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Basic Level Categories for Knowledge Representation


Basic Level Categories for Knowledge Representation Tom Reamy Chief Knowledge Architect KAPS Group Knowledge Architecture Professional Services – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Basic Level Categories for Knowledge Representation

Basic Level CategoriesforKnowledge
  • Tom ReamyChief Knowledge Architect
  • KAPS Group
  • Knowledge Architecture Professional Services
  • http//

  • Introduction Context
  • Category Theory Cognitive Science
  • Enterprise Text Analytics
  • Basic Level Categories
  • Features and Issues
  • Basic Level Categories and Expertise
  • Experts prefer lower levels
  • Categorization of Expertise
  • Applications
  • Integration with Search and ECM
  • Platform for Information Applications

KAPS Group General
  • Knowledge Architecture Professional Services
  • Virtual Company Network of consultants 8-10
  • Partners SAS, SAP, Microsoft-FAST, Concept
    Searching, etc.
  • Consulting, Strategy, Knowledge architecture
  • Services
  • Taxonomy/Text Analytics development, consulting,
  • Technology Consulting Search, CMS, Portals,
  • Evaluation of Enterprise Search, Text Analytics
  • Metadata standards and implementation
  • Knowledge Management Collaboration, Expertise,
  • Applied Theory Faceted taxonomies, complexity
    theory, natural categories

Basic Level CategoriesContext
  • Unstructured Content - Enterprise External
  • Preprocessing of documents and sets
  • Includes categorization, information extraction
  • Representation of Domain knowledge taxonomy,
  • Presentation of results of search, text mining
    and refinement
  • Categorization
  • Most basic to human cognition
  • Most difficult to do with software
  • No single correct categorization
  • Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things

Basic Level CategoriesContext
  • Borges Celestial Emporium of Benevolent
  • Those that belong to the Emperor
  • Embalmed ones
  • Those that are trained
  • Suckling pigs
  • Mermaids
  • Fabulous ones
  • Stray dogs
  • Those that are included in this classification
  • Those that tremble as if they were mad
  • Innumerable ones
  • Other

Basic Level Categories software
contextEnterprise Text Analytics (ETA)
  • Enterprise Search Faceted Navigation
  • Categorization Document Topics Aboutness
  • Entity Extraction noun phrases, feed facets,
  • Summarization beyond snippets
  • Enterprise Content Management
  • Hybrid model of metadata
  • Categorization suggestions
  • Entity, Noun phrase facets need a lot of

Basic Level Categories software
contextEnterprise Text Analytics (ETA)
  • Advanced Text Analytics
  • Fact extraction ontologies
  • Sentiment Analysis good, bad, and ugly
  • Expertise Analysis
  • Enterprise Applications Information Applications
  • Text mining alone or in conjunction with data
  • Business Customer intelligence

Basic Level CategoriesIntroduction What are
Basic Level Categories?
  • Mid-level in a taxonomy / hierarchy
  • Short and easy words
  • Maximum distinctness and expressiveness
  • Similarly perceived shapes
  • Most commonly used labels
  • Easiest and fastest to indentify members
  • First level named and understood by children
  • Terms usually used in neutral contexts
  • Level at which most of our knowledge is organized

Basic Level CategoriesIntroduction What are
Basic Level Categories?
  • Objects most studied, most pronounced effects
  • Levels Superordinate Basic Subordinate
  • Mammal Dog Golden Retriever
  • Furniture chair kitchen chair
  • Basic in 4 dimensions
  • Perception overall perceived shape, single
    mental image, fast identification
  • Function general motor program
  • Communication shortest, most commonly used,
    neutral, first learned by children
  • Knowledge Organization most attributes are
    stored at this level

Basic Level CategoriesIntroduction Basic Level
Categories Non-Object
  • Basic level effects, but no widespread acceptance
    of categories and category names
  • Thus a basic level in a category hierarchy but
    not the category hierarchy that people actually
    use in everyday life
  • Not just IS-A relationship messier more like
  • Examples
  • Scenes indoors school elementary school
  • Events travel highway travel truck travel
  • Emotions positive emotion joy contentment
  • Programming Algorithm sort binary

Basic Level CategoriesIntroduction Other levels
  • Subordinate more informative but less
  • Basic shape and function with additional details
  • Ex Chair office chair, armchair
  • Convention people name objects by their basic
    category label, unless extra information in
    subordinate is useful
  • Superordinate Less informative but more
  • All refer to varied collections furniture
  • Often mass nouns, not count nouns
  • List abstract / functional properties
  • Very hard for children to learn

Basic Level CategoriesIntroduction How
recognize Basic level
  • Short words noun phrase
  • Selected list (extended stop words)
  • Kinds of attributes
  • Superordinate functional (keeps you warm, sit
    on it)
  • Basic Noun and adjectives legs, belt loops,
  • Subordinate adjectives blue, tall
  • Basic Level similar movements, similar shapes
  • More complex for non-object domains
  • Issue what is basic level is context dependent

Basic Level CategoriesIntroduction How
recognize Basic level
  • Cue Validity probability that a particular
    object belongs to some category given that it has
    a particular feature (cue)
  • X has wings bird
  • Superordinates have lower fewer common
  • Subordinates have lower share more attributes
    with other members at same level
  • Category utility frequency of a category
    category validity base rates of each of these
  • Issue how decide which features?
  • Cat can be picked up, is bigger than a beetle

Basic Level Categories and Expertise
  • Experts prefer lower, subordinate levels
  • In their domain, (almost) never used
  • Novice prefer higher, superordinate levels
  • General Populace prefers basic level
  • Not just individuals but whole societies /
    communities differ in their preferred levels
  • Issue artificial languages ex. Science
  • Issue difference of child and adult learning
    adults start with high level

Basic Level Categories and Expertise
  • Experts chunk series of actions, ideas, etc.
  • Novice high level only
  • Intermediate steps in the series
  • Expert special language based on deep
  • Expertise is a combination of knowledge and skill
  • Everything from riding a bike to merging two
  • No such thing as tacit knowledge - spectrum
  • Types of expert
  • Technical lower level terms only
  • Strategic high level and lower level terms,
    special language

Basic Level CategoriesAnalytical Techniques
  • What is basic level is context(s) dependent
  • Documents / Tags analyze in terms of levels of
  • Taxonomy for high level
  • Length for basic short
  • Length for subordinate long, special vocabulary
  • Category Utility
  • Hybrid simple high level taxonomy
    (superordinate), short words basic, longer
    words expert Plus
  • Develop expertise rules similar to
    categorization rules
  • Use basic level for subject
  • Superordinate for general, subordinate for expert

Basic Level CategoriesAnalytical Techniques
  • Corpus context dependent
  • Author748 is general in scientific health care
    context, advanced in news health care context
  • Need to generate overall expertise level for a
  • Also contextual rules
  • Tests is general, high level
  • Predictive value of tests is lower, more expert
  • Categorization rule SENT, DIST
  • If same sentence, expert
  • Demo Sample Documents, Rules

Education Terms
Expert General
Research (context dependent) Kid
Statistical Pay
Program performance Classroom
Protocol Fail
Adolescent Attitudes Attendance
Key academic outcomes School year
Job training program Closing
American Educational Research Association Counselor
Graduate management education Discipline
Healthcare Terms
Expert General
Mouse Cancer
Dose Scientific
Toxicity Physical
Diagnostic Consumer
Mammography Cigarette
Sampling Smoking
Inhibitor Weight gain
Edema Correct
Neoplasms Empirical
Isotretinion Drinking
Ethylene Testing
Significantly Lesson
Population-base Knowledge
Pharmacokinetic Medicine
Metabolite Sociology
Polymorphism Theory
Subsyndromic Experience
Radionuclide Services
Etiology Hospital
Oxidase Social
Captopril Domestic
Pharmacological agents
Mammary cancer model
Basic Level CategoriesExpertise application
  • Taxonomy development /design use basic level
  • User contribution
  • Card sorting non-experts use superficial
  • Survey for attributes instead of cart sorting,
    general structure
  • Develop expert and general versions/sections/synon
  • ID communities by their documents, tags
  • Info presentation combine superordinate and
  • Similar to scientific Genus Species is
    official name
  • Info presentation document maps expose basic

Basic Level CategoriesExpertise application
  • Ontology development / design
  • Need more focus on who is intended audience
  • Structure, nomenclature
  • Defining classes hierarchy same as taxonomy
  • Defining properties - Expert dependent
  • Wine for snobs (experts) very different than Joe
  • Two approaches
  • One ontology, classes and/or properties as expert
  • Two ontologies expert and novice

Basic Level CategoriesExpertise application
  • Text Mining
  • Preprocessing of documents
  • Expertise characterization of writer
  • Best results with existing taxonomy
  • Can use a very general, high level taxonomy
    superordinate and basic
  • Can use existing large taxonomies MeSH, etc.
  • eCommerce
  • Organization and Presentation of information
    expert, novice
  • How determine?
  • Search queries, profiles, buying patterns,
    specific products

Basic Level CategoriesExpertise application
  • Search enterprise and/or internet
  • Query level
  • Relevance ranking
  • Adjust documents for novice and expert queries
  • Information presentation
  • Tag clouds match novice and expert
  • Clustering
  • Incorporate into clustering algorithms
  • Presentation expose basic level provide up
    and down browse

Basic Level CategoriesExpertise application
  • Social Media - Community of Practice
  • Characterize the level of expertise in the
  • Evaluate other communities expertise level
  • Personalize information presentation by expertise
  • Expertise location
  • Generate automatic expertise characterization
    based on authored documents
  • Expertise of people in a social network
  • Terrorists and bomb-making
  • Issue of Levels of expertise how granular?

Basic Level CategoriesExpertise application
areas - CoP
  • Basic Level
  • Blog
  • Software (Design)
  • Web (Design)
  • Linux
  • Javascript
  • Web2.0
  • Google
  • Css
  • Flash
  • Superordinate
  • Music
  • Photography
  • News
  • Education
  • Business
  • Technology
  • Politics
  • Science
  • Culture

Basic Level CategoriesExpertise Related Tags -
  • CSS
  • Web Design
  • Design
  • Css3
  • Tutorial
  • Webdev
  • Javascript
  • Web
  • Development
  • Html
  • Jquery
  • html5
  • Education
  • Technology
  • Resources
  • Teaching
  • Learning
  • Science
  • Web20
  • Games
  • Interactive
  • Research
  • Tools
  • reference

Basic Level CategoriesExpertise application
  • Business Customer intelligence
  • General characterize peoples expertise to add
    to evaluation of their comments
  • Combine with sentiment analysis finer
    evaluation what are experts saying, what are
    novices saying
  • Deeper research into communities, customers
  • Enterprise Content Management
  • At publish time, software automatically gives an
    expertise level present to author for
  • Combine with categorization offer tags that are
    suitable level of expertise

Basic Level CategoriesConclusions
  • Basic Level Categories are fundamental to thought
  • What is basic level is context dependent
  • Basic level effect is most obvious with objects,
    more work for concepts
  • Most domains need some taxonomy need not be big
  • Categorization-like rules
  • This is exciting, but not a revolution
  • Beware Egalitarian stance People are different
  • Text Analytics needs Cognitive Science
  • Not just library science or data modeling or

  • Books
  • Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things
  • George Lakoff
  • Knowledge, Concepts, and Categories
  • Koen Lamberts and David Shanks
  • The Stuff of Thought Steven Pinker
  • Web Sites
  • Text Analytics News - http//social.textanalyticsn
  • Text Analytics Wiki - http//textanalytics.wikidot

  • Blogs
  • SAS- Manya Mayes Chief Strategist -
  • Web Sites
  • Taxonomy Community of Practice
  • Whitepaper CM and Text Analytics -
  • Whitepaper Enterprise Content Categorization
    coming soon

  • Articles
  • Malt, B. C. 1995. Category coherence in
    cross-cultural perspective. Cognitive Psychology
    29, 85-148
  • Rifkin, A. 1985. Evidence for a basic level in
    event taxonomies. Memory Cognition 13, 538-56
  • Shaver, P., J. Schwarz, D. Kirson, D. OConner
    1987. Emotion Knowledge further explorations of
    prototype approach. Journal of Personality and
    Social Psychology 52, 1061-1086
  • Tanaka, J. W. M. E. Taylor 1991. Object
    categories and expertise is the basic level in
    the eye of the beholder? Cognitive Psychology
    23, 457-82

  • Tom
  • KAPS Group
  • Knowledge Architecture Professional Services
  • http//
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