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Zoology Chapter 6 Ecology

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Zoology Chapter 6 Ecology Ms. K. Cox Introduction Ecology is the study of organisms and their relationships to each other, as well as the components of their environment. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Zoology Chapter 6 Ecology


1
Zoology Chapter 6Ecology
  • Ms. K. Cox

2
Introduction
  • Ecology is the study of organisms and their
    relationships to each other, as well as the
    components of their environment. The habitat of
    an organism includes all biotic and abiotic
    characteristics of the area that it inhabits.

3
Energy
  • Organisms gain and use energy in different ways.
    There are two main energy sources
  • autotrophs are typically photosynthetic
  • heterotrophs eat autotrophs or other heterotrophs.

4
How is Energy Used
  • The energy budgets of organisms also vary
  • Habitat ranges and metabolic rates are different
    for endotherms and ectotherms.
  • Torpor, hibernation, and winter sleep may act to
    conserve energy during colder periods.
  • Aestivation occurs during periods of heat and
    drying.

5
  • A population is a group of organisms of one
    species that occupy the same area at a given
    time. Population size is influenced by birth and
    death rates and dispersal rates. Survivorship
    curves illustrate mortality patterns as a
    function of age there are 3 main types of
    survivorship curves pg 82

6
Logistic population growth
  • . Populations with abundant resources may exhibit
    exponential growth for a period, but they
    typically reach a carrying capacity, the maximum
    population size that can be supported
    indefinitely.

7
Interactions between different populations
structure the community
  • herbivores include animals that eat plant parts
  • predators feed on other organisms, so predator
    and their prey populations are intricately tied
    together.

8
Interactions between different populations
structure the community
  • Another form of interaction between populations
    is interspecific competition it may result in
    competitive exclusion, the local extinction of
    one species, or coexistence.

9
Interactions
  • In coevolution, the two species evolve in
    response to each other, as illustrated by insects
    and the plants they pollinate.
  • In symbiosis, an intimate relationship develops
    between two different species coevolution is
    also common among symbionts. Symbiosis includes
    parasitism, commensalisms, and mutalism.

10
Interactions
  • In parasitism, one organism lives in or on
    another organism, called the host. The
    definitive host is the host that harbors the
    sexually reproductive stage of the parasite.
  • Commensalisms is a relationship in which one
    organism benefits and the other is neither harmed
    nor helped.
  • In mutualism, both species benefit by their
    symbiosis.

11
Interactions
  • Camouflage occurs when body color patterns are
    used to hide the animal cryptic coloration that
    is a type of camouflage that occurs when the
    animal blends in with the environment.
  • Countershading occurs when animals are dark on
    top, but light on the bottom and therefore less
    visible to predators looking upward to see them.
  • Aposematic coloration is a warning coloration.
  • Mimicry occurs when a prey species resembles
    another inedible or distasteful species.

12
Energy Flow
  • An ecosystem is composed of both communities and
    the environment in which they live.
  • Ecosystems may be best understood by analyzing
    energy transfers with them. The passage of
    energy through the populations of organisms may
    be depicted as a food chain, or more
    realistically as a food web. The food web has 3
    main trophic levels

13
Three main trophic levels
  • 1. Producers are typically autotrophs
    (photosynthetic plants).
  • 2. Consumers may be described as herbivores,
    carnivores, or scavengers.
  • 3. Decomposers clean up left over plant
    material, dead organisms, and excrement.
  • The efficiency of energy transfers across trophic
    levels varies from lt1 for herbivorous endotherms
    to 35 for carnivorous ectotherms.

14
Humans
  • Global human population may have already exceeded
    the carrying capacity of our planet, but carrying
    capacity depends on the standard of living for
    all people and on the way in which resources are
    distributed
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