treatment plant which modifies it, but it is
    still waste after being processed. The waste does
    not reenter the life cycle but disturbs the
    natural processes wherever it is dumped. The
    residue of the waste will go into rivers, oceans
    and will have harmful effect on the aquatic

7. flush blush
  • flush redden with strong emotion, as anger
  • blush redden with modesty, confusion, or shame
  • e.g.
  • The young man blushed as he was chosen for a
  • The young man flushed as his rivals passed him

8. ineffectually in an ineffectual manner
  • e.g.
  • She tried ineffectually to light the gas-stove,
    and Thomas came to help her.
  • The runner had tried ineffectually to gain
    admission as a visitor at that area.

  • 9. assault violent attack to attack violently
  • e.g.
  • The city is secure against assault. ??????, ????.
  • The enemy wanted to take a town by assault.

Part V ( Paras 12-14)
  • 1. compatible - able to exist and perform in
    harmonious or agreeable combination ( agreeable)
  • e.g.
  • People admired this compatible married couple.
  • Accuracy is not always compatible with
  • This printer is compatible with most

  • 2. trial and error A method of reaching a
    correct solution or satisfactory result by trying
    out various means or theories until error is
    sufficiently reduced or eliminated.
  • e.g.
  • He learned technical skills by trial and
  • I finally found the right key after lots of trial
    and error.??????,????????????

  • 3. tune v. adjust for (better) functioning (
    tune up)
  • e.g.
  • The repairman tuned the engine carefully.
  • Idioms
  • tune in
  • tune out
  • tune up

  • 4. leave to (one's) own devices To allow to do
    as one pleases.
  • e.g.
  • Parents should leave their children to their own
    devices for an hour in the afternoon.

  • 5. Left to their own devices, ecosystems are
    conservative ( para.12)
  • If the ecosystems are not upset by outside
    intrusion, they will remain the same with very
    little change.

  • 6. In contrast to the ecosphere, the technosphere
    is composed of objects and materials that reflect
    a rapid and relentless process of change and
    variation. (para.13.)
  • The characteristics of the objects and materials
    in the technosphere are of rapid change and great

7. Model T Ford Ford Model T
  • The Ford Model T was an automobile produced by
    Henry Ford's Ford Motor Company from 1908 through
    1927. The model T set 1908 as the historic year
    that the automobile came into popular usage. It
    is generally regarded as the first affordable
    automobile, the car which "put America on

(No Transcript)
  • 8. array n. an orderly arrangement
  • e.g.
  • He turned and strode away, across the dewy
    fields, and disappeared beyond an array of trees.
  • The tiled floor was thick with dust, and a
    remarkable array of miscellaneous objects was
    veiled in the same grey covering.

  • 9. quill pen pen made from a bird's feather
  • e.g.
  • There was no sound for a moment but the
    scratching of Sir Alfred's quill pen across the

  • 10. biodegradable adj. tech able to be broken
    down into harmless products by the natural action
    of living things (e.g.
  • bacteria) ????
  • e.g.
  • A biodegradable detergent is welcomed at the

  • 11. A is shorthand for B A is a simple and brief
    way of describing B.
  • e.g.
  • Hes been relocated, which is shorthand for
    given a worse job a long way away.

  • 12. insidious working or spreading harmfully in
    a subtle or stealthy manner
  • e.g.
  • It was the insidious rumor that had finally
    finished their friendship.
  • An insidious disease sometimes is worse than the
    disease that causes a patients frequent visit to
    a hospital.

Part VI ( Paras. 15 16 )
  • with respect to concerning
  • e.g.
  • Handle students administration with respect
    to humanity.(????????????)
  • With respect to the present situation, I am
    afraid that I am not able to tell you our
    decision right now.

2. at first glance on initial consideration( at
first sight)
  • e.g.
  • At first glance the plan seemed unworkable.
  • I feel like a new man and although at first
    glance I might be mistaken for a Safety Deposit
    Vault, I beg you to remember that my Brains are
    still composed of the same old material.

  • 3. Yet nearly every modern technology has grave
    faults, which appear not as a failure to
    accomplish its designed purpose but as a serious
    impact on the environment. ( para. 15)
  • The fault of most modern technology is not with
    its failure to meet the designed purpose,
  • but with its adverse effect on the environment.

  • 4. emit v. give off, send forth, or discharge
    as of light, heat, or radiation, vapor, etc. (
    give out, give off)
  • The ozone layer blocks some harmful rays which
    the sun emits.
  • The chimney emitted a cloud of smoke.

  • 5. contaminate - make impure ( pollute)
  • e.g.
  • The industrial wastes contaminated the lake.
  • Don't drink the water--it's contaminated.

  • 6. Regard only as a failure in the plants
    function, the accident at Chernobyl amounts to a
    serious but local fire that destroyed the plant.
  • Notice the position of the word but. Normally
    we can say amount to merely a serious local
    fire that. If so, the tune is rather flat and
    pale. Here the author employs the writing skill
    -- anticlimax to achieve the sarcastic tone.

  • e.g.
  • "Seldom has a city gained such world renown, and
    I am proud and happy to welcome you to Hiroshima,
    a town known throughout the world for

7. resultant adj. resulting, esp. as the total
outcome of more or less opposed forces
  • e.g.
  • Use shaded skylights to compensate for any
    resultant loss of natural daylight.
  • If the syllabus was accepted by the majority of
    students , it would be unnecessary to answer all
    resultant complaints.???????? ??????????,?????????

8. acknowledge v. declare to be true or admit
the existence or reality or truth of ( admit)
  • e.g.
  • I acknowledge that her criticism is
  • He is unwilling to acknowledge defeat.??????
  • I passed her in the street but she didn't even
    acknowledge me when I smiled.???????,?????????,??

  • 9. unmet adj. not satisfied or fulfilled
  • e.g.
  • How can one know what needs are involved in
    conflict situations? How can one know what human
    needs are being met and unmet?

10. mortgage??
  • e.g.
  • I have bought a house by paying my mortgage in
    monthly installment. ???????????????????.
  • Primary mortgage loan notes.?????????.

  • 11. In the technosphere, debts are repaid from
    within and, at least in theory, are always
    capable of being paid off, or, in some cases,
    canceled. (Para.16)
  • In the economic field, debts are repaid with the
    production of goods. Debts are required to be
    repaid, unless they are canceled.

12. disseminate v. fml. to spread ( news,
ideas, etc.) widely ( spread)
  • e.g.
  • Whatever the defects of American universities
  • may be, they disseminate no prejudices.
  • I hate those who disseminate rumors.????
  • They use the press to disseminate right-wing

  • 13. envelop v. to enclose or encase completely
    with or as if with a covering ( enclose, wrap)
  • e.g.
  • Accompanying the darkness, a stillness envelops
    the city.
  • Fog enveloped the house.

  • 14. These debts were merely transferred to the
    victims, and are paid as they sicken and
  • People who suffered from radioactivity or toxic
    chemicals are the victims of the debts created by
    the technosphere. They paid the debt with
    sickness or even death.

Part VII ( Paras. 17-21)
  • In terms of With regard to from the point of
    view of
  • e.g.
  • In terms of cash outlay, the sum is peanuts.
  • Think of it in terms of an
  • It is difficult to express it in terms of

2. Interplay ( of , between) n.the action or
effect of two or more things on each other (
  • e.g.
  • Im interested in the interplay between practical
    and theoretical linguistics.
  • The problems result from the interplay of the
    ecosphere and the technosphere.
  • Classroom teaching is the interplay between the
    teacher and the student.

  • 3. Of course, as in a conventional war, the
    issues can be simplified by taking sides
    ignoring the interests of one combatant or the
    other. But this is done only at the cost of
  • If we take sides in the war of the two worlds, we
    are doing so at the risk of failing to have a
    clear understanding of the nature and cause of
    the war. Thus, we lose the chance to really solve
    the grave environmental crisis.

  • 4. take sides to support one person, group, or
    opinion over another
  • e.g.
  • I never take sides. ?????????
  • A parent shouldn't take sides when children start
    quarrelling with each other.???????,?????????????

  • 5. mediate To resolve or settle (differences) by
    working with all the conflicting parties
  • e.g.
  • He mediated a settlement between labor and
  • He tried to mediate between two warring
    countries. ???????????????
  • The dispute was settled by mediation.
  • ????????

  • 6. concoct If you concoct an excuse,
    explanation, or account, you invent one that is
    false or misleading.
  • e.g.
  • The child concocted a story about having been
  • He concocted a plan to get rich quickly.
  • He had to hastily concoct an excuse.

7. allot allocate
  • allot share (a larger number or amount)
  • allocate assign for a specific purpose
  • e.g.
  • The school board will allocate funds for the
    baseball team.
  • The school board will allot funds among the
    departments according to need.
  • They allot the profits of the business by the end
    of a year. ????????

  • 8. inducement act or means of persuading
  • e.g.
  • Reward is an inducement effort.??????????
  • He hasnt much inducement to study
  • They have little inducement to work

9. marauder - someone who attacks in search of
booty ( predator aggressor )
  • e.g.
  • To find them, however, I had to light my candles,
    when the first thing I saw was the havoc my
    marauder had left behind him.

  • 10. endow give qualities or abilities to (
    empower give )
  • e.g.
  • Nature has endowed the wolf with the means of
    catching its food.

11. artifact - a man-made object taken as a whole
( artefact)
  • e.g.
  • Anything made by artificial means is called an

  • 12. thrust the essence the point
  • e.g.
  • The whole thrust of the project was to make
  • What was the thrust of his argument????????????

  • 13. allow for make a possibility or provide
    opportunity for permit to be attainable or cause
    to remain ( allow, provide, leave)
  • e.g.
  • We must allow for his youth??????????
  • We must allow for the train being
  • You must allow for five per cent wastage in

  • 14. entail to make (an event or action)
    necessary involve
  • e.g.
  • That will entail an early start tomorrow
  • This job would entail your learning how to use a

Part VIII (Paras. 22 -23)
  • 1. bewildering - causing bafflement ( unclear)
  • e.g.
  • The play was at the same time a bewildering and
    an exciting experience.
  • The reason for their actions is bewildering to
    this day.

  • 2. as yet - used in negative statement to
    describe a situation that has existed up to this
    point or up to the present time ( thus far, till
    now, yet)
  • e.g.
  • We are as yet unable to say when the train will
    arrive. ???????????????
  • We should be responsible for the generation as
    yet unborn. ???????????

  • 3. lament n. a cry of sorrow and grief (wail)
  • v. express grief verbally regret
  • e.g.
  • Short pleasure, long lament.???????,?????
  • The song was composed especially as a lament for
    a deceased person????????????????.

  • 4. battle cry a yell intended to rally a group
    of soldiers in battle a slogan used to rally
    support for a cause ( war cry, rallying cry)
  • e.g.
  • One world, one dream! is our 2008 battle cry.
  • Away from drug! becomes a worldwide battle

IV. Assignment
  • Translate the following passage from Chinese into
  • The early snows fall soft and white and seem to he
    al the 
  • landscape. There are as yet no tracks through the 
    drifts, no 
  • muddied slush in the roads. The wind sweeps snow i
    nto the 
  • scars of our harvest time haste, smoothing the bro
    w of hill, 
  • hiding furrow and cog and trash in the yard. Snow 
  • the shriek of metal and the rasp of motion. It cov
    ers our flintier purposes and brings a redeeming s
    ilence, as if a curtain has 
  • fallen on the strivings of a year, and now we may 
    stop, look inward, and rediscover the amber warmth
     of family and conversation. 

  • At such times, locked away inside wall and woolen,
     lulled by the sedatives of wood-smoke and 
  • candlelight, we recall the competing claims of 
  • nature. We see the branch and bark of trees, rathe
    r than the sugar-scented green of their leaves. We
  • look out the window and admire the elegance of 
  • ice crystal, the bravely patient tree leaning leaf
    less into the wind, the dramatic shadows of the 
  • stooping sun. We look at the structure of things, 
  • the geometry of branch and snowflake, family and d

  • Thank you!
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