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INTEGRATING LANGUAGE, LITERACY AND CONTENT: Teacher and Student Accountability

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Title: INTEGRATING LANGUAGE, LITERACY AND CONTENT: Teacher and Student Accountability


1
INTEGRATING LANGUAGE, LITERACY AND CONTENT
Teacher and Student Accountability
Margarita Calderón, Ph.D. Professor Emerita,
Johns Hopkins University
2
LEARNING OUTCOMES
  • Overview of latest research on ELs
  • Gain literacy strategies beneficial to ELs and
    struggling or reluctant readers
  • Learn how to explicitly teach vocabulary
  • Explore the use of interaction strategies to
    engage all students

3
Diversity of ELs
  • LT-ELs -- Long-Term ELLs
  • HSN -- Highly Schooled Newcomers
  • R-ELs -- Reclassified ELLs
  • M-ELs -- Migrant ELLs
  • SIFE -- Students with Interrupted Formal
    Education
  • SE-ELs -- Special Education ELLs
  • Struggling Readers/Reluctant Readers

Margarita Calderón Associates, Inc.
4
Diversity of ELs
  • What is the diversity of your ELs?
  • How are ELs grouped at your school?
  • Would a student benefit from a different
    configuration?

5
NOW STUDENTS FALLING THROUGH THE GAPS WITHOUT
QUALITY INSTRUCTION
TIER 1 WHEN GENERAL EDUCATION TEACHERS DO NOT
PROVIDE QUALITY INSTRUCTION FOR ELs AND ALL
STUDENTS THEY FALL THROUGH THE GAPS. ?
? ? ?
80 90
GAPS IN INSTRUCTION
10 - 15
TIER 2 EL STRATEGIC INTERVENTIONS ?
GAPS IN INSTRUCTION
5 - 10
TIER 3 SPED
DROP OUTS
6
QUICK OVERVIEW OF 3 STUDIES ON
  • Features of quality
  • Instruction
  • Professional development
  • Whole-school structures
  • across Sheltered English Immersion (SEI) and
    Bilingual Programs (TBA, DL, TWB)  

7
Results From the Five-year Studies
  • IES comparison study of K-4th dual language (DL),
    transitional bilingual (TB), and sheltered
    English instruction/structured English immersion
    (SEI).
  • Carnegie Corporation of New York study in
    6th-12th general education teachers, ESL, SEI,
    SIFE, and bilingual teachers.
  •  

8
The New York Carnegie Corporation Goal for
ExC-ELL (20082012)
  • Collaboratively develop and test a professional
    development model and instructional design for
    K-12 general education, ESL, dual-language
    teachers who have ELs in their classrooms.

Kapaa Teachers
9
NEW YORK CITY SCHOOLS THAT CONTINUOUSLY MEET AYP
AND ELS SUCCEED.
10
ExC-ELL Schools 1 in NYC, NC, UT, TX
11
Kapaa High School maintains status of 1 on the
Island!!!
  • School says nice work!
  • Expediting Comprehension for English Language
    Learners (ExC-ELL) contributed to the positive
    movement the school is continually making, both
    academically and in extra-curricular activities
    it helped the school earn good standing
    unconditional, highest rank status for the second
    year (Kauai newspaper).

12
SOME SCHOOLS IN TRIED DOING WORKSHOPS WITHOUT
FOLLOW-UP TEACHER SUPPORT SYSTEMS AND REMAIN IN
TROUBLED WATERS
13
Features of Success for ELs Whole School
Commitment
  • Language, literacy and content
  • Cooperative learning/interaction
  • Differentiated Tutoring (RTI)
  • Whole-school structures effective leadership
  • Professional development for everyone
  • Teacher support Coaching TLCs
  • Parent/family support teams
  • Benchmark assessments and monitoring of
    implementation

14
Why Explicitly Teach Vocabulary?
  • Effective vocabulary instruction has to start
    early, in preschool, and continue throughout the
    school years (Nagy, 2005).
  • Teaching vocabulary helps develop phonological
    awareness (Nagy, 2005) and reading comprehension
    (Beck, Perfetti, McKeown, 1982).
  • Vocabulary instruction needs to be long-term and
    comprehensive (Nagy, 2005) for ELs (Carlo,
    August, Snow, 2005 Calderón et al., 2005).

15
Why is Vocabulary Important?
  • Command of a large vocabulary frequently sets
    high-achieving students apart from less
    successful ones (Montgomery, 2000).
  • The average 6-year-old has a vocabulary of
    approximately 8000 words, and learns 3000-5000
    more per year (Senechal Cornell, 1993).
  • Vocabulary in kindergarten and first grade is a
    significant predictor of reading comprehension in
    the middle and secondary grades (Cunningham,
    2005 Cunningham Stanovich, 1997) or reading
    difficulties (Chall Dale, 1995 Denton et al.
    2011).

16
THINK ABOUT IT
  • How many words are your ELs learning per year?

17
BASED ON CURRENT RESEARCH, ELLs NEED A BALANCE OF
18
Key Teach Vocabulary Before, During After
Students Read
  • Vocabulary knowledge correlates with reading
    comprehension.
  • Reading comprehension correlates with procedural
    and content knowledge.
  • Content knowledge correlates with academic
    success.
  • Comprehension depends on knowing between 90 and
    95 of the words in text.
  • Knowing words means explicit instruction not just
    exposure. Students need 12 production
    opportunities to own a word.

19
Why is Content Area Literacy Important for ELLs?
  • Without reading instruction on content area
    literacy
  • SURFACE COMPREHENSION
  • Literal comprehension students read on their
    own and answer questions questions are
    low-level.
  • With reading instruction integrated into content
    areas
  • DEEP COMPREHENSION
  • Critical comprehension students learn new
    vocabulary continuously associate new readings
    with prior knowledge add new knowledge, discuss
    ideas, interpret facts and information, and apply
    critical thinking skills to text.

20
Semantic Awareness
Semantic Awareness is a cognitive, metacognitive,
affective, and linguistic stance toward words.
It is a mindset that word consciousness
involves motivating and showing students how
important it is to be learning words. Students
who are word conscious are aware of the power of
words they read, hear, write and speak. Semantic
awareness helps students become more skillful and
precise in word usage at many levels of
complexity and sophistication.
21
Find your 3 Oclock Buddy
  • 1. SUMMARIZE THE MESSAGES FROM WHAT HAS BEEN
    PRESENTED SO FAR.
  • 2. DISCUSS WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS SO FAR
    FOR OUR SCHOOL?

22
Academic Language
  • For formal discourse between teacher-student and
    student-student interaction around
    standards/goals.
  • For text comprehension.
  • For words you want to see in their formal
    writing.
  • For success in tests.
  • For academic and economic status.

23
Multiple Perspectives/Interfaces
Examples of Language Functions Examples of Language Functions
Prediction Enumeration
Identification Classification
Interpretation Comparison/Contrast
Explanation Definition
Organization Inference/hypothesis
Retelling Summarization
24
Multiple Perspectives/Interfaces
Reading Comprehension Strategies/Skills Reading Comprehension Strategies/Skills
Predict Visualize
Determine important information Make inferences
Ask answer questions Monitor comprehension
Make connections Summarize
25
Multiple Perspectives/Interfaces
Examples of Writing Text Structures Examples of Writing Text Structures
Description Cause and effect
Sequence Problem solution
Compare and contrast Summarize
26
Multiple Applications of Words
Text structure Writing strategy Signal words
Problem solutions problems are identified and solutions are provided supporting details describe the problem and solution accordingly, answer, as a result, because, challenge, decide, fortunately, if ___then, issue, one reason is, outcome is, problem, so, solution, the problem is solved by, therefore, thus, unfortunately, trouble
27
Academic Language
words words words words words words words
words words words words words words words
words words words words words words words
words words words words words words words
words words words words words words words
words words words words words words words
words words words words words words words
words words words words words words words
words words words words words words words
words words words words words words words
words words words words words words words
words words words words words words words
words words words words words words words
words words words words words words words
words words words words words words words
words words words words words words words
words words words words words words words
words words words words words words words
words words words words words words words
words words words words words words words
words words words words words words words
words words words words words words words
words words words words words words words
words words words words words words words
words words words words words words words
words words words words words words words
words words words words words words words
words words words words words words words
words words words words words words words
words words words words words words words
words words words words words words words
words words words words words words words
words words words words
Language Functions Discourse
Writing Conventions Skills
Reading Strategies Skills
28
Explicit Instruction of Vocabulary
  • STEP 1
  • SELECT VOCABULARY TO PRE-TEACH BEFORE PRESENTING
    CONTENT, TEACHER READ ALOUD, OR STUDENT READING
    OF ANY TEXT.
  • STEP 2
  • TEACH VOCABULARY USING 7 STEPS WITH AMPLE STUDENT
    INTERACTION.
  • STEP 3
  • STUDENTS READ, SUMMARIZE, DISCUSS, AND WRITE
    ABOUT THE SUBJECT USING THE NEW VOCABULARY

Margarita Calderón Associates, Inc.
29
SELECTING WORDS TO TEACH ELS AND STRUGGLING
READERS
30
Identify and Classify Vocabulary
  • Selecting words to teach before, during, and
    after reading
  • Select Tiers 1, 2, 3 from students texts.
  • From your explanations, for class experiments,
    demonstrations you will present to them.
  • Words you want them to use during instructional
    activities, partner summaries, class discussions
    during and/or after reading, and those you want
    to see in their writing.
  • From and for assessments.

31
TIER 3 CONTENT SPECIFIC

Square root Photosynthesis Government
Rectangle Germ Bylaws
Radical numbers Atom Bailout
Circumference Matter Congressional
Pi square Osmosis Capital
Power Power Power
32
Tier 2Subcategories
Polysemous words (homonyms or homographs) across
academic content areas
  • fall
  • check
  • court
  • hand
  • long
  • pin
  • rest
  • roll
  • sense

solution table divide prime round trunk state power cell right radical leg left light
33
TIER 2 SOPHISTICATED AND WORDS FOR SPECIFICITY
  • TIER 1 TALK, SAY
  • TIER 2 -- WHISPER
  • ARGUE
  • SPECIFY
  • ANNOUNCE
  • REQUEST
  • REVEAL
  • REMARK
  • DECLARE
  • DESCRIBE
  • DISCUSS
  • PROCLAIM
  • SHOUT
  • SCREAM

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34
TIER 2 PHRASAL CLUSTERS AND IDIOMS
  • Run off
  • Run away
  • Break a leg
  • Once in a while
  • Complete sentence
  • Long noun phrases
  • Relatively easier
  • Stored Energy
  • Stimulus package

35
TIER 2 - SENTENCE STARTERS
  • Summarizing. Students create a new oral text that
    stands for an existing text. The summary contains
    the important information or big ideas.
  • This story tells about a . . .
  • This section is about the . . .
  • One important fact here is that . . .
  • Determining important information. Students tell
    the most important idea in a section of text,
    distinguishing it from details that tell more
    about it.
  • The main idea is . . .
  • The key details that support that are . . .
  • The purpose of this text is to . . .

36
TIER 2 - QUESTION STARTERS
  • Can you help me _____?
  • I don't understand _____.
  • Where is/are _____?
  • How do I _____?
  • May I ask a question?
  • How much time do we have for _____?
  • Where do I _____?
  • Would you please repeat that?

37
TIER 2 WORDS THAT NEST CONTENT WORDS AND
CONCEPTS
  • Some Examples of Transition Words Connectors
    for
  • Cause Effect -- because, due to, as a result,
    since, for this reason, therefore, in order to,
    so that, thus
  • Contrast -- or, but, although, however, in
    contrast, nevertheless, on the other hand, while
  • Addition or comparison -- and, also, as well as,
    in addition, likewise, moreover, by the way
  • Giving examples -- for example, for instance, in
    particular, such as

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38
TIER 2 3 COGNATES FALSE COGNATES
  • Literature literatura littèrature
  • Context contexto contexte
  • Multisyllabic multisilábico ?
  • Osmosis osmosis osmose
  • Irony ironía ironie
  • Comprehension comprensión compréhension
  • False Cognates
  • Library ? librería (bookstore) biblioteca
    bibliothèque
  • Story ? historia (history) cuento
    histoire/conte
  • Exit ? éxito (success) salida sortie
  • Success ? suceso (event) éxito succès
  • Character ? carácter (personality) personaje
    caractèr

39
TIER 2 -- HOMOPHONES
  • When explaining / presenting a lesson, pay
    attention to homophones such as
  • sum some
  • cell sell
  • weather whether
  • blew blue
  • whole hole

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40
TIER 1 FOR ELS
  • Simple words for English speakers, but might
    create difficulty for ELLs due to
  • Spelling
  • Pronunciation
  • Background knowledge
  • Unfamiliar word, not previously taught
  • False cognate

41
FIND YOUR 9 OCLOCK BUDDY
  • REVIEW
  • What are the differences between
  • Tier 1, Tier 2, and Tier 3?

42
These Await Your Students in 6th 7th Grade
Tests!
  • vary, underlying, albeit, solely, successive,
    denote, crucial, oddly, analogous, compiled,
    oddly, whereby, notwithstanding, forthcoming,
    coincide, widespread, implicit

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43
Criteria for Selecting Words to Teach
  • It is critically important to the discipline.
  • It is critically important to this unit.
  • It is important to the understanding of the
    concept.
  • It is not critical but useful for ELLs.
  • It is not useful at this time.

44
Summary of Vocabulary Tiers 1, 2, 3 For ELLs
TIER 1 -- Basic words ELLs need to communicate,
read, and write. Those that should be
taught. TIER 2 -- Information processing words
that nest Tier 3 words in long sentences,
polysemous words, transition words, connectors
more sophisticated words for rich discussions and
specificity in descriptions. TIER 3 --
Subject-specific words that label content
discipline concepts, subjects, and topics.
Infrequently used academic words.
45
Identify Classify Words
Type of Words Tier 3 Tier 2 Tier 1
Polysemous
Phrases (bundled up words, idioms)
Cognates
Connectors transition
Homophones
Other
46
A Change in Climate
From one day to the next, weather can have a big
effect on your life. When it rains, you have to
stay indoors or carry an umbrella. When it's
cold, you have to bundle up. Over the course of
hundreds, thousands, and millions of years,
weather trends affect life on Earth in more
dramatic ways. Ice ages or long droughts, for
example, can wipe out certain types of plants and
animals. Although many species manage to survive
such extreme, long-term climate shifts, their
living conditions also change.
47
PRE-TEACHING VOCABULARYAn Example for 2nd to 5th
  • Teacher says the word. Asks students to repeat
    the word 3 times.
  • Teacher states the word in context from the text.
  • Teacher provides the dictionary definition(s).
  • Explains meaning with student-friendly
    definitions.
  • Highlight grammar, spelling, polysemy, etc.
  • ? Engages students in activities to develop
    word/concept knowledge.
  • Remind students how/when to use the word.

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48
Example from 5th Grade Text
  • Say manage three times.
  • Although many species manage to survive such
    extreme . . .
  • (1) succeed in doing something difficult (2) to
    be in charge of, to run manage a company.
  • I managed to lose ten pounds by exercising. My
    father manages that store.
  • Manage is a polysemous word. Manejar is the
    cognate. It also has multiple meanings (to drive,
    to manage).
  • Think-pair-share What have you managed well
    recently?
  • Remember to use manage in your summaries.

49
An Example for Pre-K to 1st
  • 1. Introduce the new word or phrase and ask the
    children to say it three times or more.
  • 2. Explain the word using everyday language.
    Provide a child-friendly definition.
  • 3. Give examples of the word in a variety of
    contexts. Use complete sentences. Use concrete
    objects.
  • 4. Think-Pair-Share --Ask the children to use it
    in a sentence with their buddy. Then, ask them
    what their buddy said.
  • Acknowledge the students attempts at using the
    new word.
  • Remind them when they need to use the new word.

50
An Example in Kinder
  • In the pretend or play area, the teacher has the
    students pack small bags, write their name or
    draw a picture on a tag, and tie the tag to their
    luggage.
  • Students are asked to say luggage 3 times.
  • Students are asked to say to a buddy, I have . .
    . in my luggage. I am taking my luggage to . . .
  • The teacher gives the student a sticker or
    teacher-made luggage tag to put on his or her
    suitcase every time the student uses the word
    luggage.

51
An Example in Kinder
  • The teacher tells the students to ask their
    parents to show them what luggage they take on
    their trips, how many pieces of luggage they take
    on trips, and what happens if they lose their
    luggage. The next day, students are asked to
    share the answers to these questions.
  • The teacher reads a story about a trip during
    which the characters take luggage, and children
    retell the story and add their own make-believe
    adventures.

52
Ejemplos del paso 6
Un sólo contexto para todas las palabras Enséñame como sería un inmenso plato de espagueti? Si te lo comes todo y te sientes incomodo, cómo te verías? Enséñame como te verías comiéndolo lentamente. Enséñame como te verías comiéndolo prudentemente. Mismo formato Si un perro estuviera portándose amenazador, lo acariciaría usted o se alejaría de él? por qué? Si usted quisiera ver algo exquisito, iría a un museo o a una tienda de alimentos? por qué? Cuál animal puede hacer un gruñido, un pez o un león? por qué?
53
More Examples for Step 6
  • SAY THE WORDS
  • SLEEPILY
  • SUSPICIOUSLY
  • JOYFULLY
  • SADLY
  • SOFTLY
  • LOUDLY
  • LOUDER
  • LAUGHING
  • WHISPERING
  • faithful,
  • stubborn,
  • awesome,
  • awkward,
  • impish,
  • stern,
  • illuminated.

54
Buddy Buzz
Think-Pair-Share
Come up with a long sophisticated complete
sentence using the word __________________
Turn to Your Partner
55
  • Your Turn to Teach Us!
  • Prepare to teach a Tier 1 word using a support
    from the previous page.
  • Prepare to teach a Tier 2 or 3 word using the 7
    steps.
  • Teach it to us role play as if we were your
    students (3 minutes max).

56
Teaching Words After Reading or for Anchoring
Knowledge
  • Cooperative Learning strategies -- RoundTable,
    Tea Party, Write-Around, 3-Step Interview,
    8-Rectangles, Corners, etc.
  • Word journals, Frayer graphs, semantic webs, etc.
  • Games -- Jeopardy, Charades, let students invent!
  • Charts, graphs, cognitive organizers, semantic
    maps, word webs!
  • Poems, chants, songs, rhymes!
  • Summaries, syntheses, story-related writing,
    reports, related research, personification plays,
    cartoons, comic books -- all should include as
    many of the key words as possible.

57
Vocabulary in Centers
  • Writing Center. Students can practice vocabulary
    starting from letter formation to completing
    sentences by writing lists, stories, summaries,
    and cooperative stories.
  • Experiment Center. ELs benefit from hands-on
    experiments in science and math. Discovery
    develops critical thinking even if the language
    skills are limited. ELs can team up with an
    English speaker and conduct experiments or solve
    math problems, then, do a collaborative summary
    of what they learned.
  • Conversation Center. Students practice
    conversations with adultsteachers, teacher
    assistants, or parents/volunteers.

58
Vocabulary in Centers
  • Readers Theater Center. Readers Theater Books
    that contain lines for different readability
    levels can be used at these centers. Students can
    practice fluency and pronunciation, learn new
    words, build listening skills, learn to take
    turns, and perform in front of an audience.
  • Listening/Reading Center. Many programs for ELs
    have been developed such as online books or books
    on CDs. Ask students to summarize their book.
  • Computer Center. ELs and other students can
    practice phonemic awareness, pronunciation,
    vocabulary, math, science, sequencing, following
    directions, and technology skills on the
    computer.

59
Polysemous S.E.E.D. activity as a DO NOW the
following day.
Sentences The palm trees swayed in the wind. Explanation (Definition) An evergreen tree that grows in hot places
Examples palm trees on Palm Blvd. Drawing
The fortune teller will read your palm and tell
your fortune.
The flat inside part of your hand.
sweaty palms palm reader
60
  • Main categories of grammar that are difficult for
    ELLs
  • Compound and complex sentences
  • Nominalization and long noun phrases
  • Passive voice structures
  • Long or multiple prepositional phrases and
    idioms.

61
READING TO LEARN
  • English language learners (ELLs) are learning
    English at the same time they are studying core
    content through English. They must perform double
    the work of native speakers to keep up, and at
    the same time be accountable for AYP (Carnegie
    Panel on ELL Literacy, 2006).
  • Without explicit instruction on vocabulary and
    reading in each subject area, students cannot
    learn math, science, social studies and
    literature (NRC Commission on
    Teacher Preparation, in press).

62
A Queens Wish
  • One gray winter day the elderly queen summoned
    all her grandchildren to the castle. I have been
    fortunate to have lived a long life, she said.
    But in time your generation will rule the
    country. You must work persistently to help the
    people and take care of the land.
  • We will always work hard, the children
    replied.
  • You must also be faithful to your brothers and
    sisters, no matter what, the queen said.

63
Vocabulary Tiers for ELLs
Tier 1 Simple Words Tier 2 Process, Idioms, Sophisticated Tier 3 Content Words, Key vocabulary
wish gray queen castle rule take care replied no matter what elderly summoned fortunate generation persistently faithful
64
Before Reading Science, Math, Social Studies,
and Language Arts
  • Hook the Reader
  • Build Background
  • Connect with Prior Knowledge
  • Pre-teach Vocabulary Explicitly
  • Preview Text with Students
  • Set Purpose for Reading

65
Engagement with Text Step 2 Modeling
Comprehension
  • Why Do Teacher Read and Think Alouds?
  • Fluency
  • Comprehension Strategies
  • Self-correction
  • Fix-it strategies
  • Extend comprehension
  • Teach more words

MODEL
MODEL
66
There's lots of evidence of drastic changes in
climate occurring in the distant past. Earth
today may again be in the midst of such a climate
change. In the last 100 years, studies show,
global temperatures have risen an average of 0.6
degrees C. That might not sound so bad. After
all, what difference does half a degree make? A
growing number of studies suggest, however, that
such an increase could have a big impact on life.
67
Partner Reading
  • The teacher reads and models strategies.
  • Partner A reads the first sentence. Partner B
    helps.
  • Partner B reads the next sentence. Partner A
    helps.
  • After each paragraph, partners put their heads
    together and summarize what they read.
  • Partners continue until they finish reading the
    section assigned.

68
Biologists and ecologists are discovering, often
by accident, that climate change is forcing some
plants and animals into new habitats. Others are
becoming extinct. Sometimes, scientists show up
at a site they've studied for years, only to
discover that the organisms they've been tracking
are no longer there. What's more, it now looks
like this redistribution of life on Earth is
sometimes happening at an alarmingly fast pace.
"These little pieces of information are all
warning signs that stuff is going on," says Erik
Beever. He's a research ecologist with the United
States Geological Survey in Corvallis, Ore. "Our
world is changing more rapidly than we have
observed in the recent past," he says.
69
Step 5 Connect Reading Writing
Formulating Questions
  • Students work in teams of four
  • Construct 2 questions based on the specific Bloom
    level assigned to you.
  • Write each question on a separate card.
  • Give your cards to the teacher.

70
Applying Blooms Taxonomy of Cognitive Process 1
THINKING PROCESS VERBS FOR OBJECTIVES MODEL QUESTIONS INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES
(Knowledge-1) Shallow processing drawing out factual answers, testing recall and recognition R E M E M B E R choose describe define identify label list locate match memorize name omit recite recognize select state Who? Where? Which one? What? How? What is the best? Why? How Much? When? What does it mean? Highlighting Rehearsal Memorizing Mnemonics
71
Applying Blooms Taxonomy of Cognitive Process 2
THINKING PROCESS VERBS FOR OBJECTIVES MODEL QUESTIONS INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES
(Comprehension-2) Translating, interpreting and extrapolating U N D E R S T A N D classify, defend demonstrate distinguish explain, express extend give example illustrate indicate interrelate interpret infer, judge match paraphrase represent restate rewrite select, show summarize tell, translate State in your own words. Which are facts? What does this mean? Is this the same as? Give an example. Select the best definition. Condense this paragraph. What would happen if? State in one word Explain what is happening. What part doesnt fit? Explain what is meant. What expectations are there? Read the graph (table). What are they saying? Key examples Emphasize connections Elaborate concepts Summarize Paraphrase STUDENTS explain STUDENTS state the rule Why does this example? Create visual representations (concept maps, outlines, flow charts, organizers, analogies, pro/con grids) PRO/CON NOTE The faculty member can show them, but they have to do it. Metaphors, rubrics, heuristics
72
Applying Blooms Taxonomy of Cognitive Process 3
THINKING PROCESS VERBS FOR OBJECTIVES MODEL QUESTIONS INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES
(Application-3) Knowing when to apply why to apply and recognizing patterns of transfer to situations that are new, unfamiliar or have a new slant for students A P P L Y apply choose dramatize explain generalize judge organize paint prepare produce select show sketch solve use Predict what would happen if Choose the best statements that apply Judge the effects What would result Tell what would happen Tell how, when, where, why Tell how much change there would be Identify the results of Modeling Cognitive apprenticeships Mindful practice NOT just a routine practice Part and whole sequencing Authentic situations Coached practice Case studies Simulations Algorithms
73
Applying Blooms Taxonomy of Cognitive Process 4
THINKING PROCESS VERBS FOR OBJECTIVES MODEL QUESTIONS INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES
(Analysis-4) Breaking down into parts, forms A N A L Y Z E analyze categorize classify compare differentiate distinguish identify infer point out select subdivide survey What is the function of? Whats fact? Opinion? What assumptions? What statement is relevant? What motive is there? Related to, extraneous to, not applicable. What conclusions? What does the author believe? What does the author assume? Make a distinction. State the point of view of What is the premise? State the point of view of What ideas apply? What ideas justify the conclusion? Whats the relationship between? The least essential statements are Whats the main idea? Theme? What inconsistencies, fallacies? What literary form is used? What persuasive technique? Implicit in the statement is Models of thinking Challenging assumptions Retrospective analysis Reflection through journaling Debates Discussions and other collaborating learning activities Decision-making situations
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Applying Blooms Taxonomy of Cognitive Process 5
THINKING PROCESS VERBS FOR OBJECTIVES MODEL QUESTIONS INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES
(Evaluation-5) Evaluate according to some set of criteria, and state why E V A L U A T E appraise judge criticize defend compare c What fallacies, consistencies, inconsistencies appear? Which is more important, moral, better, logical, valid, appropriate? Find the errors Challenging assumptions Journaling Debates Discussions and other collaborating learning activities Decision-making situations
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Applying Blooms Taxonomy of Cognitive Process 6
THINKING PROCESS VERBS FOR OBJECTIVES MODEL QUESTIONS INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES
(Synthesis-6) Combining elements into a pattern not clearly there before C R E A T E choose combine compose construct create design develop do formulate hypothesize invent make make up originate organize plan produce role play, tell c How would you test? Propose an alternative. Solve the following. How else would you? State a rule. Modeling Challenging assumptions Reflection through journaling Debates Discussions and other collaborating learning activities Design Design-making situations
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Numbered Heads Together
  • Number off in your team from 1 to 4.
  • Listen to the question.
  • Put your heads together and find the answer.
  • Make sure everyone in your team knows the answer.
  • Be prepared to answer when your number is called.

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ROUNDTABLE
  • Clear your desks.
  • Only one paper and pencil.
  • Each student writes one answer and passes the
    paper to the right.
  • Everyone must write an answer.
  • Continue this process until the teacher calls
    time out.
  • Count the number of correct responses by your
    team. Delete repeated words and report your
    numbers.

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ROUNDTABLE
  • Write a key word from
  • the text and pass the paper.
  • Keep writing one word at a time until time is up.
  • The words must be Tier 2 or 3.

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Round 2
  • Put your heads together and come up with a
    strategy to improve your team total.
  • Apply your strategy in Round 2 of Round Table.
  • Follow the same rules as for Round 1.

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Assessment Writing
  • The ultimate proof -- at the end of the block,
    day, week
  • Write one or two paragraphs summarizing what you
    learned about _______________ using as many tier
    2 and tier 3 words as you have learned.
  • Extra points if you use appropriate connectors,
    transition or signal words. Use compound
    sentences or different types of clauses.

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Vocabulary/Language Progressions
How do your students progress through the
different proficiency levels? Does their
vocabulary progress in the 4 language domains
listening, speaking, reading, writing? Does their
vocabulary progress in the 4 core subjects
math, science, social studies, language arts? Is
their academic language differentiated and
targeted for each proficiency level and range of
schooling background?
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VOCABULARY VOCABULARY VOCABULARY DISCOURSE/INTERAC
TION READING, READING, READING COOPERATIVE
LEARNING WRITING STRATEGIES DIFFERENTIATED
ASSESMENTS
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HOW DID SCHOOLS ACCOMPLISHSUCCESS? 5-DAYS OF PD
AND 3-5 DAYS OF COACHING ON-SITE PER TEACHER,
AND PD FOR ADMINIS-TRATORS
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Whole-School Structures
  • Whole-school implementation of instruction
  • All teachers and administrators attend
    professional development and follow-up for all
    components
  • Coordinated quality instruction within and across
    grade levels
  • Buy-in to more than a one year effort

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Teachers Training Teachers in TLCs
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Professional Development Loop
Teacher Declarative Knowledge
Teacher Self-Efficacy Peer-Coaching and Expert
Coaching
On-site Modeling Expert Coaching
Evident Student Gains and Teachers Conditional
knowledge
Teacher Application
Teachers Procedural knowledge
Teacher Practice Peer-Coaching And Expert Coaching
Teacher Practice and Expert Coaching
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ExC-ELL and RIGOR Professional Development
Institutes
  • 5 days of initial PD refreshers
  • 5 to 10 or 20 days of coaching, modeling in
    classrooms, helping teachers with lessons
  • PD for principals coaches
  • Assist with implementation

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Coaching Teachers
  • Differentiated coaching observation protocols for
    kindergarten, 1st - 2nd and 3rd 4th grades
    since the purpose of reading, language
    development, writing is different across these
    grade levels.
  • Principal walk-throughs with the same
    instruments.
  • Teachers Learning Communities.

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Benchmark Assessments
  • Assessments for every grade level.
  • Performance assessments every 6 weeks.
  • To move students to higher levels.
  • To provide more intensive interventions.
  • End-of-the-year assessments to determine
    individual student gains.

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Implementation Assessment
  • Trainers conduct 3 or more implementation visits
    to observe each classroom, give teachers feedback
    and set goals and recommendations for the next
    visit.
  • End-of-the-year data reports on all classrooms
    focusing on teacher and student outcomes. 
  • End-of-the-year data reports on effectiveness of
    school structures, administrative support,
    tutoring, family support, attendance, and next
    steps.

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Teacher Support Technology
  • For data on teacher and student performance
  • For planning and refining lessons
  • For coaches to give feedback
  • For principal walk-throughs and specific feedback
  • For peer coaching
  • For classroom research
  • For measuring teaching and impact on students

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Access Reports on Secure Website
94
Features of Success for ELs
  • Language, literacy and content
  • Cooperative learning/interaction
  • Differentiated Tutoring (RTI)
  • Whole-school structures effective leadership
  • Professional development for everyone
  • Teacher support Coaching TLCs
  • Parent/family support teams
  • Benchmark assessments and monitoring of
    implementation

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ELs Need
96
Solution Tree Press Item 14BSFBKF402
Solution-tree.com Phone 800.733.6786 FAX
812.336.7790
97
WWW. CORWINPRESS.COM
98
Preventing Long-Term ELs Transforming Schools to
Meet Core Standards Paperback 31.95,
D10840-978-1-4129-7416-5 WWW.CORWIN
PRESS.COM 800-233-9936
99
WWW.MARGARITACALDERON.ORG
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SOME REFERENCES
  • Calderón M.E. Minaya-Rowe, L. (2011).
    Preventing Long-Term English Language Learners
    Transforming schools to meet core standards.
    Thousand Oaks, CA Corwin Press.
  • Calderón, M.E., Slavin, R.E. M. Sánchez.
    (2011). Effective instruction for English
    Language Learners. In M. Tienda R. Haskins
    (Eds.). The future of immigrant Children.
    Washington, DC Brookings Institute/Princeton
    University.
  • Calderón, M. (2011). Teaching Reading to English
    language learners in K-5th Grades. The Solution
    Tree Press.

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  • Calderón, M. (May 2009). The importance of
    integrating language, literacy and knowledge for
    English language learners. Texas Elementary
    Principals and Supervisors Association, 22 (3)
    4-5, 10.
  • Calderón, M. E., (2007). Teaching reading to
    English language learners, Grades 6-12 A
    framework for improving achievement in the
    content areas. Thousand Oaks, CA Corwin Press.
  • Calderón, M. E. (2007). RIGOR! Reading
    Instructional Goals for Older Readers Reading
    Program for 6th 12th Students with Interrupted
    Formal Education. New York Benchmark Education
    Co.

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  • Slavin, R. E., Madden, N., Calderón, M.,
    Chamberlain, A. M. Hennessy (2009). Fifth-Year
    Reading and Language Outcomes of a Randomized
    Evaluation Of Transitional Bilingual Education
    Report to IES. Washington, DC Institute for
    Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.
  • Calderón, M. E. (2009). Professional development
    for teachers of English language learners and
    striving readers. In L. Mandel-Morrow, R. Rueda
    D. Lapp, (Eds.) Handbook of Literacy and
    Research on Literacy Instruction Issues of
    Diversity, Policy and Equity. Gilford Press.

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THANK YOU!!!
  • Wishing you great success in your endeavors!
  • mecalde_at_aol.com
  • www.margaritacalderon.org
  • 202-368-4621
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