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Chapter 2 2 Survey Research Brown (2001, 2): Language surveys are any studies that gather data on the characteristics and views of informants about the nature of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter%202%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%202%20Survey%20Research


1
Chapter 2 2 Survey Research
  • Brown (2001, 2)
  • Language surveys are any studies that
    gather data on the characteristics and views of
    informants about the nature of language or
    language learning through the use of oral
    interviews or written questionnaires.
  • Three types of information surveys can provide
    (Dornyei 2003)
  • i) Factual information (e.g., students age,
    gender ethnicity,

  • language background, proficiency level, etc.)
  • ii) Behavioral information (e.g., students are
    asked to report how often they look
  • up
    unfamiliar words in a dictionary or

  • make an outline before they write an essay)
  • iii) Attitudinal information seek to find out
    more about
  • the
    opinions, beliefs, or interests of teacher or
    learners

  • (e.g., what learning goals ss have or

  • what skill areas they are most interested)

2
Chapter 2 2.1 Designing
Surveys
  • (1) Selecting Respondents
  • i) identify clearly the population of interest
    in the survey
  • ii) assign an identification number to each of
    the pupulation
  • iii) choose the members of the sample (random
    numbers) (Brown 2001, 72-3)
  • (2) Writing Questions
  • open-ended vs. close-ended questions
  • a.
    alternative-answer (yes or no)
  • b.
    Likert-scale to select one of 4-several even
    numbers
  • c. checklist
    format to check all the answers applicable

3
Chapter 2 2.1 Designing
Surveys
  • (3) Wording Questions
  • Avoid
  • i) Negative questions ( not ..)
  • ii) Double-barreled questions ( we should do
    A and non-A)
  • iii) Leading questions (Do you use the
    effective learning strategy of ?)
  • iv) Embarrassing questions (What is your
    fathers occupation?)
  • v) Biased questions (I like doing sth because
    women are better .)


  • (Brown 2001)
  • (4) Final Survey Form
  • a. short statement that describe the
    purpose of the survey
  • b. instructions regarding what the
    respondents should do
  • c. Questions in some organized manner
  • d. a brief thank you

4
Chapter 2 2.1 Designing
Surveys
  • Additional suggestions
  • a. no more than four pages (30 min. to complete)
  • b. begin by generating a theoretically driven
    list
  • c. state the topic and importance of the
    questionnaire,
  • a request for hones responses, and a
    promise of confidentiaity
  • d. exemplify how to answer the questions
  • e. make the opening questions particulary
    involving
  • f. questionnaires of clear, logical, and
    well-marked structure
  • g. avoid lengthy answers
  • h. open-ended questions are least intrusive
    toward the end of the questionnaire
  • i. attractive and professional design for the
    questionnaire
  • j. be certain to thank the participants

5
  • (5) Piloting a Survey giving the survey to a
    group of teachers or learners who are
  • similar to
    the group that will be surveyed
  • (from three
    or four for one or two class groups)
  • i) check the same response
  • ii) look for whether or not any items tended to
    be omitted
  • (6) Reliability
  • i) the same survey given on two occasions,
    and then check the consistency
  • ii) two forms to be tested
  • iii) check the internal consistency similar
    questions in different forms
  • (7) Compiling and Displaying Survey Results
  • (7-1) for Close-Ended Questions
  • three types of compiling numerical
    scales
  • a. nominal scale e.g., assign 1 to male,
    2 to female
  • b. ordinal or ranked scale e.g., rank 1
    to 4, in the order of the importance
  • c. interval scale e.g., strongly agree1,
    , strongly disagree4

6
  • (7-2) alternative ways in displaying the results
  • a. simply report the frequency
  • b. describe in percentages
  • c. describe the data in terms of central
    tendency
  • - mean or average e.g., 1.6 (of the
    points stgly agree1, .., stgly disagree4)
  • - median
  • - mode the most common number
  • (7-3) For Open-Ended Questions
  • a. transcribe the answers
  • b. read the responses by highlighting
    key ideas
  • c. and go over the data several more
    times to look for reoccurring themes
  • d. use the reoccurring themes to
    summarize the data

7
This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons
8
Interviews
  • (1) Purpose to find out more about teachers and
    students
  • i) background
  • ii) reported behavior
  • iii) opinions and attitudes
  • (2) Types of Interviews
  • a. the informal conversational interview
    (different questions)
  • b. the general interview guide approach
    (the same person on several occasions)
  • c. the standardized open-ended interview
    (no fixed length)
  • Content Analysis
  • Two popular software programs for analyzing
    qualitative data
  • QSR NUDIST
  • QSR NVivo

9
Chapter 2 3
Introspective Research
(???? ??)
  • - Verbal reports/protocols for studying thought
    processes
  • first
    used by Newell and Simon (1972)
  • Kasper (1998, 358)
  • Verbal reports are oral records of
    thoughts, provided by subjects when
  • thinking aloud during or immediately
    after completing a task.
  • Two kinds of verbal reports
  • think-aloud retrospective reports
  • Kasper (1998, 358)
  • Verbal protocols represent (a subset of) the
    information currently available in
  • short-term memory rather than the processes
    producing the information.
  • Criticisms highly unnatural, obtrusive, do not
    elicit all of the cognitive processes
  • subject to idiosyncratic
    interpretations of the researcher not valid

10
Chapter 2 3.1 Verbal
report research
  • Analyzing the Data
  • a. transcribe the data
  • b. segment the transcript into thought units
  • c. code them according to the function (the
    most difficult part)
  • - review the coding systems in the
    literature
  • - find or combine them into a suitable
    code system
  • - test your code system by getting a
    second rater (discussant), or
  • by doing the second time coding for
    intra-coding reliability
  • Block (1986)s research the subjects used
  • two general modes in the thought processes
    reflexive extensive modes
  • two strategies
  • general strategy comprehesion-gathering
    comprehension-monitoring
  • local strategy to understand specific
    linguistic units

11
Chapter 2 3.2 Diary
Studies
-relatively new method-
  • Bailey and Ochsner (1983, 189)
  • The diarist studies his own teaching or
    learning he can report on affective factors,
    language learning strategies and his own
    perceptionsfacets of the language learning
    experience which are normally hidden or largely
    inaccessible to an external observer.
  • introspective a case study of a linguist
    himself,
  • by using the learners
    diary,
  • or the data of some
    public version
  • Weaknesses/doubts
    benefits
  • - a small number of learners,
    - information from experience
  • - data from linguists or teachers (so-far),
    by teachers and learners
  • - subjective data
    - accessiblity of data
    collection
  • - the extent is questionable

12
Chapter 2 4 Qualitative
Research
  • Case Studies
  • A case study is a single instance of some
    bound system, which can range from
  • one individual to a class, a school, or an
    entire community.
  • Distinctive features of a case study (Hitchcock
    and Hughes 1995, 317)
  • i) a rech and vivid description of events
    relevant to the case
  • ii) a chronological narrative of events
    relevant to the case
  • blends a description of events with the analysis
    of them
  • focuses on individual factors of groups of actors
    and
  • seeks to understand their perceptions of
    events
  • highlights specific events
  • portray the richness of the case

13
Chapter 2 Case Study
Research
  • Analyzing case studies (Johnson 1992, 91)
  • What is the research questions?
  • In what context was the research conducted?
  • Who were the participants in the study? How were
    they selected?
  • What were their relevant characteristics
  • 4. What was the theoretical orientation of the
    researcher?
  • 5. What was the role of the researcher?
  • 6. What data-collection procedures were used?
  • How much time was spent collecting data?
  • 7. How were data analyzed? What were the
    findings?
  • 8. What conclusions are drawn? Are they logically
    related to the descriptive data?
  • 9. What is the contribution of the study to our
    knowledge of social or contextual factors in
    second language learning?
  • 10. What are the stated implications for teaching?
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