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Double Replacement 1. Hydrogen sulfide is bubbled through a solution of silver nitrate.

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Double Replacement 1. Hydrogen sulfide is bubbled through a solution of silver nitrate. H2S(g) + 2AgNO3(aq) 2HNO3(aq) + Ag2S(s) H2S + 2Ag+ + 2NO3- 2H+ +2NO3- + Ag2S – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Double Replacement 1. Hydrogen sulfide is bubbled through a solution of silver nitrate.


1
Double Replacement 1. Hydrogen sulfide is
bubbled through a solution of silver nitrate.
  • H2S(g) 2AgNO3(aq) ? 2HNO3(aq) Ag2S(s)
  • H2S 2Ag 2NO3- ? 2H 2NO3- Ag2S
  • H2S 2Ag? 2H Ag2S

2
2. An excess of sodium hydroxide solution is
added to a solution of magnesium nitrate.
  • 2OH- Mg2 ? Mg(OH)2

3
3. Solutions of sodium iodide and lead nitrate
are mixed.
  • 2I- Pb2 ? PbI2

4
4. A solution of ammonia is added to a solution
of ferric chloride.
  • 3NH3(g) 3H2O(l) FeCl3(aq) ? 3NH4Cl(aq)
    Fe(OH)3(s)
  • 3NH3 3H2O Fe3 3Cl-? 3NH4 3Cl-
    Fe(OH)3
  • 3NH3 3H2O Fe3 ? 3NH4 Fe(OH)3

5
5. Solutions of silver nitrate and sodium
chromate are mixed.
  • 2Ag CrO42- ? Ag2CrO4

6
6. Excess silver acetate is added to a solution
of trisodium phosphate.
  • 3Ag PO43- ? Ag3PO4

7
7. Manganese(II) nitrate solution is mixed with
sodium hydroxide solution.
  • Mn2 2OH- ? Mn(OH)2

8
8. A saturated solution of calcium hydroxide is
added to a solution of magnesium chloride.
  • Mg2 2OH- ? Mg(OH)2

9
9. Hydrogen sulfide gas is added to a solution
of cadmium nitrate.
  • H2S Cd2 ? CdS 2H

10
10. Dilute sulfuric acid is added to a solution
of barium acetate.
  • 2H SO42- Ba2 2C2H3O2- ? BaSO4 2HC2H3O2

11
11. A precipitate is formed when solutions of
trisodium phosphate and calcium chloride are


mixed.
  • 2PO43- 3Ca2 ?Ca3(PO4)2

12
12. A solution of copper(II) sulfate is added to
a solution of barium hydroxide.
  • Cu2 SO42- Ba2 2OH- ? Cu(OH)2 BaSO4

13
13. Equal volumes of dilute equimolar solutions
of sodium carbonate and hydrochloric acid are
mixed.
  • Na2CO3(aq) HCl(aq) ? NaCl(aq) NaHCO3(aq)
  • 2Na CO32- H Cl- ? Na Cl- Na HCO3-
  • H CO32- ? HCO3-

14
14. Solid barium peroxide is added to cold
dilute sulfuric acid.
  • BaO2(s) H2SO4(aq) ? BaSO4(s) H2O2(l)
  • BaO2 2H SO42- ? BaSO4 H2O2

15
15. Excess hydrochloric acid solution is added
to a solution of potassium sulfite.
  • 2HCl(aq) K2SO3(aq) ?
  • H2O(l) SO2(g) 2KCl(aq)
  • 2H 2Cl- 2K SO32- ? H2O SO2 2K
    2Cl-
  • 2H SO32- ? H2O SO2

16
16. Dilute sulfuric acid is added to a solution
of barium chloride.
  • H2SO4(aq) BaCl2(aq)?
  • 2HCl(aq) BaSO4(s)
  • 2H SO42- Ba2 2Cl- ? 2H 2Cl- BaSO4
  • SO42- Ba2 ? BaSO4

17
17. A solution of sodium hydroxide is added to a
solution of ammonium chloride.
  • NaOH(aq) NH4Cl(aq) ? NaCl(aq) NH3(g) H2O(l)
  • Na OH- NH4 Cl- ? Na Cl- NH3 H2O
  • NH4 OH- ? NH3 H2O

18
18. Dilute hydrochloric acid is added to a
solution of potassium carbonate.
  • 2HCl(aq) K2CO3(aq) ?
  • H2O(l) CO2(g) 2KCl(aq)
  • 2H 2Cl- 2K CO32- ? H2O CO2 2K
    2Cl-
  • 2H CO32- ? H2O CO2

19
19. Gaseous hydrogen sulfide is bubbled through
a solution of nickel(II) nitrate.
  • H2S(g) Ni(NO3)2(aq) ? 2HNO3(aq) NiS(s)
  • H2S Ni2 2NO3- ? 2H 2NO3- NiS
  • H2S Ni2 ? NiS 2H

20
20. A solution of sodium sulfide is added to a
solution of zinc nitrate.
  • Na2S(aq) Zn(NO3)2(aq) ? 2NaNO3(aq) ZnS(s)
  • 2Na S2- Zn2 2NO3- ? 2Na 2NO3- ZnS
  • S2- Zn2? ZnS
  • Better
  • HS- OH- Zn2? ZnS H2O

21
21. Concentrated hydrochloric acid is added to
solid manganese(II) sulfide.
  • 2H MnS ? H2S Mn2

22
22. Solutions of tri-potassium phosphate and
zinc nitrate are mixed.
  • 2PO43- 3Zn2 ? Zn3(PO4)2

23
23. Dilute acetic acid solution is added to
solid magnesium carbonate.
  • 2HC2H3O2 MgCO3 ? H2O CO2 Mg2 2C2H3O2-

24
24. Gaseous hydrofluoric acid reacts with solid
silicon dioxide.
  • 4HF SiO2 ? 2H2O SiF4

25
25. Equimolar amounts of trisodium phosphate and
hydrogen chloride, both in solution, are mixed.

  • PO43- H ? HPO42-

26
26. Ammonium chloride crystals are added to a
solution of sodium hydroxide.
  • NH4Cl OH- ? NH3 H2O Cl-

27
27. Hydrogen sulfide gas is bubbled through a
solution of lead(II) nitrate.
  • H2S Pb2 ? PbS 2H

28
28. Solutions of silver nitrate and sodium
chromate are mixed.
  • 2Ag CrO42- ? Ag2CrO4

29
29. Solutions of sodium fluoride and dilute
hydrochloric acid are mixed.
  • F- H ? HF

30
30. A saturated solution of barium hydroxide is
mixed with a solution of iron(III) sulfate.
  • 3Ba2 6OH- 2Fe3 3SO42- ? 3BaSO4
    2Fe(OH)3

31
31. A solution of ammonium sulfate is added to a
potassium hydroxide solution.
  • NH4 OH- ? NH3 H2O

32
32. A solution of ammonium sulfate is added to a
saturated solution of barium hydroxide.
  • 2NH4 SO42- Ba2 2OH- ? 2NH3 2H2O BaSO4

33
33. Dilute sulfuric acid is added to solid
calcium fluoride.
  • 2H SO42- CaF2 ? CaSO4 2HF

34
34. Dilute hydrochloric acid is added to a
dilute solution of mercury(I) nitrate.
  • 2Cl- Hg22 ? Hg2Cl2

35
35. Dilute sulfuric acid is added to a solution
of lithium hydrogen carbonate.
  • H HCO3- ? H2O CO2

36
36. Dilute hydrochloric acid is added to a
solution of potassium sulfite.
  • 2H SO32- ? H2O SO2

37
37. Carbon dioxide gas is bubbled through water
containing a suspension of calcium carbonate.
  • CO2 CaCO3 H2O ? 2HCO3- Ca2

38
38. Excess concentrated sulfuric acid is added
to solid calcium phosphate.
  • 3H2SO4 Ca3(PO4)2 ? 2H3PO4 3CaSO4 (or 3Ca2
    3SO42-)

39
39. Hydrogen sulfide gas is bubbled into a
solution of mercury(II) chloride.
  • H2S Hg2 ? HgS 2H

40
40. Solutions of zinc sulfate and sodium
phosphate are mixed.
  • 3Zn2 2PO43 - ? Zn3(PO4)2

41
41. Solutions of silver nitrate and lithium
bromide are mixed.
  • Ag Br- ? AgBr

42
42. Solutions of manganese(II) sulfate and
ammonium sulfide are mixed.
  • Mn2 S2- ? MnS
  • or better
  • Mn2 HS- OH-?
  • MnS H2O

43
43. Excess hydrochloric acid solution is added to
a solution of potassium sulfite.
  • 2H SO32- ? H2O SO2
  • (or H2SO3)

44
SingleReplacement 1. A piece of aluminum metal
is added to a solution of silver nitrate.
  • Al(s) 3AgNO3(aq) ? Al(NO3)3(aq) 3Ag(s)
  • Al 3Ag 3NO3- ? Al3 3NO3- 3Ag
  • Al 3Ag ? Al3 3Ag

45
2. Aluminum metal is added to a solution of
copper(II) chloride.
  • 2Al(s) 3CuCl2(aq) ? 3Cu(s) 2AlCl3(aq)
  • 2Al 3Cu2 6Cl- ? 3Cu 2Al3 6Cl-
  • 2Al 3Cu2 ? 2Al3 3Cu

46
3. Hydrogen gas is passed over hot copper(II)
oxide.
  • H2 CuO ? H2O Cu

47
4. Small chunks of solid sodium are added to
water.
  • 2Na 2H2O ? 2Na 2OH- H2

48
5. Calcium metal is added to a dilute solution
of hydrochloric acid.
  • Ca 2H ? Ca2 H2

49
6. Magnesium turnings are added to a solution of
iron(III) chloride.
  • 3Mg 2Fe3 ? 3Mg2 2Fe

50
7. Chlorine gas is bubbled into a solution of
sodium bromide.
  • Cl2 2Br- ? 2Cl- Br2

51
8. A strip of magnesium is added to a solution
of silver nitrate.
  • Mg 2Ag ? Mg2 2Ag

52
9. Solid calcium is added to warm water.
  • Ca 2H2O ? Ca2 2OH- H2

53
10. Liquid bromine is added to a solution of
potassium iodide.
  • Br2 2I- ? 2Br- I2

54
11. Chlorine gas is bubbled into a solution of
potassium iodide.
  • Cl2 2I- ? 2Cl- I2

55
12. Lead foil is immersed in silver nitrate
solution.
  • Pb 2Ag ? Pb2 2Ag

56
13. Solid zinc strips are added to a solution of
copper(II) sulfate.
  • Zn Cu2 ? Zn2 Cu

57
14. Sodium metal is added to water.
  • 2Na 2H2O ? 2Na 2OH- H2

58
15. A bar of zinc metal is immersed in a
solution of copper(II) sulfate.
  • Zn Cu2 ? Zn2 Cu

59
16. A small piece of sodium metal is added to
distilled water.
  • 2Na 2H2O ? 2Na 2OH- H2

60
Combustion 1. Lithium metal is burned in
air.
  • 4Li O2 ? 2Li2O

61
2. The hydrocarbon hexane is burned in excess
oxygen.
  • 2C6H14 19O2 ?
  • 12CO2 14H2O

62
3. Gaseous diborane, B2H6, is burned in excess
oxygen.
  • B2H6 3O2 ?
  • B2O3 3H2O

63
4. A piece of solid bismuth is heated strongly
in oxygen.
  • 4Bi 3O2 ? 2Bi2O3

64
5. Solid zinc sulfide is heated in an excess of
oxygen.
  • 2ZnS 3O2 ?
  • 2ZnO 2SO2

65
6. Propanol is burned completely in air.
  • 2C3H7OH 9O2 ?
  • 6CO2 8H2O

66
7. Excess oxygen gas is mixed with ammonia gas
in the presence of platinum.
  • 7O2 4NH3 4NO2 6H2O

67
8. Gaseous silane, SiH4, is burned in oxygen.
  • SiH4 2O2 ? SiO2 2H2O

68
9. Ethanol is completely burned in air.
  • C2H5OH 3O2 ? 2CO2 3H2O

69
10. Solid copper(II) sulfide is heated strongly
in oxygen gas.
  • 2CuS 3O2 ? 2CuO 2SO2

70
11. Ethanol is burned in oxygen.
  • C2H5OH 3O2 ? 2CO2 3H2O

71
12. Carbon disulfide vapor is burned in excess
oxygen.
  • CS2 3O2 ? CO2 2SO2
  • or SO3

72
Anhydrides 1. Excess water is added to solid
calcium hydride.
  • 2H2O CaH2 ? Ca2 2OH- or (Ca(OH)2) 2H2

73
2. Solid lithium hydride is added to water.
  • LiH H2O ? Li OH- H2

74
3. Liquid phosphorus trichloride is poured into
a large excess of water.
  • PCl3 3H2O ?
  • H3PO3 3H 3Cl-

75
4. Solid sodium carbide is added to an excess of
water.
  • Na2C2 2H2O ?C2H2 2Na 2OH-
  • (carbide ion is C22- or C4-)
  • (Salts such as CaC2 or Na2C2 are called
    acetylides. They react with water to form
    acetylene, C2H2.)

76
5. Solid magnesium nitride is added to excess
deuterium oxide.
  • Mg3N2 6D2O ?
  • 3Mg(OD)2 2ND3
  • or Mg3N2 6H2O ?
  • 3Mg(OH)2 2NH3

77
6. Water is added to a sample of pure
phosphorus tribromide.
  • 3H2O PBr3 ?
  • H3PO3 3H 3Br-

78
7. Water is added to a sample of pure sodium
hydride.
  • H2O NaH ? Na OH- H2

79
8. Dinitrogen trioxide gas is bubbled into
water.
  • N2O3 H2O ? 2HNO2

80
9. Solid phosphoruspentachloride is added to
excess water.
  • PCl5 4H2O ?
  • H3PO4 5H 5Cl-

81
10. Solid dinitrogen pentoxide is added to
water.
  • N2O5 H2O ?
  • 2H 2NO3-

82
11. Sulfur trioxide gas is added to excess
water.
  • SO3 H2O ? 2H SO42-

83
12. Solid sodium oxide is added to water.
  • Na2O H2O ? 2Na 2OH-

84
13. Phosphorus(V) oxytrichloride is added to
water.
  • POCl3 3H2O ?
  • H3PO4 3H 3Cl-

85
14. Water is added to a sample of solid
magnesium nitride.
  • 6H2O Mg3N2 ? 3Mg(OH)2 2NH3

86
15. Solid potassium oxide is added to water.
  • K2O H2O ?
  • 2K 2OH-

87
16. Solid sodium cyanide is added to water.
  • NaCN H2O ?HCN Na OH-

88
17. Trisodium phosphate crystals are added to
water.
  • Na3PO4 H2O ? 3Na OH- HPO42-
  • ( or H2PO4-)

89
18. Solid lithium oxide is added to excess
water.
  • Li2O H2O ? 2Li 2OH-

90
19. Solid barium oxide is added to distilled
water.
  • BaO H2O ? Ba2 2OH-

91
20. Solid calcium hydride is added to distilled
water.
  • CaH2 2H2O ? Ca2 2OH- or (Ca(OH)2) 2H2

92
21. Phosphorous(V) oxide powder is sprinkled over
distilled water.
  • P2O5 3H2O ? 2H3PO4

93
Redox 1. Iron(III) ions are reduced
by iodide ions.
  • 2Fe3 2I- ? 2Fe2 I2

94
2. Potassium permanganate solution is added to
concentrated hydrochloric acid.
  • 2MnO4- 16H 10Cl- ? 2Mn2 5Cl2 8H2O

95
3. Magnesium metal is added to dilute nitric
acid, giving as one of the products a compound in




which the oxidation number for nitrogen is
-3.
  • 4Mg 10H NO3- ? NH4 4Mg2 3H2O

96
4. A solution of potassium iodide is
electrolyzed.
  • 2I- 2H2O ?
  • I2 H2 2OH-

97
5. Potassium dichromate solution is added to an
acidified solution of sodium sulfite.
  • Cr2O72- 3SO32- 8H? 2Cr3 3SO42- 4H2O

98
6. Solutions of potassium iodide, potassium
iodate, and dilute sulfuric acid are mixed.
  • 5I- IO3- 6H ?
  • 3H2O 3I2

99
7. A solution of tin(II) sulfate is added to a
solution of iron(III) sulfate.
  • Sn2 2Fe3 ?Sn4 2Fe2

100
8. Metallic copper is heated with concentrated
sulfuric acid.
  • Cu 2H H2SO4?
  • Cu2 SO2 2H2O

101
9. Manganese(IV) oxide is added to warm,
concentrated hydrobromic acid.
  • MnO2 4H 2Br- ? Mn2 Br2 2H2O

102
10. Chlorine gas is bubbled into cold dilute
sodium hydroxide.
  • Cl2 2OH- ?
  • ClO- Cl- H2O

103
11. Solid iron(III) oxide is heated in excess
carbon monoxide.
  • Fe2O3 3CO ?2Fe 3CO2

104
12. Hydrogen peroxide solution is added to
acidified potassium iodide solution.
  • H2O2 2H 2I- ?
  • 2H2O I2

105
13. Hydrogen peroxide is added to an acidified
solution of potassium dichromate.
  • 3H2O2 8H Cr2O72-? 7H2O 2Cr3 3O2

106
14. Sulfur dioxide gas is bubbled through an
acidified solution of potassium permanganate.
  • 5SO2 2H2O 2MnO4- ? 2Mn2 4H 5SO42-

107
15. A solution containing tin(II) ions is added
to an acidified solution of potassium
dichromate.
  • 3Sn2 14H Cr2O72-? 2Cr3 3Sn4 7H2O

108
16. Solid silver sulfide is warmed with dilute
nitric acid.
  • Ag2S 4H 2NO3- ? 2Ag S 2NO2 2H2O
  • or NO

109
17. A dilute solution of sulfuric acid is
electrolyzed between platinum electrodes.
  • 2H2O ?2H2 O2

110
18. Pellets of lead are dropped into hot
sulfuric acid.
  • Pb 2H H2SO4 ? 2H2O SO2 Pb2 (or PbSO4 )

111
19. Potassium permanganate solution is added to
a solution of oxalic acid, H2C2O4 , acidified



with a few drops
of sulfuric acid.
  • 2MnO4- 5H2C2O4 6H? 2Mn2 10CO2 8H2O

112
20. Powdered iron is added to a solution of
iron(III) sulfate.
  • Fe 2Fe3 ? 3Fe2

113
21. A concentrated solution of hydrochloric acid
is added to powdered manganese dioxide and gently
heated.
  • 4H 2Cl- MnO2 ? Cl2 Mn2 2H2O

114
22. A strip of copper metal is added to a
concentrated solution of sulfuric acid.
  • Cu 4H SO42-? Cu2 SO2 2H2O

115
23. Copper(II) sulfide is oxidized by dilute
nitric acid.
  • 3CuS 8H 2NO3- ? 3Cu2 2NO 4H2O 3S

116
24. A solution of copper(II) sulfate is
electrolyzed using inert electrodes.
  • 2Cu2 2H2O ?
  • O2 4H 2Cu

117
25. A solution of potassium iodide is added to
an acidified solution of potassium dichromate.
  • 6I- 14H Cr2O72- ? 3I2 2Cr3 7H2O

118
26. Hydrogen peroxide solution is added to a
solution of iron(II) sulfate.
  • H2O2 2H 2Fe2 ? 2Fe3 2H2O

119

27. Solid silver is added to a dilute nitric
acid (6M) solution.
  • 3Ag 4H NO3- ? 3Ag NO 2H2O

120
28. A solution of formic acid, HCOOH, is
oxidized by an acidified solution of potassium
dichromate.
  • 3HCOOH 8H Cr2O72- ? 7H2O 2Cr3 3CO2

121
29. A piece of iron is added to a solution of
iron(III) sulfate.
  • Fe 2Fe3 ? 3Fe2

122
30. An acidified solution of potassium
permanganate is added to a solution of sodium
sulfite.
  • 6H 2MnO4- 5SO32- ? 2Mn2 5SO42- 3H2O

123
31. A solution of tin(II) chloride is added to a
solution of iron(III) sulfate.
  • Sn2 2Fe3 ?
  • Sn4 2Fe2

124
32. Concentrated hydrochloric acid solution is
added to solid manganese(IV) oxide and the
reactants are heated.
  • 4H 2Cl- MnO2 ? Mn2 Cl2 2H2O

125
33. A strip of copper is immersed in dilute
nitric acid.
  • 3Cu 8H 2NO3- ? 3Cu2 2NO 4H2O

126
34. Potassium permanganate solution is added to
an acidic solution of hydrogen peroxide.
  • 2MnO4- 6H 5H2O2 ? 2Mn2 5O2 8H2O

127
35. Solid copper is added to a dilute nitric
acid solution.
  • 3Cu 8H 2NO3- ? 3Cu2 2NO 4H2O

128
36. Chlorine gas is bubbled into a cold solution
of dilute sodium hydroxide.
  • Cl2 2OH- ?
  • ClO- Cl- H2O

129
37. A solution of potassium permanganate is
mixed with an alkaline solution of sodium
sulfite.
  • 2MnO4- 2OH- SO32- ? SO42- H2O 2MnO42-
  • or 2MnO4- H2O 3SO32- ?
  • 3SO42- 2OH- 2MnO2)

130
38. Solid sodium dichromate is added to an
acidified solution of sodium iodide.
  • Na2Cr2O7 14H 6I- ? 2Cr3 3I2 7H2O 2Na

131
39. Hydrogen gas is passed over hot iron(III)
oxide.
  • 3H2 Fe2O3 ?
  • 2Fe 3H2O

132
40. Solutions of potassium iodide and potassium
iodate are mixed in acid solution.
  • 5I- IO3- 6H ?
  • 3I2 3H2O

133
41. Hydrogen peroxide is added to an acidified
solution of sodium bromide.
  • H2O2 2H 2Br- ?
  • Br2 2H2O

134
42. Chlorine gas is bubbled into a cold, dilute
solution of potassium hydroxide.
  • Cl2 2OH- ?
  • Cl- ClO- H2O

135
43. A solution of iron(II) nitrate is exposed to
air for an extended period of time.
  • 4Fe2 O2 4H2O? 2Fe2O3 8H

136
44. A stream of chlorine gas is passed through a
solution of cold, dilute sodium hydroxide.
  • Cl2 2OH- ?
  • Cl- ClO- H2O

137
45. A solution of tin(II) chloride is added to an
acidified solution of potassium permanganate.
  • 5Sn2 16H 2MnO4- ? 2Mn2 5Sn4 8H2O

138
46. A concentrated solution of hydrochloric acid
is added to solid potassium permanganate.
  • 16H 10Cl- 2KMnO4 ? 5Cl2 2Mn2 8H2O 2K

139
47. A solution of potassium dichromate is added
to an acidified solution of iron(II) chloride.
  • Cr2O72- 14H 6Fe2 ? 2Cr3 6Fe3 7H2O

140
Acid-Base Neutralizations 1. Solutions of
ammonia and hydrofluoric acid are mixed.
  • NH3 H2O ? NH4 OH- OH- HF ? H2O F-
  • NH3 HF ? NH4 F-

141
2. Hydrogen sulfide gas is bubbled through a
solution of potassium hydroxide.
  • H2S OH- ? H2O HS-

142
3. A solution of sulfuric acid is added to a
solution of barium hydroxide until the same
number of moles of each compound has been added.
  • 2H SO42- Ba2 2OH- ? 2H2O BaSO4

143
4. A solution of sodium hydroxide is added to a
solution of sodium dihydrogen phosphate until the
same number of moles of each compound has been
added.
  • OH- H2PO4- ? HPO42- H2O

144
5. Dilute nitric acid is added to crystals of
pure calcium oxide.
  • CaO H2O ? Ca2 2OH- 2H 2OH- ? 2H2O
  • 2H CaO ? H2O Ca2

145
6. Equal volumes of 0.1-molar sulfuric acid and
0.1-molar potassium hydroxide are mixed.
  • 2H SO42- K OH-? H2O H K SO42-
  • H OH- ? H2O

146
7. A solution of ammonia is added to a dilute
solution of acetic acid.
  • NH3 H2O ? NH4 OH-
  • OH- HC2H3O2 ? H2O C2H3O2-
  • NH3 HC2H3O2 ? NH4 C2H3O2-

147
8. Excess sulfur dioxide gas is bubbled through
a dilute solution of potassium hydroxide.
  • SO2 H2O ? H2SO3
  • H2SO3 2OH- ? 2H2O SO32-
  • SO2 2OH- ? H2O SO32-

148
9. Sulfur dioxide gas is bubbled into an excess
of a saturated solution of calcium hydroxide.
  • SO2 H2O ? H2SO3
  • H2SO3 Ca2 2OH- ? CaSO3 2H2O
  • SO2 Ca2 2OH- ? CaSO3 H2O

149
10. A solution of sodium hydroxide is added to a
solution of calcium hydrogen carbonate until the
number of moles of sodium hydroxide added is
twice the number of moles of the
calcium salt.
  • 2OH- Ca2 2HCO3- ? 2H2O CaCO3 CO32-

150
11. Equal volumes of 0.1M hydrochloric acid and
0.1M sodium monohydrogen phosphate are mixed.
  • H HPO42- ? H2PO4-

151
12. Hydrogen sulfide gas is bubbled through
excess potassium hydroxide solution.
  • H2S OH- ? H2O HS-

152
13. Ammonia gas and carbon dioxide gas are
bubbled into water.
  • 2NH3 CO2 3H2O ? 2NH4 2OH- H2CO3
  • 2OH- H2CO3 ? 2H2O CO32-
  • 2NH3 CO2 H2O ? 2NH4 CO32-

153
14. Carbon dioxide gas is bubbled through a
concentrated solution of sodium hydroxide.
  • CO2 H2O ? H2CO3
  • H2CO3 2OH- ? CO32- 2H2O
  • CO2 2OH- ? CO32- H2O

154
15. Acetic acid solution is added to a solution
of sodium hydrogen carbonate.
  • HC2H3O2 HCO3- ? H2O CO2 C2H3O2-

155
16. Excess potassium hydroxide solution is added
to a solution of potassium dihydrogen phosphate.
  • 2OH- H2PO4- ? 2H2O PO43-

156
17. Carbon dioxide gas is bubbled through a
concentrated solution of potassium hydroxide.
  • CO2 H2O ? H2CO3 H2CO3 2OH- ? CO32- 2H2O CO2
    2OH- ? CO32- H2O

157
Complex Ions 1. Concentrated (15M) ammonia
solution is added in excess to a solution of
copper(II) nitrate.
  • 4NH3 Cu2? Cu(NH3)42

158
2. An excess of nitric acid solution is added to
a solution of tetraaminecopper(II) sulfate.
  • 4H Cu(NH3)42? 4NH4 Cu2

159
3. Dilute hydrochloric acid is added to a
solution of diamminesilver(I) nitrate.
  • 2H Cl- Ag(NH3)2 ? AgCl 2NH4

160
4. Solid aluminum nitrate is dissolved in
water.
  • Al(NO3)3 6H2O ? Al(H2O)63 3NO3-

161
5. A suspension of copper(II) hydroxide is
treated with an excess of ammonia water.
  • Cu(OH)2 4NH3 ? Cu(NH3)42 2OH-

162
6. A solution of diamminesilver(I) chloride is
treated with dilute nitric acid.
  • Ag(NH3)2 Cl- 2H ? 2NH4 AgCl

163
7. An excess of concentrated ammonia solution is
added to freshly precipitated copper(II)
hydroxide.
  • 4NH3 Cu(OH)2 ? Cu(NH3)42 2OH-

164
8. Excess dilute nitric acid is added to a
solution containing the tetraamminecadmium(II)
ion.
  • 4H Cd(NH3)42? 4NH4 Cd2

165
9. An excess of ammonia is bubbled through a
solution saturated with silver chloride.
  • 2NH3 Ag ? Ag(NH3)2

166
10. Solid aluminum oxide is added to a solution
of sodium hydroxide.
  • Al2O3 2OH- 3H2O? 2Al(OH)4-

167
11. A concentrated solution of ammonia is added
to a solution of zinc iodide.
  • 4NH3 Zn2 ? Zn(NH3)42

168
12. An excess of sodium hydroxide solution is
added to a solution of aluminum chloride.
  • 4OH- Al3 ? Al(OH)4-

169
13. A concentrated solution of ammonia is added
to a solution of copper(II) chloride.
  • 4NH3 Cu2 ? Cu(NH3)42

170
14. Excess concentrated sodium hydroxide
solution is added to solid aluminum hydroxide.
  • OH- Al(OH)3 ? Al(OH)4-

171
15. Excess concentrated ammonia solution is
added to a suspension of silver chloride.
  • 2NH3 AgCl ? Ag(NH3)2 Cl-

172
16. Pellets of aluminum metal are added to a
solution containing an excess of sodium
hydroxide.
  • 2Al 6H2O ? 2Al(OH)3 3H2
  • 2Al(OH)3 2OH- ? 2Al(OH)4-
  • 2Al 6H2O 2OH- ? 2Al(OH)4- 3H2

173
17. A suspension of zinc hydroxide is treated
with concentrated sodium hydroxide solution.
  • Zn(OH)2 2OH- ? Zn(OH)42-

174
18. Silver chloride is dissolved in excess
ammonia solution.
  • AgCl 2NH3 ? Ag(NH3)2 Cl-

175
19. Sodium hydroxide solution is added to a
precipitate of aluminum hydroxide in water.
  • OH- Al(OH)3 ? Al(OH)4-

176
20. A drop of potassium thiocyanate is added to
a solution of iron(III) chloride.
  • SCN- Fe3 ? FeSCN2

177
21. A concentrated solution of ammonia is added
to a suspension of zinc hydroxide.
  • 4NH3 Zn(OH)2 ? Zn(NH3)42 2OH-

178
22. Excess concentrated potassium hydroxide
solution is added to a precipitate of zinc
hydroxide.
  • Zn(OH)2 2OH- ? Zn(OH)42-

179
23. A solution of ammonium thiocyanate is added
to a solution of iron(III) chloride.
  • SCN- Fe3 ? FeSCN2

180
24. Excess sodium cyanide is added to a solution
of silver nitrate.
  • 2CN- Ag ? Ag(CN)2-

181
Decomposition 1. A solution of hydrogen
peroxide is heated.
  • 2H2O2 ? O2 2H2O

182
2. Solid magnesium carbonate is heated.
  • MgCO3 ? MgO CO2

183
3. A solution of hydrogen peroxide is
catalytically decomposed.
  • 2H2O2 ? 2H2O O2

184
4. Solid potassium chlorate is heated in the
presence of manganese dioxide as a catalyst.
  • 2KClO3 ? 2KCl 3O2

185
5. Sodium hydrogen carbonate is dissolved in
water.
  • NaHCO3 ? Na HCO3-

186
6. Solid ammonium carbonate is heated.
  • (NH4)2CO3 ? CO2 2NH3 H2O

187
Addition 1. The gases boron trifluoride and
ammonia are mixed.
  • BF3 NH3 ? F3BNH3

188
2. A mixture of solid calcium oxide and solid
tetraphosphorus decaoxide is heated.
  • 6CaO P4O10 ? 2Ca3(PO4)2

189
3. Solid calcium oxide is exposed to a stream of
carbon dioxide gas.
  • CaO CO2 ? CaCO3

190
4. Solid calcium oxide is heated in the presence
of sulfur trioxide gas.
  • CaO SO3 ? CaSO4

191
5. Calcium metal is heated strongly in nitrogen
gas.
  • 3Ca N2 ? Ca3N2

192
6. Excess chlorine gas is passed over hot iron
filings.
  • 3Cl2 2Fe ? 2FeCl3

193
7. Powdered magnesium oxide is added to a
container of carbon dioxide gas.
  • MgO CO2 ? MgCO3

194
8. A piece of lithium metal is dropped into a
container of nitrogen gas.
  • 6Li N2 ? 2Li3N

195
9. Magnesium metal is burned in nitrogen gas.
  • 3Mg N2 ? Mg3N2

196
10. Sulfur dioxide gas is passed over solid
calcium oxide.
  • SO2 CaO ? CaSO3

197
11. Samples of boron trichloride gas and ammonia
gas are mixed.
  • BCl3 NH3 ? H3NBCl3
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